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Regionalism Powered By Docstoc
  Structure and Objectives of
          the Lecture
• Section One: Definitions of region. Draw
  distinction between regionalisation and
• Section Two: Look at pre-history or
  regionalism, the „old regionalism‟ (EU)
  and post-war third world regionalism
• Section Three: Introduction to the new
  wave of regionalism. The renaissance
  of EU project and new third regionalism
• Section Four: Contemporary EU
• Section Five: Contemporary Asia
• Section Six: Contemporary Africa
• Section Seven: Contemporary
• Section Eight (Conclusions): Draw out
  the main features of contemporary
  regionalism and draw in relevance of
  Amin arguments
            Section One
• How do we define the region?
• In a sense it has a physical meaning but
  the concrete form that region takes is
  socially determined
• Turkey and Europe
• APEC (Half the World!)
• Australia and Asia
• To say socially constructed leaves open
  the question of what primarily forces in
  that construction
• Constructivists/ Post-Modernists focus
  on culture, the construction of identity
• I would suggest that Economic logics
  (and geo-politics) are the master.
• Look at Poland!
• Look at Europe and Africa!
• Little sense of collective European
  identity yet success!
• In a sense arguing that geo-politics and
  economic regionalisation are key to
  success of political regionalism
• What mean by economic regionalisation
  is the extent to which a regional
  economy actually exists or the extent
  material basis for the development of
  economic actually exists
• Relationship between regionalisation
  and regionalism is complex
• Regionalisation without formal political
  co-operation is possible (Labour
  Movements across US border)
• Taiwan and China
• However, in most regionalisation involve
  some level of conscious political
• „Asia in Japan‟s Embrace‟
• Asian Development Bank, Overseas
  development aid.
• So there is a clear relationship between the
• Mainstream regionalism in the absence of
  viable basis for regionalisation is doomed
              Section Two
 Regional Free Trade Agreements in the C19th
Inter-War Period (Seen as hostile blocs). What
  is regionalism, how do we define regulation
  and what is simple imperialism? Some
  definitions seem ridiculous (Mansfield and
Liberal reservations about regionalism stem
  from experiences of this era
• EU (in a sense founded in 1951) ECSC
  (France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium,
  Luxembourg and Netherlands)
• Monnet and Schuman
• Strongly supported by US
• Monnet and Schuman ultimately always
  had a Federalist vision
• There is no real peace in Europe, if the states
   are reconstituted on a basis of national
   sovereignty. (...) They must have larger
   markets. Their prosperity is impossible,
   unless the States of Europe form themselves
   in a European Federation." — Jean Monnet
• There is no future for the people of Europe
   other than in union." — Jean Monnet
 "Building Union among people not cooperation
   between states"
• Monnet was a economic planner for
  much of his career.
• Type of Federal Europe Monnet desired
  different from contemporary project.
  Construction of semi-open Social
  Market Europe
• At same time various regional groups formed
  in other areas of he world
• Some dominated by security in context of
  cold war (ASEAN 1967+ SADC 1980)
• Many third world regional groupings sought to
  limit engagement with world economy
• Regionalism way asserting yourself against
• Some formal federalist aspirations
• Regionalism was rendered relatively
  ineffective by dominance on state-
• Also in so far based on free trade
  reproduce core-periphery relations
        Section Four (EU)
• Contemporary EU project
  unambiguously neo-liberal (expect
• Euro (regime of monetary control it
  establishes), restrictions on industrial
  policy and singular focus on competition
  and freedom for capital
• Accounting standards, banking etc.
• Also if we study Commission
  documents it clear Europe will not a
  fortress but a mechanism through which
  promote the integration of European
  capital into global circuits of
• EU becomes a mechanism to advance
  domestic reform
    Section Five (East Asia)
• Regionalisation more advanced than
• Factors limiting regionalism: Japan,
  incomplete state building, the cold war
  and key state‟s developmentalism
• Fairly standard to argue that
  regionalism was irreverent in Asia up
  until fairly recently
• Ongoing talks about Korea-Japan free trade
• APEC- loose non-binding agenda setting
  collective (parallels with OECD, vast range of
  states from China, Vietnam to America). Very
  liberal aspirations (Bogor Goals of, "free and
  open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific
  by 2010 for developed economies and 2020
  for developing economies.")
• ASEAN- Free trade and Investment
  facilitation area (evolving out of anti-
• Through the swift realization of an ASEAN
  Free Trade Area and an ASEAN Investment
  Area, ASEAN should continue to be an
  attractive place of investment for Japanese
  companies (from official document).
      Section Six (Americas)
• NAFTA (Canada, US and Mexico)
• Small environmental side deal, no real social
• Asymmetric impact (As Lester Thurow
  pointed out, a worst case scenario would
  entail the loss of 480,000 American jobs over
  the next five years; the best case would see
  the addition of 170,000 jobs)
• Much greater impact on Mexico and sections
  of the Canadian state.
• Other regional organisation developing in
  relation to NAFTA on content
• Mercosor (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay,
  Venezuela, and Paraguay)
• Mercosor “facilitate and further domestic
  liberalisation and deregulation processes by
  putting in place reinforcing mechanisms at a
  regional level.”
• Although it has had disagreements with US
• Hugo Chivas „decontaminate it of
• Cuba, Venezuela and Bolivia trying to launch
  „Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas‟
• Andean Community of Nations (Bolivia,
  Colombia, Ecuador, Peru)- institutionalised,
  formal social dimension
• Colombia and Peru have FTA with the US
      Section Seven (Africa)
• New Partnership for Africa‟s Development
  (NEPAD)- Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal
  and South Africa. 2001
• African Union - 2001 out of African Economic
  Community (AEC) and the Organisation of
  African Unity (OAU)
• Array of Sub regional groupings
• Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-
  SAD) Common Market for Eastern and
  Southern Africa (COMESA) East African
  Community (EAC) Economic Community of
  Central African States (ECCAS/CEEAC))
• Economic and Monetary Community of
  Central Africa (CEMAC) Economic
  Community of West African States
  (ECOWAS) West African Economic and
  Monetary Union (UEMOA)
• West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ)
• Southern African Development Community
  (SADC, now dominated by SA) Southern
  African Customs Union (SACU) Arab
  Maghreb Union (AMU/UMA)
• Supported by World Bank. Post-
• Intellectual leader South Africa (African
• Trevor Manuel, South Africa‟s finance
  minister asserted, „there is a new resilience
  and a new will to succeed in the African
  continent. We in South Africa have called it a
  renaissance, a new vision of political and
  economic renewal. It takes the global
  competitive marketplace as point of
• Problems in terms quality of competent
• Also Ingraining structural inequalities
• The proliferation of projects can be
  taken as a sign of weakness
• Also absurd lack of realism (2023)
• Open (empirical) question as to whether
  „social element included in particular
• Liberal obsession with trade
• Backward Linkages: Mainly GCC.
• There is no inherent reason why
  regionalism needs to take the form it
• Amin and Wider approach- aspirations.