1 - Ancient Civilizations - N

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1 - Ancient Civilizations - N Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                Unit 1
                                                        Rise of Civilizations
                                                       (Prehistory to 500B.C.)
Discussion Questions
Explain how the Neolithic Revolution laid the foundation for the specialization of labor.
                                                     Ancient Civilizations

Chapter I – The Peopling of the World
Main Idea – Fossil Evidence shows that the earliest humans originated in Africa.
     Early humans’ discoveries helped them survive, grow in numbers, and spread across the globe.
1. Where did man originate?
I.   Human Origins in Africa (Theme – ID - Neolithic Revolution) (pp. 7-11)
Setting the Stage
1. What were the earliest humans like?
           No written record from prehistory.
           Why study "prehistory"?
A. Scientists Search for Human Origins
1. Prehistory - the time period before people developed writing roughly 5000 years ago.
           Does that mean that people before were ignorant? No…
                Just that they did not have accumulated knowledge, they had to continually reinvent things!
           What is history?
           What role does the historian play?
                To ask questions
                To search for answers
           Divisions of History
                When does history begin?
                Time clock analogy
                      1 century = 1 minute
                      Then, Europeans settled America about 5 minutes ago!
                      The first civilizations began about an hour ago!
                      What about the previous 23 hours?
                             Prehistory? - 4000 B.C.
                             Ancient History 4000 B.C. - 500 A.D.
                             Classical History – 500 B.C. – 500 A.D.
                             Medieval History 500 A.D. - 1500 A.D.
                             Renaissance History – 1300 A.D. – 1600 A.D.
                             Modern History 1500 A.D. – Present
                Why is the study of "prehistory" difficult?
           Why study history?
                Better understand today's problems
                Skills, attitudes
           Why should Americans study world history?
                (Survey the class)
                Our debt to others
                To become aware of others' contributions to our ways of life
                To learn lessons from the past
                To better understand the interdependence of today's world
           How do we study it?
Scientists Discover Clues
     Methodology - How do we know?
     Prehistory - time before people developed writing
     Three types of scientists who study prehistory and hominids
     1. Archaeologists - scientists who excavate/dig for artifacts and study traces of early settlements
                Investigate prehistoric life by unearthing and interpreting the objects left behind by prehistoric people.
                Study past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind them.
                Artifacts - any objects that were shaped by human hands as well as other remains of human life
                    Bits of charcoal
    2. Anthropologists - scientists who study culture – people’s unique way of life
              Attempt to recreate a picture of early people’s cultural behavior.
              Experts who use these artifacts and the remains of humans to determine how people lived their lives.
              Culture – people’s unique way of life including customs, family life, and social relationships.
    3. Paleontologists - study fossil remains to determine the characteristics of various prehistoric periods.
              Evidence of early life preserved in rocks.
3. What do we call scientists who dig for artifacts and study traces of early settlements?
4. Term for a human-made object such as a tool, weapon or piece of jewelry.
5. What do we call scientists who attempt to recreate a picture of early people’s cultural behavior?
6. What do we call a people’s unique way of life, including customs, family life, and social relationships?
Mary Leakey Finds Footprints
    Dating Early Artifacts
         Radiocarbon dating - measures the amount of C-14 left in an item
              Only accurate back to 50,000 years
         Thermo-luminescence dating - measures the light given off by electrons trapped in the soil surrounding
              Fossils and artifacts - accurate to 200,000 years
         DNA testing provides information on human evolution
              Amino acid racemization
              (About one million years)
         Piece together "puzzle pieces" to discover past cultures
              (Shared ways of living: their values, behaviors, etc.)
         What do we think we know?
              75m years ago the first primates
              60m years ago two divergent groups, one the "prosimians", our ancestors!
              Maybe 25m years ago, due to competition for scarce resources led some to take an upright posture
              Maybe 14m years ago, a gene passed on that enabled some to walk upright! (How important was bipedalism?)
              7m years ago the man-ape divergence
              Around 4m years ago "prehumans", our ancient ancestors
         Of course, their findings are subject to continual change
    Tanzania – East Africa – discovery of footprints
         Hominids - human beings and human - like creatures
         The First Hominids
              Australopithecus – 4 million – 1 million B.C.
              Nomads - moved constantly in search of food
              No evidence shows that they made or used tools
              Southern and eastern Africa
              First humanlike creature to walk upright
Johanson Discovers “Lucy”
    Hadar, Ethiopia - 1974
    Lucy - most nearly complete skeleton of erect walking prehuman
         A 3.5 million year old 25 year old young woman who stood at 3.5 feet, weighed 60 pounds
         Had a head about the size of a softball was discovered by Donald Johanson

Hominids in Motion
   Why did humans come to dominate? Not the biggest, baddest, fastest, etc.?
         Upright posture
         Prehensile - opposable thumb
         Superior brain
         Ability to communicate
         Problem solving ability
B. Progress During the Old Stone Age
   Culture - people's way of life including: diet, religious beliefs, artistic achievements and language
   This development would include three impressive achievements in human history that occurred during the Stone Age.
   These are examples of technology.
   Technology - the skills and knowledge used by people to make tools and do work
         Invention of tools
                 Oldest known stone tool - a knife blade - 2.6 million years old
           Mastery over fire
           Development of language
     The Stone Age - divided into three periods
           Paleolithic - also called the Old Stone Age
                 2.5 million years ago - 12,000 B.C.
                 The Ice Ages
                       18 separate ice ages
                       2 million - 10,000 years ago
                              Oceans shrank - creating land bridges
                                   Japan and Korea were connected
                                   Great Britain and Ireland connected to Europe
                                   Malay Peninsula - Indonesian islands - almost to Australia connected
                                   Asia - North America connected - Bering Strait
                 Early humans responded to environmental changes
                       Migration to warmer places
                       Strategies for keeping warm - clothing, fire
                                   Those who did not adapt died
                       Homo Habilis - first toolmaking hominids
           Mesolithic - Middle Stone Age
                 12,000 B.C. - 8,000 B.C.
           Neolithic - New Stone Age
                 8,000 B.C. - 5,000 B.C.
                       People learned to
                              Polish stone tools
                              Make pottery
                              Grow crops
                       Raise animals
7-9. List three impressive achievements in history that occurred during the Stone Age. These are examples of technology.
     Invention of tools
     Mastery over fire
     Development of language
10. Name the Old Stone Age, which lasted until 8000 B.C.
11. Name the New Stone Age, which began around 8000 B.C.
12. Term for - ways of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet needs.
Homo Habilis: The First Toolmaker?
     Handy Man
     Homo Habilis – man of skill
           2.5 million – 1.5 million B.C.
           First hominids known to make stone tools
           Researchers - Louis and Mary Leakey
           Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
Homo Erectus is more Intelligent
     Homo Erectus - person who walks upright
           First appeared in Africa
           Migrations – First to move from Africa
                 Asia, Europe
           Lived from 1.6 million years ago - 30,000 B.C.
           Paleolithic Hunter-Gathers
                 Females gathered fruits nuts and seeds
                       Restricted by demands of child care
                 Male scavenged then became hunters using spears and clubs
           Technology - the skills and knowledge used by people to make tools and do work
                 Hand axes and other flaked stone tools
                 Caves used and pits dug
                 Clothing of animal skins
           Fire - first to learn to make fire
                 Warmth in cold climate
                 Cooked food
               Frightened away attacking animals
               Used to drive herds into areas where they would be easier to slaughter
         Language – first to develop spoken language
               Gestures and grunts gradually developed
                     By 50,000 B.C. - language developed
               Allowed cooperative hunting groups
               Allowed older generations to pass on culture to younger generations
               Allowing them to build on the past rather than rediscover it
                     Most valuable skill of the Paleolithic period
C. The Dawn of Modern Humans
    Homo Sapiens Sapiens
    Homo Sapiens – wise men – larger brains - person who thinks
         Originated in Africa 200,000 years ago
               Spread to Europe 100,000 years ago
               By 10,000 B.C. dominated almost every continent
               May have come into contact with Neanderthals and Homo erectus
         Neanderthals – DNA tests show that they are not related to modern humans
               Did compete with Cro-Magnons for land and food
Neanderthals’ Way of Life
    Change occurred slowly under Homo Erectus
    Change occurred with greater frequency and sophistication under Homo Sapiens
    Neander Valley, Germany
         1st appeared about 200,000 years ago - earliest homo sapiens
         Originated in Africa
         Spread to Europe 100,000 years ago
    1. Technological Skills
         Nomadic hunter-gathers
         Used fire
         Tool-making ability more sophisticated than homo erectus
               Spear points and hide scrapers
               Skins laced for clothing
    2. Ways of Life
         Lived in small groups of 35-50
         Nomads - did not live in permanent homes
         Warm climates - shelters built of branches and animal skins
         Cold climates - caves
    3. Culture and Beliefs
         Cared for their sick and aged
         Practiced medicine
         Had a belief in life after death - first to bury their dead
               Buried dead with flowers
               Buried them in shallow graves
               Buried them with food, tools, and weapons
13. What conclusion can we draw about beliefs during the Old Stone Age based on the fact that they had burials?
    They believed in a world beyond the grave
Cro-Magnons Emerge
    1. The Cro-Magnons
         Earliest homo sapiens sapiens in Europe and central Asia
    2. Cro-Magnon Technology
         Thinner sharper blades made of bone
               Stone ax
         Led to canoes
         Long-distance weapons
                 Bow and arrow
           Sun-hardened pottery
           15,000 B.C. - world population = 2 million
     3. Social Life
           Development of leaders
                 Big game hunts lead bands to cooperate
                 This led to formal rules to get along which led to
                 Leaders to create and enforce the rules
                 Evidence of leaders - high status burials
                       Ivory daggers
                       Amber beads
                       Other status symbols
                 Huts in forests
                 Long houses built of stone blocks
                 30 - 100 lived together
     4. Cave Paintings in France (Spain and Africa)
           Purpose a mystery - speculation
                 Vallon-Pont-d' Arc
Recent Findings Add New Knowledge
     Discoveries are constantly changing our understanding of prehistory
     1994 - Gen Suwa - paleontologist
           Aramis, Ethiopia
           2.33 million years old - oldest known direct human ancestor
           Also discovered tools
     1996 – Neanderthal bone flute – 43,000 – 82,000 years old
II. Humans Try to Control Nature (pp. 12-16)
Main Idea – The development of agriculture spurred an increase in population and the growth of a settled way of life.
     This laid the foundation for the development of civilization.
Setting the Stage
     40,000 years ago modern man existed – rapid changes occurred after the development of agriculture
     Themes - consider the impact of the following on the development of civilization
           Innovation - what role would creativity or risk taking play in the development of civilization?
           What impact would cooperation/conflict have on such development?
           What about the role of revolution or change during this early period?
           Which would have been more valued diversity or uniformity?
A. Achievements in Technology and Art
A New Tool Kit
     Nomads - people who wander in search of food, also called hunters and gatherers.
     They had developed over 100 different tools prior to the discovery of agriculture.
14. What do we call people who wander in search of food, also called hunters and gatherers.
Paleolithic Art
15-17.     List three roles that cave paints probably served for Stone Age man. (p.13)
     Represented religious beliefs
     To bring good luck – magic
     As a textbook to teach young hunters
B. The Neolithic Revolution - Turning Point
18. Discovery made about 10,000 years ago by women that allowed people to settle in villages.
19. Name given to the drastic change caused by this discovery.
     Neolithic Revolution
Causes of the Agricultural Revolution
     Causes are uncertain
     Dramatically changed human diet
           Hunter-gatherers ate 80% meat, 20% plants
           Revolution reversed these numbers
Early Farming Methods
     Slash-and-burn farming – cut trees or grasses and burned them to clear a field
           Ashes fertilized the soil
           Land could support crops for a year or two
           Farmers then forced to repeat the process
     Fertilizer - ashes, fish, manure
     Invented the sickle to cut wild grains
     Food storage - pottery used for carrying and storing food and water
Domestication of Animals
Domestication - the process of taming animals to provide a more constant supply of food.
     The oldest known example of domestication is the dog – probably used for hunting small game
     Pastoral nomads – wandering herders – Old Testament
           Tended sheep, goats, camels
     Moved to find new pastures and watering places
20. What do we call the process of taming animals to provide a more constant supply of food?
Revolution in Jarmo
The First Villages - 200 people – slowly grew
Agriculture was found by 5,000 B.C. in four river valleys – marked in orange on the map p.15.
21. Name the oldest known village - 8000 B.C. – found on the map in the area marked in orange p.15.
A second ancient village located near the Persian Gulf was Jarmo.
C. Villages Grow and Prosper
Farming Develops in Many Places
22. Stone Age people in many parts of the world independently developed agriculture.
     What was the main crop grown in the Middle East and Africa?
23-24.What were the two main crops grown in the Americas?
25. What was the main crop grown in China/Asia?
Catal Huyuk
A third ancient village – located in present day Turkey was Catal Huyak.
     7000 - 6300 B.C.
     Largest so far
           Rectangular, flat-roofed houses
           Painted interior walls
           Walked across roofs
           Housed up to 6,000 at its height
III. Civilization – Case Study: Ur in Sumer – (Theme – ID – Civilization RECIPE) (pp. 17-21)
Setting the Stage
     The first step toward the development of civilization was the growth of villages into cities.
A. Villages Grow into Cities
     City center - religious and government buildings
     Outward from the center
           Residences of the ruling class
           Houses of the merchants
           Shops and dwellings of specific groups of artisans
           Farmers, sailors, fishers lived on the outskirts
     Slaves lived throughout the city
Economic Changes
     First Irrigation Systems
           Included ditches, canals, reservoirs, dikes and dams
           Allowed farmers to produce surpluses of grains
           Reduced reliance on rainfall
           Produced a steady flow of water
           Prevented most destructive flooding
What allowed larger villages to cultivate more land and produce extra crops?
      Irrigation systems
List two inventions that enabled traders to transport more goods over longer distances.
Social Changes - Social Consequences of Agriculture
Change                                     Social Consequence
People lived in one place and no longer    People who could afford material goods began to accumulate them.
had to carry all their possessions.        A system of social classes would become more clearly defined as cities grew.
Farmers could grow more food than they
                                       Farmers could barter surplus food for textiles, tools, and pottery made by artisans.
needed to feed their families.
Land and water became valuable             Leaders with armies arose to conquer large land areas. Rulers forced people who had no
economic resources.                        power to do hard jobs such as producing food and constructing irrigation systems.
Male warriors competed for land, water, Women lost the power they had shared in hunter-gatherer societies to male warriors
and power.                              who could protect them and their children.
      Religion became more organized – common religious values became religious traditions.
B.    What is Civilization?
1.    What do we call a complex culture that has the five key characteristics?
2-6. List the five key characteristics
      Advanced cities
      Specialized workers
      Complex institutions
      Record keeping
      Advanced technology - including metalworking skills
Advanced Cities
Cities - which grew out of Neolithic farming towns in river valleys where resources were close enough to allow development
7. What is the key difference that separates a city from a village?
      Market – center for trade
Specialized Workers
      Specialization of Labor - the process by which people became more proficient at earning a living by performing a single
           Specialization increased both quantity and quality of goods over time
           Surpluses led to division of labor, specialization (trade and stratification resulted), and more leisure time
      Artisans - specialized worker skilled in a craft

8.   What do we call the development of skills in a specific kind of work?
9. What do we call skill workers who make goods by hand?
Complex Institutions
5 complex institutions - Clustering of values and behaviors around certain fundamental societal needs
          To organize defense
          Make laws to regulate behavior - law and order
          Supervise construction of public buildings and projects
          Organized systems of Values
                To explain the workings of nature and the reasons for existence - to give meaning to life
          Creation myths
                Traditional stories explaining how
                     The world was formed
                     People came into being
                     And what they owed their creator
                Recorded by priests in every civilization
                They provide evidence of people's customs and values
                Often used by rulers to justify their decisions
          Provide new membership
     Economy - the ways in which people use their environment to meet their material needs
          Provide goods and services
           Surplus agricultural production allowed men and women to earn their living in other ways
           Before the rise of Homo sapiens sapiens - 80 percent of the food that humans ate was acquired by women who gathered
           As the principal food procurers
                 Women’s status in the community was high
                 Their influence was considerable - women shared in
                       The leadership of the band
                       Ownership of water holes and food gathering areas
           Male hunters procured 20 percent of the diet
                 In the form of swift-moving, protein-rich game.
                 As the hunters worked together
                 More sophisticated language developed:
                       "You distract the deer while I spear it."
           Eventually, male leadership roles developed from the necessity to coordinate several hunting bands.
                 Did this need for coordination in hunting ultimately led to the predominance of men in modern politics?
           New social structure - based on economic power
                 Upper class - monarchs - upper class priests - government officials - warriors
                       Demand for luxury items led to organized trade
                 Lower class - large group of free people - farmers, artisans, craftspeople
           Train new members
           Use of writing - mainly for record keeping
                 Art of writing developed in cities - marking the beginning of history
           Artistic activity - temples and pyramids, painting and sculpture
     Once survival assured, plans laid to improve society: calendar, writing (evolved from pictograms and phonograms to an
     alphabet), religious practices, social institutions and social organization
10. What do we call a long lasting pattern of organization in a community?
11-13.List three key institutions that are included in the RECIPE of any civilization.
     Government = Politics
     (Education – not included in Recipe)
     (Family – not included in Recipe)
     This would also be a good place to introduce the four theories on the development of government
     anarchy / force theory / divine right theory / evolution theory /social contract theory
     see government notes
Record Keeping
     Invention of Writing
     Originated with records kept by priests – scribes – professional record keepers
           Religious offerings - pictograms
           Abstract ideas and sounds
                 Individual men and women who were
                       Heads of households
                 King’s battle victories
                 Legal codes
                 Medical texts
     Observations of the stars
14. Name the first form of writing that was developed by scribes using wedge-shaped pictographs.
15. Name the civilization in Mesopotamia that developed this writing.
Advanced Technology
     The Bronze Age followed Stone Age
           Bronze - alloy - mixture of copper and tin (scarce resources) - improved tools and weapons
           Harder - it took a sharper cutting edge
           Much easier to shape than flint - cast bronze by pouring it into a mold to harden
           Expensive - used only by kings, priests and soldiers
16. What material replaced copper and stone as the best choice for weapons and tools?
17-20. List three examples of advanced technology other than the type of weapons developed in Sumer.
C. Civilization Emerges in Ur
     River Valley Civilizations
     4000 B.C. = 85 million people on earth
           Where did the first true civilizations begin?
           What did they have in common?
     Cities rose from farming settlement in river valleys like those along the
           Tigris and Euphrates River
                 Oldest cities to date - 3500 B.C. - Iraq
           Nile River – 3000 B.C.
           Indus River valley - 2500 B.C.
           Huang He valley - 1500 B.C.
                 Europe - 1000 B.C.
                 Americas - 1000 B.C.
                 Africa - 750 B.C.
     River Valley Civilizations – 5 Basic Features of civilization
     Other societies continued to
           Live in small agricultural villages
           Hunt and gather
           Herd domesticated animals
21. Name the oldest civilization in the world.
22. Name its capital city.
An Agricultural Economy
23. What is the main occupation in that civilization?
A Glimpse of City Life
Ur’s Thriving Trade
24. What do we call an economic system of trade that does not use money?
The Temple: Center of City Life
25. Name the massive tiered temple or “mountain of god” which was the tallest and most important building in the city.
A Religious Ritual Recorded
Chapter 2 – Early River Valley Civilizations – 3500 B.C. – 450 B.C. (Theme – ID – Sumerian RECIPE)
I.   City-States in Mesopotamia (pp. 27-32)
Main Idea – The earliest civilization arose in Mesopotamia and organized into city-states following a pattern that has occurred
     Repeatedly throughout history
Setting the Stage
     The pattern that occurred was that farming developed along river systems – the four ancient river valley systems.
A. Geography of the Fertile Crescent
     The Fertile Crescent – area of the Middle East with fertile farmland
           Around 5000 B.C. - Neolithic culture
                 Groups of herders from the Arabian Peninsula - moved north as climate changes dried the area out
                 Groups of peoples from the highlands of Turkey - moved south driven by
                       Poor weather
               They moved into the Fertile Crescent - map
               From the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf

1.   What do we call the arc of land located in the desert Middle East that contains good farmland?
     Fertile Crescent
Fertile Plains
     Mesopotamia – land between the two rivers - eastern part of the Fertile Crescent
            Most settled between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
            Which run parallel for some 1000 miles (created the "Fertile Crescent")
3-4. Name the two rivers where the first civilization was located.
5. What do we call the area between the two rivers?
Environmental Challenges
     The Twin Rivers
            Unpredictable rivers caused problems
                  Water shortages often coincided with the fall planting season
                  During spring harvest season - strong floods often swept away whole villages and fields
                  The time of year of these floods was unpredictable and water levels varied
            Few natural resources (had lots of mud)
            Open plain with no natural barriers
                  People living there were open to outside attack
                  Climate and landscape define Mesopotamia
                  Attacks came from the hills and deserts from people who had never lived in civilization
                        Region of constant warfare/struggle (continues today)
6-8. List three disadvantages faced by this first civilization.
     Unpredictable flooding
     No natural barriers for protection
     Limited natural resources
Creating Solutions
     Civilization was made possible by the combination of
            Organized government
     Villages were forced to cooperate in order to meet the challenges
            Built dams and escape channels to control floods
            Later built canals and ditches to bring water to irrigate the fields
            By 4000 B.C. Mesopotamian farmers were producing food in abundance
                  They traded the surplus to get the resources they lacked
     They built city walls using the only thing available – mud bricks
9-11. List the three solutions to these problems
     City walls
B. Sumerians Create City-States
     The Sumerian Civilization
            The Sumerians - a people from either central Asia or Asia Minor - arrived in Mesopotamia around 3500 B.C.
                  Created Sumer
                  Home of the oldest cities discovered to date
                        (We know little of their origins)
            Their civilization would last 1100 years!
     The Sumerian City-States - (excavated in the 1960s and 70s)
            By 3000 B.C. 12 city-states were formed including
          City state - consisted of the city itself and the land surrounding it
               Population ranged from 20,000 to 250,000
          All Sumerian city-states shared common traits
               Physical features of cities
          Sumerian City Planning
               A Ziggurat - temple was built in each city
                     Sun-dried brick and decorated tile
                     Stacked in terraces
                     Similar to pyramids - except it raised shrine to the sky
                     Only priests and priestesses were allowed to enter the shrine dedicated to the city-state's chief deity
                     Storehouses of food and treasures - tempting targets for their neighbors
               How could a city defend itself against raiding nomadic bands and the armies of competing cities?
                     Faced the danger of
                     Catastrophic floods
                     Invasions by their enemies
                     Attacks by hungry citizens of outlying areas.
               Building walls - crucial to the defense of the first cities
                     Walls surrounded all cities
                     All houses were built with sun-baked mud bricks
                          They built some of the largest brick structures ever built
                          Mud bricks are still used today in the Middle East - in rural areas
                     Gilgamesh - the god-king of Sumerian epic
                          Built the walls around Uruk - probably about 2700 B.C.
                          His people slaved for decades building more than 8 miles of city walls
                          With more than 900 semicircular turrets.
                                Defense towers were located every 30' - 35'
                          Inner core of their walls - millions of sun-dried bricks made from river mud
                                Kiln-baked clay slabs - weather-resistant overlay
                                Mortared with asphalt
                                Reached as high as 20 feet
                                System of clay pipes in the foundations to drain the water
                                      Prevent walls from trapping water after heavy rains or floods
                     The Gilgamesh Epic
                          Gilgamesh . . . built a wall around his city to make it safe against attack. Its pinnacles shone like brass.
                          Its outer surface was armored with stone cladding [facing]; every brick had been hardened in the fire.
                          The people of Uruk groaned beneath the burden of the building of the wall, for Gilgamesh drove them
                          on without pity. . . . The drums that summoned the people to work were sounded without a pause, so
                          that the son had no time to spend with his father, nor the lover with his lady.

12. Name the type of government in which each city develops its own government with its own rulers and controls the
    surrounding land.
    City State
The Power of Priests
13. What type of people controlled these early governments?
14. What do we call a government controlled by the religion?
Monarchs Take Control
         Sumerian Government
               Uruk - early government during times of peace
                    Council of nobles
                    Assembly of citizens
               Change to military leaders caused by
                    Threats of invasion by foreigners
                    Competition over land and water rights
               By 2700 B.C. leaders had become kings - called "lugals" - these positions became hereditary
                    Kings served dual role
                         Military leader
                            High priest
                            Governments were theocracies - government by divine authority
                                  Closely supervised farming - irrigation projects
                                  Enforced the law
                                  Set penalties for lawbreakers
                                  Most punishments consisted of fines
15. What do we call a government ruled by a series of rulers in a single family?
The Spread of Cities
16. What do we call the process of spreading new ideas or products from one civilization to another?
      Cultural Diffusion
C. Sumerian Culture
A Religion of Many Gods
      Sumer's Deities
           Polytheistic - almost 3,000 gods and goddesses
                 An - seasons god - highest deity
                 Enlil - god of winds and agriculture
           Each city had its own patron god
                 Gods viewed as unpredictable and selfish - with little regard for humans
                 Angry gods caused misfortunes
                       Ceremonies by priests designed to appease the gods
                 Unlike Egyptians Sumerians believed
                       Humans had little control over their daily lives
                       Could not look forward to a happy life after death
                       Grim underworld awaited them
      Gilgamesh - 1850 B.C.
           May be the oldest story in the world
           Probably based on an actual king of Uruk
           Includes the story of a great flood and a ship for survivors
           The "Gilgamesh Epic" shows their grappling with life's eternal questions (mortality, good/evil)
17. What do we call a religion that believes in many gods – such as the gods of nature?
18. What do we call traditional stories developed to explain how the world was formed, how people came into
      being, and why we are here? These stories are usually used to teach morality.
19 Name the oldest know piece of literature in the world.
      Epic of Gilgamesh
Life in Sumerian Society
      The Roles of Men and Women
           Sumerian laws extensively regulated family life
           Male dominated - patriarchal
                 A man could sell his wife or children into slavery to pay a debt
                 He could divorce his wife easily for any failure to perform expected duties
                 Neglecting her house was grounds for drowning
                 Failure to bear children was grounds for divorce
           Women's rights
                 Could buy and sell property
                 Could own businesses and slaves
                 They could join the lower ranks of priesthood
                 More rights than women in later civilizations
      A child who struck a parent had his hand cut off
      Writing on Clay Tablets
      Oldest form of writing in the world - 3100 B.C.
           Developed to keep records
           Allowed society to maintain knowledge of previous practices and events
           Allowed people to communicate in new ways
      Cuneiform - began as pictograms
           Consisted of wedge-shaped markings pressed into wet clay tablets - then baked until hard
           Developed into symbols representing complex ideas
           Influenced later Mesopotamian writing systems
      Eddubas - schools where scribes were taught cuneiform
           Education allowed them to rise in society
           They produced
               Business records
               Lists of historical dates
                Literary works
20. What do we call different groups in society?
    Social classes
Sumerian Science and Technology - cradle of civilization
21. List 10 inventions by Sumeria
    Wheel - led to carts for easier transportation
    Sail - transportation
    Plow - domesticated oxen
    Bronze - jewelry and weapons
          First to make bronze out of copper and tin
          Imported copper and tin
                Dried fish
                And finished metal goods
          Traded as far away as India
          Metal plow
    Baked clay bricks - construction
    Number system based 60 (clock)
    Loom - weaving linen and wool
    Potter's wheel
    Calendars - to measure the seasons for planting
          12-month calendar based on cycles of the moon
    Boundary lines
    Rules of inheritance
    Warfare - villages competed for land and water
               Polytheistic, worshipped some 3,000 gods not because they were holy, but because they were mighty!
               Sought to please them
               Anu - god of heaven,
               Enlil - god of air,
               Ishtar - goddess of procreation
               Creation story - "pickax" theory
               Cities built "ziggurats" (highest point)
               No firm belief about an afterlife, the dead went to "Land of No Return" (dark cave, ate clay)
Economy        Farming (90% of people), some trade and industry
                Cuneiform writing (some 2000 signs),
                A lunar calendar (with 2 seasons: summer and winter), wheel, number system based on 60, the arch, dome, brick
                technology, geometry and algebra, multiplication, division, and fractions! Also, in the field of astrology (predicted
                eclipses) a combination of magic, prescriptions, and surgery (demons and spirits caused disease)
Politics        City states, empire, theocracy
Environment     See above
Society         Divisions into 3 groups (nobility, commoners, slaves),
                Education focused on making clay tablets and writing (elite only),
               Women could be sold to pay debts!

D.  The First Empire Builders
    For 1000 years the Sumerians fought one another, making them ripe for takeover
    Invaders adopted most Sumerian institutions--Who were the newcomers?
Sargon of Akkad
    Sumerian city-states fell to invaders in the 2000s B.C
    First empire builder - Sargon I
          Legend - mother abandoned him as a baby in the Euphrates River in a reed basket
          Farmer irrigating his fields pulled him ashore and raised him as his own
    The Akkadians - Semites - one of the nomadic groups that migrated from the Arabian Peninsula around 5000 B.C.
          Kingdom of Akkad - northern Mesopotamia
    Sargon assumed power in 2340 B.C.
          Launched a campaign of expansion
          United all of the city-states of Mesopotamia into one empire - the first ever
          Predated the New Kingdom by more than 800 years
          Switched the language from Sumer to Akkadian
    His son - Naramsin - was the first to claim "divine right to rule"
          Empire disintegrated after Sargon's grandson - by 2100 B.C.
22. Who created the first empire?
23. Name for a political organization that brings together a number of peoples or nations under the control of one ruler?
Babylonian Empire
    The Kingdom of Ebla
          Destroyed by Sargon's grandson and burned - clay tablets survived
          Proof that highly developed Semitic civilizations prospered in that area of Syria earlier than previously believed
          Prospered due to overland trade between Egypt and Mesopotamia
          Kings elected for 7-year periods
          Responsible for the welfare of the poor
          After 2000 B.C. decline and destroyed by the Amorites - Semitic people from western Syria
    Hammurabi's Babylonian Empire
          Amorites overran many Sumerian centers including Babylon
          Created a dynasty at Babylon
          Hammurabi - used his power to dominate Mesopotamia - (1792 - 1750 B.C.)
               Divide and conquer
               Reorganized the tax system
               Ordered local officials to build and repair irrigation canals
               Organized a strong government
               Worked to increase the economic prosperity of his people
          Babylon became a center of trade
               Merchants from as far away as India and China
               Paid gold and silver for the grain and cloth Babylonians produced
Hammurabi’s Code
    Hammurabi's Law Code * - Turning Point - (it was discovered in 1901)
    Hammurabi's greatest achievement
          The code provided the first consistent rule of law.
          The code was used for 1000 years!
               Established a social order based on the rights of the individual
          Collected laws of all the Mesopotamian city-states and combined them into one code for the entire empire
               282 sections carved on a black stone monument, eight feet high, for public view
               Shamash - the supreme judge - sun god
                     Assigned a specific punishment for each violation
                     Punishments were more severe than older Sumerian laws
               Based on "eye for an eye" concept - borrowed by the Hebrews of the Old Testament - "lex talionis"
                     No lawyers, one had to prove case before a court, if you failed, you were put to death!
                     Some laws were attempts to protect the less powerful
                     Government officials who failed to catch criminals were expected to replace lost property
                     Consumer protection laws existed
                           Builders were held responsible for their buildings
                     Marriage and family law was the largest section
                           Required signed contract for a legal marriage
                The development of written law was a major advancement toward justice and order
                     Before this vigilante law was common
                     Now crimes became the concern of the whole community
                     Government assumed the responsibility for protecting its citizens in return for loyalty and service
                Societies today continue to recognize the importance of well-developed systems of law.
                     Much of the success of American democracy is due to the Constitution
                           Which set up a framework for government and the rule of law
                           Stating that all citizens are created equal and are equal in the eyes of the law.
                           Based on the principle that "the strong should not harm the weak."
                     For example, the death penalty was handed out as punishment for theft if fines could not be paid,
                     Which included
                           Entering the palace or temple treasury
                           Purchasing goods from minors or slaves
                           Selling stolen goods
                           Falsely claiming ownership of goods
                     However, no conviction for theft unless the goods in question could be found in his or her possession.
                Before the code of Hammurabi, the strong were able to harm the weak without fear of consequences.
                     Mesopotamians and Babylonians often took justice into their own hands based on a desire for revenge.
                     But what are the actual consequences and implications of taking the law into one's own hands?
                Hammurabi's code, and such modern codes as the U.S. Constitution, suggest that individual rights under the law
                      Crucial to the survival of a civilization.
                Babylonian Society
                      Threefold division of social classes
                      Upper class - nobles
                            Kings - lived in large palaces
                      Lower class - commoners
                            Small merchants
                            Farmers - 90% of population
                Punishments varied according to the class of the person offended against
                More severe punishment for assaulting a landowner than for hurting a slave
                Most slaves had been captured in war or had failed to pay their debts
                The Babylonians used cuneiform and wrote on clay tables like the Sumerians
     Decline and Fall
          After Hammurabi's death the Babylonian Empire declined
          Dynasty ended then
                Hittites (from Asia Minor) raided Babylon about 1600 B.C.
                      Used iron to make better weapons
                      Between 1500 and 600 B.C. iron spread across Europe, northern Africa and Asia
          Babylon again became capital under Chaldeans in the 600s B.C.
24. Name the ruler who created the first written code of laws based on the principle of an eye for an eye.
25. What was his capital city?
II. Pyramids on the Nile (Theme – ID – Egyptian RECIPE) (pp. 33-39)
Main Idea - Second and probably the best known of the four early river valley civilizations – Egypt – Nile River
     United into a kingdom ruled by a pharaoh – they built best known monuments of the ancient world
Setting the Stage
     To the West of the Fertile Crescent
     Egypt united into a single kingdom – high degree of stability and cultural continuity
1. Name the river where Egypt is located.
A. The Geography of Egypt
     Nile River Valley - one of the world's first civilizations developed here
          Kemet - black land – narrow strip along the Nile
          Desert – red land
    The Egyptians built a civilization some 750 miles long, 13 miles wide!
          At its height, some 5 million people
    Steps to Civilization
          Climate changed, began its Neolithic revolution
    5000 B.C. - nomadic hunter-gathers began to settle by the Nile
          Developed small villages where irrigation was necessary - did not require large scale irrigation projects
          Civilization tended to be rural
The Gift of the Nile - (Herodotus)
    Annual flooding leaves thick deposits of silt - gradual and predictable
    Three seasons - determined by the behavior of the Nile
          Inundation -the period during which the Nile flooded
          Receding waters - Floodwaters receded, withdrawing from the fields
                Farmers plowed the land and planted their crops during this time
          Drought - the dry period, when farmers harvested their crops.
    Used complex irrigation system and predictable floods to produce two crops per year
    Knowing in advance how much the Nile would flood was an important role of government
          Much of the kings' power came from their ability to accurately predict the extent of the floods
          Good flooding meant abundant harvests
          A low flood could mean famine.
                As Egyptian civilization progressed, it became possible to move farther upstream to measure the source of
                and get earlier information on the extent of the year's flood.
    Irrigation - Egyptian farmers devised a system to control the flooding river
                They constructed earthen dams in fields after the flood to keep water in long enough to enrich the soil.
                They built levees around villages to keep water out.
                They dug canals and then punctured the dams to allow water to flow into fields as needed.
          As a final method of irrigation, they carried water by hand to distant fields not reached by the floods.
    The value of land - how heavily it was taxed - was determined by its proximity to the river.
          Lowland fields that flooded naturally were the most prized.
          Those farther inland that needed to be flooded through irrigation were taxed at a lower rate.
2. Term used by Herodotus to refer to the positive impact that flooding had in Egypt.
    Gift of the Nile
Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt
    Nile River - world's longest river - 4,160 miles
    Divided into two parts
    Upper Nile – South
          River flows out of the mountains – flowing to the north
          First Cataract – waterfalls /rapids - 1 of 6 cataracts – not passable by boat
    Lower Nile – North
          Forms river delta – fans out into a broad marshy area – triangular area built up by silt deposits
                100 miles before it reaches the Mediterranean
          Navigation possible on last 750 miles
                River flows north to the Mediterranean from the mountains – float north
                Wind blows south off of the Mediterranean – sailboats could sail south
                Nile acted like a highway uniting villages and promoting trade along the Lower Nile
Environmental Challenges
    Natural Barriers - protected Egypt from invasion – avoid wars early on
          Deserts - red land
    Reduced their interaction with other peoples
3. Name the giant desert that helps to isolate Egypt to the west.
    Sahara Desert
Movement of Goods and Ideas
    3200 B.C. – contact with Mesopotamia through trade
          Cultural diffusion
    2000 B.C. – contact with Nubia and Kush in Africa
          Barge traffic to the Upper Nile
    Produced a cultural blend – ethnic and racial diversity
B.   Egypt Unites into a Kingdom
     Monarchies- kingdoms under the unrestricted rule of a king
          Weak kingdoms were taken over by stronger ones
     By 3200 B.C. ancient Egypt consisted of two large kingdoms
          Lower Egypt in the north and in the Nile Delta
                Most important cities developed where the delta began
          Upper Egypt in the south in the Nile Valley
     3000 B.C. - Narmer / Menes invaded from the south – became the first to unite Egypt
          Capital - Memphis
          1st Dynasty - line of rulers from one family
     Between 3000 B.C. - 332 B.C. - 31 dynasties - divided into three periods
4. Name the king that united all of Egypt.
Pharaohs Rule as Gods
The Old Kingdom - Age of Pyramids
     2660 B.C. - 2180 B.C.
Theocracy - government in which the same person is both the religious and political leader
     Egyptian kings were viewed as Gods - had absolute power
     Kings known as pharaohs - viewed as gods removed from the people
          They created bureaucracies - a group of government officials
          Headed by the king's vizier to control trade and collect taxes
          Egypt was divided into 42 provinces run by governors
                These officials were created once the government became too big to be run by one man
                The king delegated responsibilities to held with official duties
5. Name given to Egyptian god-kings.
6. What do we call a government controlled by the religion?
Builders of the Pyramids
     Pyramid – immense structure built as the resting place after death for kings
          96 pyramids uncovered so far
          Built with stone – granite and limestone
          Unlike the Ziggurats of Mesopotamia – built with mud
     King Djoser (2737 to 2717 B.C.)
          Developed an effective bureaucracy to handle the affairs of the central government and large construction projects.
          The Step Pyramid
          Underscored national unity by including themes from both
                Upper and Lower Egypt in his tomb buildings.
                The central element in the building, the Step Pyramid, was Djoser's tomb
                Saqqara - near Memphis
                First large all-stone building in the world
     King Snefru - fourth dynasty
          Built the first true pyramid at Dahshur.
          Snefru was a warrior who fought in
                The Sinai.
          He brought prosperity to the kingdom by promoting
     King Khufu (Cheops)
          Son of Snefru
          Not much is known about this king
                Ruled for 23 years
                The huge size and complexity of the construction project indicates how far the bureaucracy had advanced.
          Giza Pyramids - also symbols of power
          The Great Pyramid - the largest of 3 – 2556 B.C.
                481 feet high - precision still a mystery today
                756 feet on a side - aligned with the poles
                Covers 13 acres
                2.3 million limestone blocks – each weighing at least 2.5 tons – some 15 tons
                Legend says it took 100,000 workers 20 years to build
                No wheels, no pulleys, no iron tools
                Used as burial grounds for kings - preserved as mummies

     King Khafre
            Son of Khufu
            The Great Sphinx
                  240 feet long - 66 feet high
     Lion with human head
7. Name the stone structures used to bury kings of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.
C. Egyptian Culture
Religion and Life
     It is difficult to speak of Egyptian beliefs as religion, if "religion" means a unified system of belief.
     Polytheism - worship of many deities – more than 2,000
            Gods and goddesses - part human -part animal
                  Ra - sun god (Amon-Ra)
                  Horus – god of light - sky god - head of hawk
                  Isis - goddess – ideal mother and wife
                  Osirus - god of underworld - controls life, death, rebirth
                  Anubis, a god connected with the dead - the head of a jackal because jackals were often found near desert graves.
                  Every temple in Egypt worshiped its own local deities.
     Mesopotamia – negative view of death
     Egyptians – positive view of death
            Religion stressed an afterlife
                  Devoted time and wealth to preparing for an afterlife
            The Egyptians believed that after death the spirit, or ka, appeared before Osiris, lord of the dead.
                  Heart must be no heavier than a feather – sin weighed the soul down
                  If the spirit was found to be just, it would go to a heavenly place called Yaru, where grain grew 12 feet high.
                  If a person was evil, the Devourer of souls would gobble it up
                         Ka would roam the world for eternity, continually hungry and thirsty.
     Mummification - preserve the physical body for reunification with the spiritual body - ka
            The body was sealed with servants and possessions
     Book of the Dead
            Collections of proverbs or wise sayings - how to reach a happy afterlife
                  Do not repeat slander: you should not hear it, for it is the result of hot temper.
                  Repeat a matter seen, not what is heard.

                If you are a man of standing, you should love your wife at home as is fitting.
                Fill her belly: clothe her back...Make her heart glad as long as you live.

                If you are a leader commanding the affairs of many, seek out for yourself every good deed, until it may be that
                your own affairs are without wrong. Justice is great and it is lasting; there is punishment for him who passes over
                its laws. It may be that that it is fraud that gains riches, but the strength of justice is that it lasts...

                If you are a man of standing and found a household and produce a son who is pleasing to god, if he is correct and
                inclines toward your ways and listens to your instruction, while his manners in your house are fitting,
                and if he takes care of your property as it should be, seek out for him every useful action.

                 But if a man's son often creates hatred. If he goes astray and does not carry out your instruction,
                 so that his manners in your household are wretched, and he rebels against all that you say, while his mouth runs on
                 in the most wretched talk, quite apart from his experience, while he possesses nothing, you should cast him off: he
                 is not your son at all.
8. What do we call a religion with many gods like Ra and Horus.
9. Name the Egyptian process of preserving the body for life after death and judgment.
10. Name the collection of texts written as a guide for the soul in the afterlife.
      Book of the Dead
Life in Egyptian Society
      At its height - population 5 million
      Levels of Egyptian Society – social classes were not rigid – marriage, wealth could change status
          Upper class - Royalty, Nobles, Priests, and army commanders
               Controlled religious and political affairs
               Lived in cities or on estates
               Built large homes surrounded by
          Middle class - merchants, artisans, scribes, tax collectors
               Carried out the business activities
               Homes mostly in cities
               Comfortable, but not elegant
          Lower class - Poor – largest class
               Peasant farmers
                     Paid rent to the king for the land they farmed
                     A large percentage of their crop
               Unskilled laborers
                     Worked on building projects
                     Worked as servants to priests and nobles
                     Provided military service
                     Lived in small villages of simple huts near their work
               Later it included slavery
     Egyptian Families
          Among the poor families were often extended
          Children were taught respect for parents
               Old Kingdom
                     Considered property of husband
                     Valued producers of children
                     In charge of household and
                     Education of children
               New Kingdom
                     Women could buy, own, and sell property
                     Testify in court
                     Start divorce and other legal proceedings
                     4 queens - possible to acquire power
               Parents arranged marriages - married young
                     Girls - 12
                     Boys - 14
               Chief concerns family and property
               Purpose of marriage to produce children - especially sons
               Monogamy was the general rule (marriage to one person)
               Allowed additional wives IF first wife was childless
               Pharaohs allowed a harem
               Divorces were allowed
               They included compensation for the wife
          Very positive attitude toward daily life on earth
Egyptian Writing
3000 B.C. Hieroglyphics - earliest writing system in Egypt ("sacred carvings")
          Picture symbols carved into slate
          Drawings that depicted objects or beings
               A combination of these drawings to express ideas
               A system of forms to represent sounds
          For everyday business they used - hieratic - simplified hieroglyphics
               Few people could read or write
               Scribes went to school to learn to write - used papyrus reed paper
               Using papyrus and vegetable gum ink
               Papyrus - used to make
                     Matting material
                       Eventually writing material
           Rosetta Stone - discovered in 1799
                 Napoleon invaded, his men found the Rosetta Stone
                 Deciphered in 1822 by Jean-François Champollion
                 Matched Greek to two Egyptian languages
11. Name the system of writing used in Egypt.
Egyptian Science and Technology
     Architectural achievements
           Pyramids, temples and other monuments
     Artistic achievements
           Shoulder forward – Head sideways
     Mathematical achievements
           Could calculate area, volume
           Could use early form of geometry
     They used an accurate 365-day calendar
     Developed medical expertise
           Learned anatomy
           Used splints bandages and compresses
12. Name one Egyptian invention still used today.
     365-day calendar with 12 months of 30 days + five feast days
D. Chariot Riders Invade Egypt
     The Middle Kingdom - Age of Nobles – 2080-1640 BCE
           The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of chaos until 2050 B.C.
                 Moved the capital to Thebes
           Golden age - an age of stability - captured Nubia - in Sudan
                 King viewed as a shepherd of his people who must build public works and provide for the public welfare
                 Invaded Syria
                 Drained swampland in the Nile delta creating 1000s of acres of new farmland
                 Ordered construction of a canal between the Nile and the Red Sea - aided trade and transportation
           Middle Kingdom lasted until 1640 B.C.
           Invasion by the Hyksos - from western Asia
                 Used bronze weapons and chariots
                 Ruled for 70 years
13. Name the chariot riding invaders that took over Egypt and ended the Middle Kingdom.
Chapter 4 – The First Age of Empires – (Theme – ID – Empire)
I.   The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide (pp. 83-87)
Main Idea – Neighboring civilizations participate in cultural diffusion as well as conflict
Setting the Stage
     Egypt and Nubia influenced each other
A. The New Kingdom of Egypt
     Kamose raised an army and drove the Hyksos out and rebuilt Egypt
           Pharaoh - great house of the king
1. What allowed the Hyksos to defeat the Egyptians?
Egypt’s Empire Builders in the New Kingdom
     Age of Empire
     1570 B.C. - 1075 B.C.
     Some of best-known pharaohs
     1480 B.C. - Hatshepsut - first woman ruler
           Ruled with husband Thutmose II then for her young stepson
           Built her tomb in the Valley of the Kings
           Built temple at Deir el Bahri
           Ruled 22 years, killed by her son
     Thutmose III - her stepson
           Conquered Palestine and Syria to the Euphrates River
           Pushed south into Nubia
     Created an empire - kingdom with many territories under one ruler
2. Name for a political organization that brings together a number of peoples or nations under the control of one ruler?
3.  Name the empire that centered on the Nile River.
The Egyptians and the Hittites
    Amenhotep - 1370 B.C. - changed his name to Akhenaton - "spirit of Aton"
         Tried to convert Egypt to monotheism
         Wife - Nefertiti
         Ordered Egypt to worship only Aton - sun god
              Moved capital
              The people rejected the change
              Priests resented their lose of power
              Army was upset over lose of territory which occurred during the upheaval
         After Amenhotep's death these groups forced the new king - Tutankhamen - the boy king - to
              Move the capital back to Thebes and
              Restore the old system
    Recovery and Decline
    Ramses II - Ramses the Great (1279 -1213 B.C.)
         Battle of Kadesh - 1285 B.C.
         Fought Hittites for control of Syria
         Diplomacy - standoff led to a treaty pledging permanent peace and an alliance against enemies
An Age of Builders
    Ramses II - Ramses the Great (1279 -1213 B.C.)
         Ruled 67 years had 52 sons - died in 1237 B.C.
         Lived to 99, had 150 kids
         Last of the great builders – not as skillfully constructed as the Old Kingdom
              Temple at Karnak
              Temple at Abu Simbel
         Weakened by raiders after his death

B. The Empire Declines
Invasions by Land and Sea
Egypt’s Empire Fades
     Beginning around 1100 B.C., began a decline that would not end, due to:
          Self-absorbed rulers
          Rigid class divisions
          Didn’t change like neighbors
     Taken over and ruled by foreigners beginning in 945 B.C. and lasting for 1000 years
          Persians, Greeks, Romans
C. The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region
The People of Nubia
     3,000 B.C. - Kingdom of Nubia established
     Southern part of the Nile River valley
     Present day Sudan
          Mastered the bow and arrow
          Conquered neighboring communities in the Nile Valley
The interaction of Egypt and Nubia
     Maintained close contact with Egypt
          Tombs from Nubian kings have been similar to those found in Egypt from the same period
          Political ideas - like monarchy
          Objects like boats, eating utensils
Piankhi Captures the Egyptian Throne
     2,000 B.C. - Kingdom of Kush developed
          Defeated by Egypt and ruled by them for 500 years
          Egyptian soldiers were stationed there
          Location - on the Nile developed a strong trade economy
          Major cities located along trade routes from the African interior - gave the area wealth
          Napata - capital
                Sandstone temples
                Pyramids similar in style to Egyptians
                Elephant tusks
     1,000 B.C. - Kush broke away from Egypt
          Became independent
     724 B.C. - King Piankhi
          Invaded Egypt
          Defeated and ruled them from Napata

D. The Golden Age of Meroe
The Wealth of Kush

The Decline of Meroe
    671 B.C. - Assyrians invaded Egypt - defeated Kushites
         Kushites - bronze weapons
         Assyrians - iron weapons
    Kushites returned home learned the technology of making iron
         New capital - Meroe
               Iron production center
               Trade with the Mediterranean and Red Sea regions
                     Leopard skins
               Also traded with the Indian Ocean area
    Kushite kingdom thrived for another 150 years
Axum - Red Sea kingdom invaded Kush and ended their domination of northeastern Africa
    Location on the Rea Sea made it a trading power
         200s B.C. - trade entered the main seaport of Adulis from
               Cotton cloth
               Olive oil
    Axum absorbed many elements of Roman culture
    330 A.D. - King Ezana - converted the kingdom to Christianity
         Two shipwrecked Christians from Syria
         Rescued and brought to Axum
         Convinced the king to convert
    The rise of Islam led to the decline of Axum - 600s A.D.
         Axum's rulers set up the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia
         Used stelae - tall slender columns to mark graves of royals
3. Name the three East African empires located south of Egypt.
    Aksum (Axum)

                            Monarchy headed by king or queen called a "pharaoh", an absolute ruler who was god's
                            representative (a
                            "Theocracy"), Menes founded first dynasty,
                            No written laws necessary
                             Peasants farmed, got to keep some, rest to pharaoh in rent and taxes,
                             Wheat and barley chief crops,
                             Women wove cotton into cloth,
                             Traded surpluses for ivory, spices, timber and metals, pottery and weaving industries
                             Invented the lunar calendar, with 12, 30 day months with extra 5 days used (only 6 hours short),
                             Number system based on 10, but no 0,
                             Discoveries about medicine (preserving human bodies),
                             "Book of Healing Diseases" (used by both Greeks and Romans) classified diseases according to
                             symptoms and prescribed treatments, used herbs, spells to cure the
                             Ill (also believed disease caused by gods),
        Architecture         Stone columns, pyramids, Great Sphinx
                             Lifelike statues of gods and rulers,
        The Arts             Decorated many buildings with paintings that showed daily life
                             Sculpture, jewelry, pottery
                             2000 gods,
                             Re most important (Sun God),
                             Osiris, Lord of the Dead (judged afterlife by weighing the
                             soul against a feather), sent good to the
                             "Happy Field of Food", bad sent to meet
                             the "Eater of the Dead", each village had
        Religion (most
                             a god (many animals),
                             Isis - moon goddess, a 70 day mummification ritual
                                      (At first believed only the pharaohs worthy,
                             then anyone, even animals), emphasized
                             good character and would reward good
                             behavior in the afterlife, had "Book of the
                             Dead" to guide the dead in the afterlife

Chapter 3 – People and Ideas on the Move
III. Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries (pp. 68-71)
Setting the Stage
     Civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt influenced neighboring people in the Fertile Crescent
     These trading peoples spread their own cultures throughout the region
           On sailing ships
           By caravan
           They brought
                Trade goods
     Much of our knowledge of history comes from authentic sources
     Written by the people who experienced the events they recorded.
           They tell us how ancient people lived and worked
           What they wore, ate, and drank
           And how they reacted to the key events of their time and place.
     Why would they have written these documents?
           What type of bias might they contain?
A. Minoans Trade Far and Wide – Greece Unit
B. Phoenicians Spread Trade and Civilization
           Phoenicians - Semitic group - "red men"
           Migrated from Arabian Peninsula about 3000 B.C.
                Settled in northern Canaan
                Present day Lebanon - 120-mile strip along coast
                Lacked enough arable land for farming
           Turned to the sea for a living
                Harvested timber from the cedar forests - used to build improved ships
         Became the most powerful traders along the Mediterranean after the decline of Crete
    By 1200 B.C. - built many city-states as ports along the coast - never united into a country
         Tyre - capital for a confederation of city-states - loose union of independent cities
         Berytus (modern Beirut)
    Sailed throughout the Mediterranean
         Learned to navigate by the stars
         First to sail beyond the Strait of Gibraltar
         By 1100 B.C. reached
               The southern coast of Spain
               The British Isles
               Western coast of Africa
               Some evidence suggests they sailed around the continent of Africa
                     By way of the Red Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar
14. Name the civilization made up of city-states that controlled trade in the area between Europe and Africa.
15. Name the sea located between Europe and Africa.
Commercial Outposts Around the Mediterranean
    Controlled trade in the Mediterranean
         Cedar logs
         Textiles - dyed purple – Sidon and Tyre
         Papyrus – Berytus and Byblos
         Glass objects
    Invented new business practices
         Bills of sale
    Established colonies - a network of temporary trading posts along the coasts of the Mediterranean
         Settlements of Phoenician emigrants
         814 B.C. - founded Carthage - in present day Tunisia
               Legend - Dido - queen of Tyre
                     Offered colorful baubles for as much land as an ox hide could cover
                     The North Africans eagerly agreed
                     Dido cut the ox hide into strips and encircled a hilltop and a harbor
               A strategic location at a choke point of the Mediterranean
                     An easily defensible peninsula
                     An excellent harbor
         Influx of settlers from Tyre
               Fleeing political disturbances and Assyrian attacks
               Population of Carthage, at its height, it numbered some 500,000
                     Build the city walls or citadel
                     They roll up stones by hand
                     Select the place for a new dwelling
                     Marking out its limits with a furrow
                     Excavate a harbor
                     Lay the deep foundations for a theater
                           Hewing tremendous pillars from the rocks
                           Decorations for the stage
                     Make laws
                     Establish judges
                     And a sacred senate
               It eventually became the most powerful city in the western Mediterranean
16. Name their most important colony in Africa.
Phoenicia’s Great Legacy: The Alphabet
    Invented an improved alphabet - a series of written symbols that represented sounds
         An advantage in business and trade
    Developed by 1000 B.C. from earlier more complicated languages
         22 characters - consonants
    Foundation for Greek - which is the foundation for all Western alphabets
         It would be the Greeks who added vowels
    Did not require years to master - specially trained scribes not necessary
         Made learning accessible to more people
17. Name their greatest contribution to civilization.
C. The Long Reach of Ancient Trade
    Trade connected the Mediterranean Sea with South and East Asia
    Phoenician trade assured the exchange of products and information
         Religious beliefs
         Culture - ways of living
    Cultural Diffusion
IV. The Origins of Judaism (Theme – ID – Judaism) (pp. 72-76)
    Main Idea – Hebrews developed a monotheistic religion - Judaism
    Setting the Stage
         Palestine - the region at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea that included Canaan – known as the promised land.
         Judaism shares many beliefs with the two other monotheistic religions
         Religious heritage one of the basic pillars of Western Civilization
1. Name the region at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea that included Canaan – known as the promised land.
2. What ancient people were promised that land by God?
A. The Search for a Promised Land
    Palestine is a crossroad
         East – Empires of Assyria and Babylonia
         West – Empire of Egypt
    Canaan – part of Palestine from the Mediterranean to the Jordan River
         Rocky hills
         Fertile plains - best farming near the Jordan River
         Grassy slopes
    Many people lived as nomads herding sheep and goats
From Ur to Egypt
    Hebrew Bible - Old Testament to Christians - one of the main sources of ancient history in the Fertile Crescent
         Often referred to as the Tanakh, which is an acrostic of Torah, Nevi'im and Ketuvim.
         Torah (The Law): First five books
            Bereishith (In the beginning...) (Genesis)
            Shemoth (The names...) (Exodus)
            Vayiqra (And He called...) (Leviticus)
            Bamidbar (In the wilderness...) (Numbers)
            Devarim (The words...) (Deuteronomy)
         Nevi'im (The Prophets):
            Yehoshua (Joshua)
            Shoftim (Judges)
            Shmuel (I &II Samuel)
            Melakhim (I & II Kings)
            Yeshayah (Isaiah)
            Yirmyah (Jeremiah)
            Yechezqel (Ezekiel)
            The Twelve (treated as one book)
                 Hoshea (Hosea)
                 Yoel (Joel)
                 Ovadyah (Obadiah)
                 Yonah (Jonah)
                 Mikhah (Micah)
                 Chavaqquq (Habbakkuk)
                 Tzefanyah (Zephaniah)
                  Zekharyah (Zechariah)
           Kethuvim (The Writings):
              Tehillim (Psalms)
              Mishlei (Proverbs)
              Iyov (Job)
              Shir Ha-Shirim (Song of Songs)
              Eikhah (Lamentations)
              Qoheleth (the author's name) (Ecclesiastes)
              Ezra & Nechemyah (Nehemiah) (treated as one book)
              Divrei Ha-Yamim (The words of the days) (Chronicles)
           In addition to the written scriptures we have an "Oral Torah,"
           A tradition explaining what the above scriptures mean and how to interpret them and apply the Laws
           Orthodox Jews believe G-d taught the Oral Torah to Moses, and he taught it to others, down to the present day.
           This tradition was maintained in oral form only until about the 2d century C.E.,
           When the oral law was compiled and written down in a document called the Mishnah.
           The Mishnah is divided into six sections
                 Zera'im (Seeds), dealing with agricultural laws
                 Mo'ed (Festival), dealing with shabbat and festivals
                 Nashim (Women), dealing with marriage, divorce and contracts
                 Nezikin (Damages), dealing with tort laws and other financial laws
                 Kodashim (Holy Things), dealing with sacrifices and the Temple
                 Toharot (Purities), dealing with laws of ritual purity and impurity
    Abraham - Father of the Hebrew people
           Herder and trader from Ur
           Mesopotamia was a polytheistic culture and Abraham and his family believed there were many gods
                 Yet they chose to follow only one – this was unusual since most people worshipped multiple Gods – just in case
           Around 2000 B.C. Abraham and his household settled in Canaan at the command of Yahweh
    Monotheistic - believed in one all-powerful God - Yahweh
           The development of monotheism was a gradual process that took place throughout the Old Testament period
                 Jews looked at Yahweh as the supreme god
                 There are plenty of stories of people turning to other gods
                       There were always negative consequences for that decision
                 The unique nature of early Hebrew monotheism is that the Jews were expected to limit their worship to only one
    Three special aspects of Hebrew religion
           Covenant - an agreement between God and Abraham
                 They became the God’s chosen people
                 Based on Abraham’s faith – his obedience to God
                       God gave them the promised land and agreed to protect them
                       They promised to worship only him – to obey
           Law – handed down by God to Moses
                 Yahweh determined right and wrong
                 Expected people to deal justly with each other
                 Expected them to accept moral responsibility for their actions
           Prophets - holy messengers
                 The prophets revealed commands from God.
3. What name was given to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible – the books of law – that contains the history of the Jews?
    and moral lessons.
4. Name the “father” of the Hebrew people who made a covenant with God who promised them land.
5. Name the city in Mesopotamia that they left in search of the promised land
What is the God of Abraham called?
6. Term for worship of one God.
What do we call a promise between God and man?
     Covenant – promise between God and the Hebrews
“Let My People Go”
     1650 B.C. – moved to Egypt to escape drought and famine
          Abraham's grandson Jacob - also known as Israel raised 12 sons
          Each son led a separate tribe - family group
          To escape a severe famine the Israelites migrated to Egypt
          Lived for several generations before they were enslaved
     1200s B.C. - Israelite prophet Moses led his people out of Egypt
     Exodus – escape from Egypt into the Sinai Desert - Turning Point
     Passover - Jewish festival when they retell the story of the Exodus from Egypt
7. Name the kingdom that enslaved the Jews.
8. Name the leader who brought the Jews out of slavery in an exodus a story retold every year at the Passover Festival.
A New Covenant
     Moses - the lawgiver of Israel - he climbed Mount Sinai
     Received the Ten Commandments - Decalogue
          Inscribed on stone tablets by God
          God's most important laws
                No other gods
                No sculptured images
                No using the name of God to swear falsely
                Keeping the Sabbath day holy
                Honor your parents
                You shall not commit murder
                You shall not commit adultery
                You shall not steal
                You shall not bear false witness
                You shall not covet
          Man given free will to follow moral standards voluntarily
                Based on the idea that God is just – not arbitrary
                Required a high moral standard of conduct
                Suffering and evil would follow if people ignored good
                He also received hundreds of other laws and judgments to be used to govern - Talmud
                     Community life.
                           (Example: If you steal an ox, you will repay with five oxen.)
                The Israelites became impatient while waiting for Moses to come down from Mount Sinai.
                They made an idol (a golden calf) and worshiped it while Moses was gone.
                When Moses discovered the idol, he broke the tablets as a symbol of a broken agreement.
                Later Moses asked God to forgive the Israelites, and he received a new set of stone tablets from God.
          Ark of the Covenant - holy box built by the Hebrews to contain
                The Ten Commandments
                The holy relics of Israel's faith
                     Archaeologists today search for the Ark of the Covenant
9. Name the written code of laws handed down to the Jews by God – based on justice - Require a high moral standard.
     Ten Commandments
10. List the four commandments that define mans relationship with God
     1. No other Gods
     2. No graven image
     3. Do not take God’s name in vain
     4. Keep Sabbath holy
11. List the six commandments that define the relationship with each other
     1. Honor thy father and mother
     2. Thou shall not kill
     3. Thou shall not commit adultery
     4. Thou shall not steal
     5. Thou shall not “lie”
     6. Thou shall not covet
The Land and People of the Bible
     Nomads – 40 years in the desert
     Moses died before entering Canaan
     Joshua led the Hebrews into the promised land
     Settled and created a civilization – For 200 years Israelites fought wars with
The Hebrews Are Ruled by Judges
     12 tribes lacked unity
     Ruled by Judges during emergency
           Served as military and religious leaders
     Deborah – served as a judge
           Led an army to defeat the Canaanites near Mount Tabor
           Unusual for women – usually raised children
12. How many self-governed tribes were led into the Holy Land by Joshua?
     Twelve Tribes
Hebrew Law
     Ten Commandments – written code of law
           Like Hammurabi’s Code – eye for eye
           Strict justice softened by mercy
     Prophets – religious leaders who interpret God’s laws
           Chosen by God as messengers to reveal God’s will to the people
           Urged people to stay true to the covenant
     Ethical monotheism – emphasis on right conduct defined by God
           Do what is good, just; be loving and kind and humble
13-14.Name the other two world religions that developed ethical monotheism from the Jews – emphasis on right conduct
     defined by God.
B. The Kingdom of Israel
     Canaan – environment harsh
Saul and David Establish a Kingdom
     Hebrew religion called Judaism after tribe of Judah
     Problems with neighbors – Philistines and Canaanites
     King Saul - united the Hebrew tribes around 1020 B.C.
           United the Jews and created a new kingdom – Israel
     King David - took the throne in 1012 B.C.
           Ruled for 40 years
           Set up a capital at Jerusalem
           Organized a central government
           Enlarged Israel
           Provided economic prosperity
15. Name the Hebrew nation created by Saul – it started the process of uniting the Hebrew tribes.
16. Name the capital established by David after he united the 12 tribes
Solomon Builds the Kingdom
     King Solomon - David's son - took over in 961 B.C.
           Founded new cities
           Built temple in Jerusalem to house the Ark of the Covenant
           People resented the high taxes and labor requirements
           Died in 922 B.C. - Israel split
17. Name the king who built the temple for the Ark of the Covenant in the holy city
The Kingdom Divides
     922 B.C. - Israel and Judah divided
           10 northern tribes - Israel
                 Capital - Samaria
           2 southern tribes - Judah
                 Origins of the word Jew
                 Capital – Jerusalem
     Next two hundred years – lack of unity and leadership
C.  The Babylonian Captivity
    738 B.C. – Both Israel and Judah began paying tribute – peace money to Assyria
    722 B.C. - Assyrians conquered Israel and scattered the people of the 10 tribes
          10 lost tribes
          Merged with people of the Assyrian Empire
          Lost their identity
    586 B.C. - Chaldeans took Judah and destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem
          King Nebuchadnezzar took them captive
          Took captives to capital - Babylon
    Babylonian Exile
          Series of prophets during exile
                      Condemned abuses in society - against social injustice
                      Condemned the rich for causing the suffering of the poor
                      Denounced luxuries as worthless
                      Called for a rededication of Jews to God
                            To live justly
                            Share with one's neighbors
                                  Care for the poor
                                  Act with compassion
                      If not followed the community was threatened
                Helped Jews to retain their religious culture during exile
          Synagogues - developed from meetings on the Sabbath for prayer and study
     539 B.C. - Persians conquered the Chaldeans
          King Cyrus the Great allowed the Jews to return to Judah and to rebuild the Temple
    515 B.C. - rebuilt temple finished
    400s B.C. - Jewish holy writings were organized into the Torah
          This is the period when the Bible was recorded as written history instead of oral.
          Made up of the first five books of the Bible
          Judah remained under Persian control until Alexander the Great defeated the Persians in the 4th c B.C.
          Diaspora - scattered - communities of Jews continued to live outside the homeland
18. Name the empire that conquered the twelve tribes.
19. Name the empire that replaced Assyria and destroyed the temple, taking the Jews captive.
    Babylonian Empire
20. Name the king that took them captive – this is the period when the Bible was recorded as written history instead of oral.
    King Nebuchadnezzar
21. Name the Persian king that allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple.
    Cyrus the Great
A Lasting Legacy
    Jews saw all events as having a God-directed purpose
          They recorded history and examined it for meaning
          They believed
                That God created the Universe
                He ruled all peoples
                He created nature - his handiwork
                      Not separate gods to be worshipped
                Taught that history is determined by God's plan
                      That humans have infinite worth
                      That humans work in partnership with God
          Goal - to achieve a perfect world
                Prophet Micah - goal to eliminate war - to bring peace to the world
          "Prophets" spread the word of God
                People are accountable for what happens in the world
          Judaism survived because it was so adaptable (borrowed a lot)
    Jewish religious and ethical beliefs spread and became an important heritage of the West
    The Aramaeans
          Settled in central Syria around 1200 B.C.
          Capital - Damascus
                Controlled trade between Egypt and Mesopotamia
                Spread their language - Aramaic
          Majority of people in Fertile Crescent spoke Aramaic
                Related to
          Some parts of the Bible were written in Aramaic
II. Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent (pp. 88-91)
Setting the Stage
     Assyria developed a military machine – conquered an empire
A. A Mighty Military Machine
     Assyria built a large empire using
          Sophisticated military organization
          State-of-the-art weaponry
The Rise of a Warrior People
     The Assyrians
          Lived in northern Mesopotamia – lacked natural barriers – had to learn military response to survive
          About 900 B.C. became strong enough to repel attacks from the west
          Launched attacks on Mesopotamian neighbors
Military Organization and Conquest
     A Powerful Army – society glorified military strength - militarism
     Division of army into units
          Foot soldiers
                Fought with iron weapons and arrows
                Used battering rams against walled cities
                Used ladders to scale the walls
                Used pontoons to support bridges across rivers
                Sappers - used tunnels to undermine the foundations of walls in order to cause them to collapse
                Fast-moving cavalry
     Reputation for cruelty
          Burned cities
          Tortured and killed thousands of captives
          Deported entire populations from their homelands
          Forced settlers to pay heavy taxes
B. An Expanding Empire
     Captured all of the Fertile Crescent and Egypt
Assyrian Rule
     By 650 B.C. governed empire stretching from
          Persian Gulf
          To Egypt
          Into Asia Minor
     Divided empire into provinces
          Each headed by a governor responsible directly to the king
          Tax collectors - support the army
Assyrian Culture
     Building projects
          Capital – Nineveh
                Large library – King Ashurbanipal
          Improve communications - network of roads linking provinces
     Conquered people continually rebelled weakening empire
4. Name the empire that based its rule on brutal military force and conquered all of the Fertile Crescent including Egypt.
5. Name their capital.
C. The Empire Crumbles
Decline and Fall
          612 B.C. - Chaldeans allied with the Medes defeated the empire
Rebirth of Babylon Under the Chaldeans
     The Chaldeans
         Descended from the people of Hammurabi's Babylonian Empire
         King Nebuchadnezzar - (605 - 562 B.C.)
               Height of their empire
               Boundaries as far west as Syria and Canaan
               Conquered Jerusalem and Tyre
               Rebuilt Babylon with his great wealth
               Noted for interest in astrology
                    Mapped the stars
                    Laid the foundation for astronomy
               Nebuchadnezzar was followed by a series of weak kings
               Poor harvests and slow trade also weakened the empire
               Severe taxes weakened it further
               539 B.C. - the Persians seized Babylon - led by Cyrus II
         The Seven Wonders of the World - two built by Nebuchadnezzar
               The Hanging Gardens
                    For his wife - Amuhia
                    The gardens are also associated with the mythical Assyrian queen Semiramis.
               Constructed on several levels
                    Atop a vaulted building
                    Terraces rose from 75 to 300 feet
                    Designed to be visible from any point in the city
                    Fed by water pumped from a nearby river
               The Walls of Babylon
                    Surrounded the city with a 50 foot high wall
                    With watchtowers every 100 yards
                    Four horse chariots could ride around atop the wall
                    Seven tiered ziggurat – 300 feet high was located at the center of the city
               The other five Wonders of the Ancient World
                    The Pyramids of Egypt: Khufu (Cheops), Kafra, and Menkaura at Giza
                          Largest pyramid had an original estimated height of 482 feet (147 meters)
                          With a base of 755 feet (230 meters) on each side
                          Estimated date of construction is 2800 B.C.
                          Of the Seven Wonders, only the Pyramids survive
                    Statue of Zeus at Olympia
                          Built fifth century B.C.
                          Gold and ivory; 40 feet (12 meters) high
                    Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
                          Begun about 350 B.C.
                          In honor of Diana
                          Temple with columns 60 feet (18 meters) high
                    Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
                          Erected by Queen Artemisia
                          In memory of her husband, King Mausolus
                          Built about 350 B.C.
                    Colossus of Rhodes
                          Bronze statue of Helios (Apollo)
                          About 120 feet (37 meters) high
                          Took 12 years to complete
                          Destroyed by an earthquake in 224 B.C.
6.   Name the Chaldean king of the Babylonian Empire who built the famous hanging gardens of Babylon.
     The Hittites
         Around 2000 BCE
         From beyond the Black Sea
         Settled in Asia Minor - Anatolia - central plateau
               By 1650 B.C. - well organized kingdom
               Capital - Hattusas
         First army to use iron weapons extensively
               Three person chariots instead of two
         Conquered Babylon - 1595 B.C.
         Empire lasted until 1200 B.C.
                Borrowed cultures of Egypt and Mesopotamia
     Softened Hammurabi's Code with fines instead of harsher punishments
III. Persia Unites Many Lands (pp. 92-96)
Setting the Stage – The Persians ruled with tolerance, diplomacy and wise government
A. The Rise of Persia
7. Name the empire that based its rule on tolerance and diplomacy.
The Persian Homeland
     Originated from Indo-Europeans
          Warriors and cattle herders
          Persians and Medes left central Asia about 2000 B.C.
          Settled on a plateau between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea
     Present day Iran
Cyrus the Great Founds an Empire
     550-539 B.C. - Cyrus conquered the entire Fertile Crescent defeating the Medes
                Northern Mesopotamia
                The Kingdom of Lydia
                And the Greek city-states in Asia Minor
          Enduring legacy – method of ruling – wise and tolerant view of empire
                No burning or looting
                Honored local customs and religions

8.  Who was the king of this empire who allowed the Jews to return to Palestine and rebuild the temple?
B. Persian Rule and Religion
Cambyses and Darius
    525 B.C. - Cambyses (Cyrus's son) captured Egypt
          Failed to use his father’s policies – his reign was short
    Darius I - best organizer among the Persian kings (522 - 486 B.C.)
          Ten Thousand Immortal – personal bodyguard
          Controlled all of the Middle East
          Persian Empire stretched from the Nile to the Indus River
               3000 miles
          Ruled more than 50 million people
          Failed to defeat the Greeks
9. Name the Persian king who controlled all of the Middle East, but failed to conquer Greece.
Provinces and Satrap
    Four tools helped Persian to hold their empire together
    Compared to the Assyrians - Persians were tolerant
    Provinces - divided the realm into 20 administrative provinces
          Nationalities – conquered peoples retained homelands
               Allowed to keep
          This won them loyalty among the conquered peoples
          Loyalty won by fairness rather than from fear or force
    Satraps - provincial governors assigned to rule
          Assisted by military officials and tax inspectors
               Chosen by the king
               From among the conquered people
          Inspectors called "eyes and ears of the king" made unannounced visits and reported straight to the king
               Enabled the king to watch over the governors
          When faced with rebellion - Persians were willing to be extreme
    Royal Road
          System of road to unite the empire
          Darius improved and expanded on the road system built by the Assyrians
           Longest and most important – royal road - 1500 miles
           Stations built every 14 miles
                 Fresh horses
           Royal messengers could travel the road in 7 days
           Had taken 3 months
     Money System using coins
           The Lydians
                 Lived in Asia Minor - the peninsula between the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas
                 By late 600s B.C. - wealthy independent kingdom
                 Famous for gold deposits
           Most traders depended on a system of barter - exchanging their wares for other goods
           Lydians developed a money system using coins as a medium of exchange
                 They set prices based on this system
                 Greek and Persian rulers copied the system
                      Coined their own money
           Persians did not engage in trade
                 Considered it indecent
                 Encouraged conquered peoples of the empire to trade
     4 capital cities
           Persepolis - Most impressive city in the Empire
10. List four tools that helped administer this huge empire.
     Provinces – national rule
     Satraps – Governors
     Royal Road
     Standardized Coins – money
11. What civilization developed the first money?
Persian Religion
     Before 500 B.C. worshiped many gods
     570 B.C. - Zoroaster called for religious reform
           World was divided into a struggle between good and evil - "dualism"
                 The god - Ahura Mazda - led the forces of truth - light - good
                 Ahriman - led the forces of darkness - evil
           Last Judgment - separation of good and evil at the end of time
                 All humans were caught up in this struggle – had free will to pick sides
                 At the end of time good would defeat evil
                 Those who chose good would receive eternal life - Paradise
                 Those who chose evil would be condemned to eternal darkness and misery – the fiery pit - Hell
           Avesta - book containing Zoroaster's teachings
                 Zoraster's teachings may have shaped beliefs in the Mediterranean as well
                      Stressed that a messiah would come
                 May have influenced
           Darius chose to follow Ahura Mazda - sought to be good
                 Persian monarchy was linked to these teachings
                 Monarchy was viewed as a sacred institution
                 Symbols of respect - ceremony surrounded the institution
                 This style of kingship shaped development of monarchies in the Western World
12. Name the Persian religion that viewed the world as a battle between light (good) and darkness (evil).
     It included a judgment day with heaven and hell.
The Persian Legacy
     Darius waged war with the Greeks for control of Asia Minor
     Xerxes (Darius's son) attempted to conquer Greece in 480 B.C.
           He was defeated
            This stopped Persian expansion into Europe
      Persian Religion and Culture
            Strict moral code stressed
      Other aspects of Persian culture mixed with Greek culture when Alexander the Great absorbed Persia in the 300s B.C.
13. What do we call the process of spreading new ideas or products from one civilization to another?
      Cultural Diffusion
Chapter 8 – African Civilizations – 1500 BC – 500 AD
Main Idea – Although the first African civilizations emerged along the Nile River in northern Africa, other cultures were
developing south of the Sahara Desert. African peoples developed diverse societies as they adapted to varied environments.
I.    Diverse Societies in Africa (Theme – ID - Neolithic Revolution) (pp. 193-198)
Setting the Stage - The most powerful force in Africa’s experience is the environment
      The first area to be inhabited by man – the last area to become truly livable
I. Early Africa
      -Northern Africa was dominated by the Muslims
         -In the 14th century, the Berbers came to dominate
         -Gibraltar to Tigris empire
      -In Sub-Sahara Africa, advanced civilizations developed there, only to be all but destroyed by the Middle Ages
       -Small, ind. agricultural villages the norm,
        "stateless" societies bound by kinship or ethnicity
       -Early civilizations developed along the Nile: Kush Kingdom, Axum (Ethiopia)
       -In the 7th century, Arab Muslims began conquering much of Africa, almost all of N. Africa, made inroads in Sub-Sahara
      few written records
      oral traditions - legends and history passed by word of mouth from one generation to another
      archaeologists using artifacts have discovered that African cultures developed technologies and trade based on regional
      natural resources
      where rainfall was plentiful
      near lakes
      along rivers like the Nile
A. A Land of Geographic Contrasts
      1. Worlds second largest continent - 3 times the size of the US – 20% of the earth’s land surface
      2. Elevation like a plate turned upside down - Isolation
            Narrow coastlines – 50-100 miles – on either side of a central plateau
                  Waterfalls and rapids form as rivers drop from the plateau to the coast making inland navigation impossible
                  Few harbors, ports, or inlets
                  Coastline actually shorter than that of Europe!
      3. Africa straddles the equator – most of the continent is in the tropics
                  Steamy coastal plains
                  Snow-capped mountains
                  Deserts – constant drought
                  Jungles – 400+ inches of rain/year
                  Fertile river valleys
      4. Regions of Africa
            Five regions based on location and environment
            North Africa
            East Africa
            West Africa
            Central Africa
            Southern Africa
From Deserts to Rain Forests
      Areas largely uninhabitable – unable to form civilizations in these areas
      Deserts –40% of Africa
            Sahara – north - roughly the size of the US
                  Mostly flat gray wasteland – scattered rocks and gravel
                  Small area of sand dunes
            Kalahari – south
      Rain Forests – 5% of Africa
            Stretches across the middle of Africa
From Fertile Farmlands to Grassy Plains
Fertile Farmlands - isolated
     North Africa
           Thin coastal plain bordering the Mediterranean Sea
                 Mild temperatures
                 Frequent rainfall
           North of the Inland desert - Sahara - world's largest desert
                 Separated from the rest of Africa
                 Culture influenced more by Europe and the Middle East
           Densely populated with farmers and herders
     South Africa – south of the Kalahari Desert – also isolated
           Similar conditions to northern Africa
Savannas – grassy plains – 40% of Africa
     Largest number of people live here
     Dry seasons alternate with rain seasons – usually two of each/year
     Thin topsoil – will support agriculture
The Sahel
     Located south of the Sahara – means coastline
     Receives moderate rainfall
     A great central plateau - relatively high flat area
     Desertification – steady process of drying of the soil – causes the desert to spread
B. Early Humans Adapt to Their Environments
Nomadic Lifestyle
Transition to a Settled Lifestyle
Africans Share Common Characteristics
C. Early Societies in West Africa
West Africa
     the Sahel
     a narrow coastal plain with a relatively unbroken coastline
     major rivers are difficult to navigate
     the Niger
     the Zaire / Congo
     few natural harbors
     this led to isolation
     made foreign invasions difficult in some areas
The Nok Culture
     700 B.C. - 200 B.C. - the Nok - West African culture established itself
     Niger and Benue River valleys
     archaeological evidence
     terra-cotta (baked clay) figurines
     iron hoes
     iron ax-heads
     iron farming tools led to increased food production (cause - effect)
     this led to increased population
     over time arable land became scarce
     this caused widespread food shortages
     this led to migration from West Africa by small groups
     movement into less populated areas occurred over a thousand year period
II. The Kingdom of Aksum and East African Trade (Theme – ID - Neolithic Revolution) (pp. 199-202)
Main Idea – The kingdom of Aksum became an international trading power and adopted Christianity – today Ethiopia
Setting the Stage – Kush conquered Egypt
A. The Rise of the Kingdom of Aksum
Nubia and Kush
     3,000 B.C. - Kingdom of Nubia established
     southern part of the Nile River valley
     present day Sudan
     mastered the bow and arrow
     conquered neighboring communities in the Nile Valley
     maintained close contact with Egypt
     tombs from Nubian kings have been similar to those found in Egypt from the same period
     political ideas - like monarchy
     objects like boats, eating utensils
     2,000 B.C. - Kingdom of Kush developed
     defeated by Egypt and ruled by them for 500 years
     Egyptian soldiers were stationed there
     location - on the Nile developed a strong trade economy
     major cities located along trade routes from the African interior - gave the area wealth
     Napata - capital
     sandstone temples
     pyramids similar in style to Egyptians
     elephant tusks
     1,000 B.C. - Kush broke away from Egypt
     became independent
     724 B.C. - King Piankhi
     invaded Egypt
     defeated and ruled them from Napata
     671 B.C. - Assyrians invaded Egypt - defeated Kushites
     Kushites - bronze weapons
     Assyrians - iron weapons
     Kushites returned home learned the technology of making iron
     new capital - Meroe
     iron production center
     trade with the Mediterranean and Red Sea regions
     leopard skins
     also traded with the Indian Ocean area
     Kushite kingdom thrived for another 150 years
     Axum - Red Sea kingdom invaded Kush and ended their domination of northeastern Africa
Aksum Controls International Trade
     location on the Rea Sea made it a trading power
     200s B.C. - trade entered the main seaport of Adulis from
     cotton cloth
     olive oil
     Axum absorbed many elements of Roman culture
A Strong Ruler Expands the Kingdom
     330 A.D. - King Ezana - converted the kingdom to Christianity
     two shipwrecked Christians from Syria
B. A Cosmopolitan Culture Develops
     rescued and brought to Axum
     convinced the king to convert
The Spread of Christianity
     The rise of Islam led to the decline of Axum - 600s A.D.
     Axum's rulers set up the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia
Aksumite Architecture
     Stelae - tall slender columns to mark graves of royals
Language and Agriculture
C. The Fall of Aksum
East Africa
     the Sahel
     the Great Rift Valley
     40 miles wide
     2,000 feet deep
     runs 3,000 miles - north-south
     from the Red Sea
     all the way to Southern Africa
     two mountain peaks east of the rift
     Mount Kenya
     Mount Kilimanjaro
     Africa's highest mountain

III. Migration – Bantu-Speaking Peoples (Theme – ID - Neolithic Revolution) (pp. 203-205)
Main Idea –
Setting the Stage -
A. Migrations Through History
B. Massive Migrations
Bantu Culture
      those who migrated shared Bantu language
      Bantu-speaking people became the dominant group in sub-Saharan Africa
      Stateless societies, but very diverse
Effects of the Migration
2. Village Life
      subsistence farming
      100s of ethnic groups - population small
      Matrilineal groups - traced their descent through mothers rather than fathers
      Women subordinate
      age sets - groups of males and females of similar age who were assigned specific tasks appropriate to their age group
      adulthood - 12 years old
      Extended families
      Judicial system based on "trial by wood"
      Slavery common (well before the Europeans)
3. Religious Beliefs
      Belief in a single supreme God - Dualistic System - good/evil
      God rewarded those who followed social rules
      God punished those who violated tradition
      Polytheistic - belief in many lesser gods
      natural gods
      Religious beliefs and family loyalty provided stability
      based on ancestor worship
      used rituals and "diviners" to communicate with the dead
      Islam became common throughout the region
4. The Arts
      wood carvings, metal working
      Sculpture - figures and masks
      Music woven into everyday life
      motivation and rhythm for various tasks
      dance and music reflected African religious beliefs
      Oral literature

III. African Trading Cities and States
A. East Africa
      trade contacts with Middle East
      strong Islamic influences
1. Coastal City-States - trading centers - trade with Muslims
      Kilwa - virtual monopoly of gold trade with the interior
      Great Mosque of Kilwa - built of coral stone
     Husuni Palace - more than 100 rooms
     considered one of the most advanced cities in the known world 1331
     Portuguese sacked city in 1505
     imports from China and India
     Mogadishu (Somalia)
     Island of Zanzibar
2. Blending of Cultures
     African and Islamic cultures mixed - with Muslim culture dominating
     Swahili - a Bantu language that mixed African, Arabic and Persian words
     Built fabulous cities
     with stone mosques and palaces
     adorned with gold and ivory
B. The Bantu Kingdoms
     Bantu Kingdoms of Central and Southern Africa were rich in copper and gold
     Stateless societies - group of independent villages that were organized by clans and ruled by a local chieftan
     eventually developed into Zimbabwe
1. Great Zimbabwe
     Karanga - kingdom located between Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers
     built 300 stone-walled fortresses
     1000 - 1500 A.D.
     the largest of these fortresses was called the Great Zimbabwe
     means "stone house"
     political and religious center of the kingdom
     walls 30 feet high - 800 feet long - The Great Enclosure
2. Territorial Divisions
      1400s - Civil wars erupted between rival factions
     interrupted trade and weakened South Africa even before the Europeans arrived
     In the 15th century, the Europeans came into Africa’s history,
     exploited it
     some 10m taken as slaves
     plus half as many had already been taken by the Muslims
     The effects of their coming: rivalries intensified
     Europeans played tribe against tribe
     fragmentation politically (uniting unlikely)
During the Age of Imperialism, Africa would be almost totally dominated by the Europeans!