Jail Industries and Reentry A Case for Funding Jails to Prepare Inmate Workers for Post-Release Employment Washington State Jail Industries Board Reentry Happens While still fairly new in the criminal justice vernacular, “reentry” is the latest term coined to describe release from incarceration back to the community. Regardless of the term we use, this process occurs whether we prepare the offender and the community, or not. We either do it correctly or are doomed to repeat the process again and again. Dean Mason, Executive Director Washington State Jail Industries Board The Reentry Mother Lode There are an estimated 12 million releases from American jails each year, representing 9 million unique individuals (Beck, 2006). [emphasis added] Beck, A. J. (2006, June 27). The Importance of Successful Reentry to Jail Population Growth. Presented to the Urban Institute Jail Reentry Roundtable, Washington, DC. In Perspective - National Annual Releases from Jails and Prisons 12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000 Jail Releases 6,000,000 Prison Releases 4,000,000 650,000 2,000,000 0 Where Should We Intervene? Jails release 18+ offenders back to the community for every prison release Jails often book and release the same offender two or more times in a year The average offender will go to jail several times before being sentenced and/or returned to prison Fifty-three percent of jail inmates were on probation, parole or pretrial release at the time of arrest* Thirty-nine percent of jail inmates in 2002 had served 3 or more prior sentences to incarceration or probation…* *Criminal Offenders Statistics, Bureau of Justice Affairs Revolving Door or Opportunity? “NIC [National Institute of Corrections] shared that on average a 1,000-bed jail turns over its beds 36 times in one year, totaling a population of 36,000. Similarly, a 1,000-bed prison, again on average, only turns over 750 beds annually, totaling a population of 1,750. This gives a clear understanding that jails are often dealing with higher volume and far more turnover.” Jails vs. Prisons, Daron Hall Sheriff, Davidson County, Nashville, TN Corrections Today, February 2006 A Different Approach Needed “The national discussion on offender reentry has focused primarily on individuals returning to the community from prisons, with relatively little attention given to the unique challenges and opportunities surrounding those reentering the community from jails. Yet there is a need for an innovative, collaborative, data-driven approach to jail transition.” Assembling the Jail Reentry Puzzle, Jesse Jannetta AMERICANJails, September/October 2009 Jail Facilities - National The latest data available indicates that throughout the United States, more than 3,200 jail facilities were distributed among 2,860 jail jurisdictions. [Beck 2006] ______________________________________________________ At midyear 2008, 785,556 inmates were held in the nation's local jails, up from 780,174 at midyear 2007. In 2008, jails reported adding 14,911 beds during the previous 12 months, bringing the total rated capacity to 828,413 95% of the rated capacity was occupied at midyear 2008. U.S. Department of Justice – Bureau of Justice Statistics http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/jails.htm Jail Populations - National From 2000 to 2008, the number of jail inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents rose from 226 to 258 Almost nine out of every ten jail inmates were adult males. However, the number of adult females in jail increased faster than males Between 1990 and 2008, the number of Hispanic jail inmates increased at a faster average annual rate of growth (4.5%) than white (3.8%) and black inmates (3.3%) Blacks were three times more likely than Hispanics and five times more likely than whites to be in jail U.S. Department of Justice – Bureau of Justice Statistics http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/jails.htm Jail Facilities – Washington 37 of 39 Washington State Counties have a jail San Juan County has a temporary holding facility only Douglas County is a partner of the Chelan County Regional Justice Center 20 cities in Washington have a jail Washington Jails have a combined capacity of 15,298 beds 89% of the rated capacity was occupied in 2008 While some jails were occupied under rated capacity, twelve jails (4 cities and 8 counties) were over-populated Washington Association of Sheriffs and Police Chiefs (WASPC) http://www.waspc.org/index.php?c=Jail%20Statistics The Biggest King County was number 36 of the 50 largest jail jurisdictions in the nation for 2008 King County’s average daily population (ADP) for 2008 was 2,657 inmates Operating at 84%* of its rated capacity U.S. Department of Justice – Bureau of Justice Statistics http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/jails.htm *Discrepancy between ADP reported to BJS, data collected by the Washington Association of Sheriff’s and Police Chiefs (WASPC), and data posted to King County website for 2008 – all data reported is within 2% of the USDOJ reported operating percentage The Smallest Technically…San Juan County maintains a 72-hour holding facility in Friday Harbor. Commitments from the court system that exceed 48 hours are transferred to Island County Correctional Facility in Coupeville. Columbia County jail was recently “remodeled” from 8 bunks to 11, but it is still the smallest jail in the state by one bed Columbia County jail is also the oldest jail in the state, originally built as a ship’s brig in 1874, purchased “used” for $2,000, and incorporated into the construction of the county courthouse in 1887 http://www.columbiacosheriff.com/columbia_county_jail_facility.htm Jail Populations - Washington Washington State jails conducted approximately 295,000 individual bookings (intakes) in 2008* Of those bookings, roughly 8,000 were newly committed or recommitted to prison While the numbers vary based on releases of inmates from the previous year, release of those serving violation time only, etc., 100% of the remainder not sentenced to prison are released back to the community The average length of stay in a Washington State jail in 2008 was 21.44 days* *Washington Association of Sheriffs and Police Chiefs (WASPC) combined with data from King and Lewis counties, the City of Kirkland, and estimated bookings for the City of Fife Prison Releases - Washington In 2008, the Washington State Department of Corrections released 8,858 offenders who completed their sentence 757 of those released were to a jurisdiction other than in Washington State DOC released 18,574 offenders from serving additional incarceration time for violations of their community supervision conditions 55 - 60% of those violator sentences were completed in local jails (estimated from the 2007-2009 decision package on management of community violators) Washington State Department of Corrections Prison Releases by County - Fiscal Year 2008 In Perspective - Local 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 Jail Releases* Prison Releases* 100,000 50,000 0 2008 FY 2008 *Jail release numbers for calendar year 2008 are compared against prison release numbers for fiscal year 2008; however, the graphical variance would change little Local Research – Global Data The Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) conducts nonpartisan research at the direction of the state’s legislature, and findings are used to help inform public policymakers The institute conducted a systematic review of all research evidence that could be located to determine what works, if anything, to reduce crime This meta analysis of the research defined which evidence-based programs produced favorable returns on investment and, therefore, should inform public policy for effective offender reentry planning http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/rptfiles/09-00-1201.pdf Significant Finding “Serious crime is costly to victims and taxpayers; our economic analysis for Washington indicates that evidence-based - and reasonably priced - programs that achieve even relatively small reductions in crime can produce attractive returns on investment.” Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Crime and Criminal Justice Costs: Implications in Washington State Elizabeth K. Drake, Steve Aos, and Marna G. Miller Washington State Institute for Public Policy Olympia, Washington, USA What Works? Sample of programs providing significant return on investment: Effect on Victim Taxpayer Costs Net Crime Benefits Benefits Benefits Vocational -9.8% $14,504 $7419 $1,210 $20,714 Education General -8.3% $12,319 $6,302 $985 $17,636 Education Cognitive- -6.9% $10,234 $5,235 $107 $15,361 Behavioral Therapy Correctional -6.4% $9,518 $4,869 $427 $13,961 Industries The return on investment for correctional industries is: $32.70 for every $1 spent. (Net Benefits divided by Costs) Application to Jail Industries It is also important to note that the net benefits of educational, vocational and cognitive-behavioral therapy programs produce higher net benefits; therefore, it can be assumed that a combination of these programs with work while incarcerated in jail will produce an even better prepared worker upon release* *See note on next slide General Vocational Cognitive- Jail Industries Education Education Behavioral Therapy General Technical (Hard) Social Practical Knowledge Skills (Soft) Skills Application Application to Jail Industries While the research used by WSIPP to evaluate the return on investment of correctional industries is based on prison industries programs, a well-designed jail industries program could garner similar net benefits* The fact that jail inmates release within weeks in most cases leaves room for argument that effective jail programming could yield higher net benefits if combined with post-release services Such programs appear more necessary at the jail level to prevent future, more serious crime, subsequent prison sentences, and the associated financial and social costs *Assumptions made are not those of the Washington State Institute for Public Policy The Importance of Collaboration Regardless of the quality of any jail industries program and the agency’s good intentions, jails cannot accomplish successful offender reentry on their own. Every agency needs to enlist the assistance of other governmental and community-based partners. This approach leverages the initial momentum of jail industries and other programs, and the work already being done by partners, so that the total effort is coordinated, efficient, and measurable. Dean Mason, Executive Director Washington State Jail Industries Board Collaboration Opens lines of communication Reduces barriers and turf mentality Decreases duplication of effort Creates a defined continuum of services during incarceration and post-release Saves time, money, resources and lives Collaboration is the key to successful offender reentry! Financial Impact Financial impact of an effective jail industries program: Jail operational costs are lowered through jail industries’ positive effect on offender behavior All levels of government and not-for-profit agencies can financially benefit from industries operations that provide products and services at reduced costs to those agencies, including the jail itself Under appropriate circumstances and conditions, private businesses can utilize jail industries to perform work not currently done in the community and to develop future non-incarcerated workers Social Impact Social impact of an effective jail industries program: Offenders develop social awareness, responsibility, work ethics, and self-esteem They develop usable employment skills They become tax payers versus tax burdens The largest impact, however, is the evidence-based reduction in recidivism that not only results in huge financial savings to the taxpayers, but more importantly results in the reduction of personal costs in lives, suffering, and property loss for victims Conclusion Jails reenter offenders back to the community sooner and in much larger numbers than do prisons. The statistics and research indicate that our best opportunity to prevent an individual’s continued criminal behavior and avoid an eventual sentence to prison is to provide evidence-based programming during their time in jail and post-release. A combination of education, vocational training, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and jail industries employment is good public policy that can assist in ensuring a successful reentry strategy for local jails and the communities they serve.
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