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AFFECT by wanghonghx

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									MOOD DISORDERS

AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
    DEPRESSION
       MANIA
        DEPRESSION
 MOST COMMON
 PERSON FEELS OVERWHELMED
  WITH SADNESS, GRIEF, AND GUILT
 CANNOT EXPERIENCE PLEASURE
  FROM ACTIVITIES THAT THEY ONCE
  ENJOYED AND ARE TIRED AND
  APATHETIC (SOMETIMES TO THE
  POINT OF BEIGN UNABLE TO MAKE
  THE SIMPLEST EVERYDAY
  DECISIONS
         DEPRESSION
 MAY FEEL THAT THEY HAVE FAILED
  UTTERLY IN LIFE, AND THEY TEND
  TO BLAME THEMSELVES FOR THEIR
  PROBLEMS
 SERIOUS:
    • INSOMNIA, LOSS OF INTEREST IN FOOD
      AND SEX
    • TROUBLE THINKING AND
      CONCENTRATING (EX. DIFFICULT TO READ
      A NEWSPAPER)
              DEPRESSION
   VERY SERIOUS:
      • CONTEMPLATION OF SUCIDE
   CLINICAL DEPRESSION AND
    NORMAL DEPRESSION AND
    SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER
      • SAD
   MELANCHOLIA (MILD DEPRESSION,
    FEELING SAD ALL THE TIME)
              DEPRESSION
   DSYTHIMIA (DEPRESSIVE NEUROSIS)
      • CHRONIC DISTURBANCES IN MOOD (NOT ALL
        THE TIME. VARIOUS TIMES DURING THE DAY)
      • CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS ==IRRITABLE
        MOST OF THE DAY OR DAYS. 2 YEAR PERIOD
        NEVER WITHOUT DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS
      • EXPLAINS SOME CONTIUOUS ANGER IN SOME
        TEENS
   CYCLOTHYMIA (CHRONIC MOOD
    DISTURBANCE
        DEPRESSION
 2 YEARS
 NUMEROUS HYPOMANIC AND
  DEPRESSIVE EPISODES (NOT
  QUITE MANIC)
 LOSS OF INTEREST OR PLEASURE
  (NOT ENOUGH FOR MAJOR
  DEPRESSION
 PEOPLE NOTICE DIFFERENCE
        DEPRESSION
 MEDICATIONS
 TRYCYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS
    • AMITRIPTYLINE   ELAVIL
    • DESPRAMINE      NORPRAMINE
    • DOXEPIN     SINEQUAN
    • IMIPRAMINE      TOFRANIL
    • NORTRIPTYLINE   PAMELOR
       DEPRESSION
 MEDICATION
 SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE
  INHIBITORS
     • AMOXAPINE   ASENDIN
     • FLUOXETINE  PROZAC
     • MAPROTILINE LUDIOMIL
     • TRAZADONE   DESYREL
       DEPRESSION
 MEDICATION
 MAO INHIBITORS
    • ISCARBOXAZID    MARPLAN
    • PHENELZINE      NARDIL
    • TRANYLCYPROMINE PARNATE
                MANIA
   A MOOD DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY:
   EUPHORIC STATES, EXTREME PHYSICAL
    ACTIVITY, EXCESSIVE TALKATIVENESS,
    DISTRACTEDNESS, AND SOMETIMES
    GRANDIOSITY.
   BECOME HYPERACTIVE
   MANICS OFTEN HAVE UNLIMITED HOPES
    AND SCHEMES, BUT HAVE LITTLE
    INTEREST IN CARRYING THEM OUT
    REALISTICALLY.
                   MANIA
   SOMETIMES AGGRESSIVE AND HOSTILE
    TOWARD OTHERS AS SELF CONFIDENCE
    BECOMES MORE AND MORE
    EXAGGERATED.
   EXTRTEMES:
      • BECOME WILD; INCOMPREHENSIBLE, VIOLENT,
        THEN COLLAPSE FROM EXHAUSTION
   MANIC EPISODES (NOT ALWAYS)
    SOMETIMES ALTERNATE WITH
    DEPRESSION
       MANIC DEPRESSIVE
           BIPOLAR
   DEPRESSION AND MANIA BY THEMSELVES AE
    USUALLY IN PHASES (MONOPHASIC AND
    UNIPOLAR) COMBINED THEY BECOME MANIC
    DEPRESSIVE (BIPHASIC AND BIIPOLOAR)
   BIPOLAR DISORDER
   MOOD DISORDER IN WHICH PERIODS OF MANIA
    AND DEPRESSION ALTERNATE, SOMETIMES
    WITH PERIODS OF NORMAL MOOD
    INTERVENING
   BEGINS WITH MANIC EPISODE, PERIODS OF
    MANIA AND DEPRESSION (FEW DAYS OR
    MONTHS)
               BIPOLAR
   MILD FORM: SOMETIMES, ALTERNATIN
    MOOD OF UNREALISTICALLY HIGH
    SPIRITS FOLLOWED BY MODERATE
    DEPRESSION
   BIPOLAR DISORDER IS DIFFERENT
    – BIPOLAR IS MUCH LESS COMMON
    – EQUAL IN MEN AND WOMEN (UNLIKE
      DEPRESSSION)
    – STRONGER BIOLOGICAL COMPONENT TH AN
      DEPRESSION
    – LINKED TO HEREDITY
    – MOST OFTEN TREATED BY MEANS OF
      DRUGS “LITHIUM”
       PERSPECTIVES ON
     AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
   PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
   FREUD SAID DEPRESSION IS EXCESSIVE AND
    IRRATIONAL GRIEF. HE BELIEVED SOURCE OF
    GRIEF WAS TO BE FOUND IN THE INDIVIDUAL’S
    RELATIONSHIP WITH THE PERSON ON WHOM
    HE OR SHE WAS MOST DEPENDENT AS A CHILD
   DEPRESSION RESULTS FROM DISTRUBANCE IN
    THE EARLY RELATIONSHIP USUALLY REAL OR
    IMAGINED.
   EX. LOSS OF A PARENT…LOSS PROVOKES
    INTENSE ANGER AND ANXIETY THAT IS
    “REPRESSED”
           PERSPECTIVES
   AN EVENT OR “STIMULUS” CAN TRIGGER THE
    ANXIETY; IN DEFENSE, PERSON CAN IDENTIFY
    WITH LOST PERSON.
   BEHAVIOR THEORY
   THERE IS A DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
    DEPRESSION AND LACK OF REINFORCEMENT
   COGNITIVE THEORY
   ALSO RESTS ON IDEA OF DEPRESSION IS
    LEARNED BEHAVIOR
   COGNITIVE THEORIST PUT MORE EMPHASIS ON
    THOUGHT PROCESSES THAT THE PERSON HAS
    DEVELOPED AS A RESULT OF HIS OR HER
    EXPERIENCES

           PERSPECTIVES OF
    AARON BECK DESCRIBES SEVERAL KINDS
    ILLOGICAL THINKING, THESE ARE “CONITIVE
    DISTRTIONS”
   “DURING CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
    SOME PEOPLE UNDERGO SUCH WRENCHING
    ESPERIENCES AS THE LOSS OF A PARENT,
    SEVERE DIFFICULTIES IN GAINING PARENTAL
    OR SOCIAL APPROVAL, OR HUMILIATING
    CRITICISM FROM TEACHERS AND OTHER
    ADULTS. ONE RESPONSE TO SUCH
    EXPERIENCE IS TO DEVELOP A NEGATIVE SELF-
    CONCEPT ---A FEELING OF INCOMPETENCE OR
    UNWORTHINESS THAT HAS LITTLE TO DO WITH
    REALITY BUT THAT IS MAINTAINED BY
    DISTORTED AND ILLOGICAL INTERPRETATION
    OF REAL EVENTS”.
           PERSPECTIVES
   ARBITRARY INFERENCE---INDIVIDUAL ARRIVES
    AT A SWEEPING CONCLUSION ABOUT HIMSELF
    OR HERSELF DESPITE THE SCARCITY OR
    ABSENCE OF EVIDENCE.
   EX. CAR WON’T START, PERSON FEELS IT’S
    THEIR FAULT ETC.
   SELECTIVE ABSTRACTION---INDIVIDUAL
    ARRIVES AT A CONCLUSION BASED ON ONLY
    ONE OF NUMEROUS FACTORS INFLUENCING A
    SITUDATION
   EX. ATHLETE MISSES BASKET AND BLAMES
    HIMSELF FOR POOR ABILITY OF TEAM OR LOSS
           PERSPECITVES
   OVERGENERALIZATION---INDIVIDUAL ARRIVES
    AT A SWEEPING CONCLUSION BASED ON A
    SINGLE, SOMETIMES TRIVIAL EVENT.
   EX. FLUNK A QUIZ, THINK GOING TO FLUNK
    THE COURSE.
   MAGNIFICATION AND MINIMIZATION---
    INDIVIDUAL TENDS TO MAGNIFY DIFFICULTIES
    AND FAILURES WHILE MINIMIZING
    ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND SUCCESSES.
   EX. MAN DRIVES FOR 20 YEARS WITH A
    SPOTLESS RECORD AND BUMPS INTO
    ANOTHER CAR. EVEN NO DAMAGE, BEGINS TO
    THINK HE IS A TERRIBLE DRIVER.
           PERSPECTIVES
   BIOLOGICAL THEORY
   GENETIC FACTORS PLAY AND IMPORTANT
    ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEPRESSION,
    (PARTICULARLY BIPOLAR).
   RELATIVES OF THOSE WITH BIPOLAR
    DISORDER DISPLAY HIGHER RATES OF
    BIPOLAR AND UNIPOLAR (SIMPLE DEPRESSION)
    THAN DID RELATIVES OF UNIPOLAR PATIENTS.
   SOME BIOLOGICAL DEFECTS CAUSE
    DEPRESSION IN SOME PEOPLE ESPECIALLY
    WHEN UNDER STRESS (NEURTRANSMITTER
    IMBALANCE)

								
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