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VIEWS: 141 PAGES: 35

slides from lecture given winter 2009

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									Today‟s Lecture:

Forming Government

Number:

9

Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements

• Introduction • Colonial Governing Structures • Post-Colonial Governing Structures • Forming American Government • Significance of The New Experiment

Class Announcements

new website features -- I‟ve put some new features on your web pages. Go the course page to see them -- [explain the new features and why you did it]

Class Announcements

test -- here is what I‟m inclined to do: -- exam is February 11th -- two options: (a) can take half of it then, the other half on Friday 13th (b) can take half of it then and do the essay -- if you do the essay, handed out Feb 4th, consult with me on that Friday about it, given back for reforms

Questions?

Introduction

what we are doing today -- why American government looks the way it does -- why the institutions are configured the way they are

Colonial Governing Structures
Early Virginia (1600s) What kind of government? • a corporation not a “state” -- 1608 (Jamestown) was settled by a corporation (Virginia Company) looking to make money.

-- when that failed, England had to impose a governing structure

Colonial Governing Structures
Early Virginia (1600s) What kind of government?

-- King sends over a Royal Governor to govern the colony
-- no salary is given -- The colonists have to raise money to pay the Governor‟s salary

-- An assembly of the Burgess is called

Colonial Governing Structures
Early Georgia Social Experimentation -- founded as a “poor colony” in 1732 by James Oglethorpe -- he wanted to create a colony only for the “deserving poor” (cure them of their flaws) Government: • no legislature!

• Oglethorpe and his people rant the colony as “Trustees”

Colonial Governing Structures
Early New England Puritan settlements -- 1620: puritans in England create a corporation -- Arrive in 1630 in what is Boston Harbor today. Government: -- Company president is the Governor -- The Board of Directors is the “General Court” Supreme Court & Legislature

Colonial Governing Structures
Early Carolinas Political Experimentation -- mixture between those wanting to make a profit from the territory & political radicals wanting to experiment -- they put together a corporate group called the “Carolina Proprietors” (the “Lord Proprietors”)

Colonial Governing Structures
Early Carolinas Political Experimentation -- John Locke is asked to draft a constitution for the Carolinas -- He wants to do something radical:

• create a society without a monarch
… here is what he came up with

Elite Body Strange entity (Cabinet?)

Palatine Court
Supreme Court AND Congress Passes Laws AND Interprets them Composed of the 8 proprietors Corporate Board of Directors?

“The People”

Grand Council
Small in number – (Privy Council)
Propose Legislation

Assembly
Popularly Elected Veto Power!

Question: What Power do you think the Assembly had?
12

1/26/2009

Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

Colonial Governing Structures
the “standard” governments -- colonies eventually came to adopt very similar forms of government (that imitated England)

The Structure of Colonial Governance Congress or Parliament

Royal Governor England!
Appointed by Crown; Governor had Veto

General Court
Supreme Court; Upper House

Assembly

“the people” (property qualifications) (Males) (Free)
14

Executive Council
Cabinet
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Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

Governance from England
THE KING THE PARLIAMENT

King’s Veto

Privy Council

Colonial Local Government
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Post-Colonial Governing Structures
the new state governments -- states begin begin making up their own plans of governance after the Declaration of Independence (and during the war)

Post-Colonial Governing Structures
the new state governments cultural confusion -- which model to follow? • A parliamentary system where the Congress is the boss and where no oligarchic institutions are above „the house of commons?‟

Parliamentary System
Center of all legitimacy
Legislature

JUDICIARY

PRESIDENT

• “clerk”
• Discharges statutory law Cabinet

Bureaus

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

18

Post-Colonial Governing Structures
the new state governments cultural confusion -- which model to follow? • A system of government that mixed “the people‟s house” with other oligarchic and royal-looking institutions

Quote from Gordon Wood -The taking of the powers of the royal governors away and giving them to the lower house of the legislature “led some Americans, like Richard Henry Lee, to note that their new [state] governments were „very much of a democratic kind,‟ although „a Governor and a second branch of legislation are admitted.‟ In 1776 many still [referred to] … „democracy‟ as ... rule by the people solely in the lower houses of legislatures; the presence of aristocratic senates and monarchlike governors made the state constitutions not simple democracies but mixed governments like that of England.
-- source: Gordon Wood, American Revolution, 68-69

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

20

The Upper House -All of the states except Pennsylvania, Georgia and the new state of Vermont provided for upper houses or senates, the designation taken from Roman history. The people in most of the states elected the senators; others were appointed.
-- source: Gordon Wood, American Revolution, 70

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

21

Post-Colonial Governing Structures
most states = weak executives -- because of their experience with royal governors (and George III), most colonies had constructed weak executives -- examples of the kinds of terms you might find in state constitutions: • e.g., one year terms • elected by the legislature • ineligible for re-election

• stripped of power
1/18/2007

• forced to share power with executive councils or boards
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

22

Post-Colonial Governing Structures
most states = weak executives Plural executive More than one executive -Pennsylvania -• “Supreme Executive Council” • 3 people; one year staggered terms • Ben Franklin … conceptualizing
1/18/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 23

President
• Plural Executive?

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Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

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Post-Colonial Governing Structures
New York Governor This was the exception. •Elected for a comparatively long (3 year) term •No term limit •Directly elected •Commander in chief •Can call legislature into special session •Grants reprieves and pardons •Informs legislature on state of the state
1/18/2007
(C) Copyright •Recommends legislation Sean Wilson. 2007. 25

Post-Colonial Governing Structures
Articles of Confederation -- a treaty more than a “government.” (a league of friendship) -- states still sovereign -- proposed in 1777 and ratified in 1781

-- governing structure …

• Not Elected;

States

States

• Not really “Legislators”

States

• They can be fired

• They can be told what to vote for

States

Appoint Delegates

• Their boss is the States State Government

• They are more like “lawyers” serving a client

States

States
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States
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The “Delegates” meet in a “Congress”
One House Legislature

“Unicameral”

JUDICIARY • insignificant institution e.g., maritime disputes Bureaus

PRESIDENT

• “clerk”
President of the Senate Cabinet

“Parliamentary Model”
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Forming American Government
Virginia Plan -- Drafted by Madison before the convention ever met -- It was a Parliamentary government that would have subjugated the States into “districts” of the federal parliamentary sovereign

Virginia Plan • All power emanates from the “The People” people assembled by delegates in their House

Parliamentary System! Bicameral Congress
HOUSE SENATE

JUDICIARY

PRESIDENT

Note the significance: CABINET Council • states are like of revision Note the composition: districts • president Govern (Veto) • superior/subordinate THE • supreme court members STATES relationship note: But also
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??

Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

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Forming American Government
New Jersey Plan -- Virginia Plan was objected to by the “small states” and by those who did not want as vigorous of a federal structure -- Sherman of New Jersey presented his alternative to it – the New Jersey Plan

New Jersey Plan Recall Powers!
JUDICIARY

GOVERNORS

SENATE

“Unicameralism” Plural Executive
States are equal Veto power

The States

What can this creature do? Limited Government!
• Could levy some taxes • Could regulate commerce

1/26/2009

Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

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Forming American Government
Hamilton Plan -- Hamilton wanted a limited monarchy and a president that served for life -- (made Madison‟s plan not look so bad)

Forming American Government
The Great Compromise -- Was proposed by Sherman and Ben Franklin -- The eventual plan that came to pass …

The American Experiment

Selects Composition Bicameral Assembly
PRESIDENT SENATE HOUSE JUDICIARY

ELECTORAL COLLEGE

Note the significance: “Extendedequal and • Limited Government” What can this creature do? independent • the “laundry list” franchise • Mention De Tocqueville

??
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STATES
1/26/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007


								
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