Sophomore Oral Practice by maclaren1

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									Vocabulary and Idioms


                     • Four Year Program
                     • Freshmen students

   Mastering Vocabulary:
High Intermediate GEPT Level

               Professor: Ludmilla Cawdrey
               Learning Activities

• Preview the material of a next week class at
    home
•   Learn recommended vocabulary
•   Prepare stories of recommended idioms
•   Listen to the teacher‟s explanations
•   Do practical in class
•   Correct mistakes under the supervision of the
    teacher
                       Course Methods

• Preview and memorize              •   Individual home work
  vocabulary

• Prepare idioms and their stories •    Individual home work


• Listen to your group mates‟
  stories of idioms                 •   Classroom activity

                                    •   The teacher‟s explanations
• Discuss peculiarities of Modern       and presentations
  English vocabulary

• Do practical: use idioms and      •   Group or pair-work
  new vocabulary in
  communicative situations
               Sources of Material
  1. Material for vocabulary practice is taken from the list
   of words recommended by the Ministry of Education of
   Taiwan (GEPT High Intermediate Level)
http://www.lttc.ntu.edu.tw/academics/gepthilist.htm

   2. The list of idioms is taken from the following site:
http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/words_and_their_
   stories.cfm      (100 phrases)

  3. A dictionary for self-control: www.dictionary.com
              Other Recommended Sites
                   for Self-Practice
• http://www.sky-net-
    eye.com/eng/dictionary/english/idioms/american/i_a
•   http://www.phrases.org.uk/
•   http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/
•   http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Main_Page
•   http://etlc.wtuc.edu.tw/ePaper/e_quarterly/200802/14Teaching-
    The1000WordLittleLanguageList.pdf
•   http://iteslj.org/links/ESL/Vocabulary/Lists/
•   http://www.stickyball.net/GEPT.html
•   http://www.lttc.ntu.edu.tw/E_LTTC/gept_eng_main.htm
•   http://etlc.wtuc.edu.tw/ePaper/e_quarterly/200802/14Teaching-
    The1000WordLittleLanguageList.pdf
           Lesson plan (in weeks)
1. Morphemic structure of a word;
2. Productive ways of word-building in Modern English:
     word-derivation;
3.   Productive ways of word-building: word-derivation
     (cont);
4.   Productive ways of word-building: word-composition;
5.   Productive ways of word-building: conversion;
6.   Productive ways of word-building: shortening;
7.   Minor ways of word-formation in Modern English;
8.   Review;
9.   Midterm.
        Lesson plan (continued)
1. Lexico-Semantic   Groupings of Words: synonyms;
2. Lexico-Semantic   Groupings of Words: synonyms (cont);
3. Lexico-Semantic   Groupings of Words: antonyms;
4. Lexico-Semantic   Groupings of Words: antonyms (cont);
5. Lexico-Semantic   Groupings of Words: homonyms;
6. Lexico-Semantic   Groupings of Words: homonyms (cont);
7. Lexico-Semantic   Groupings of Words: hyponyms,
   paronyms;
8. Review;
9. Final Test.
              Ways of Word Building
                    from GEPT List

            Formation of words by adding
                prefixes and suffixes
Prefixes are used before the root
Suffixes are used after the root
A root is an unchangeable part of the word that carries the
  main meaning of a word

e.g., unpleasant:   un- is a prefix
                    -ant is a suffix
                     “please” is a root
                     Suffixes - Prefixes
   Suffixes and prefixes are used to build up new words
   organized in words nests:

To defend (verb) – defender (noun),
(a) defendant - defense (noun) – defensible (adjective)
To develop – developed – developing – a developer
To detach – detached
To devastate – devastating
To descend – (a) descendant – a descent
To deteriorate – deterioration
 To destine - destiny (noun) – destined (adjective)
Deficit – deficiency – deficient
                           More examples
To define - d́efinite – d́efinitely – définitive – definitively –
   definitiveness
To deploy – deployment
To dictate – a dictator – dictatorship
A diplomat – diplomatic – diplomacy
Disable – disability
Close – to disclose – disclosure
Obsess – obsession
To oblige – to obligate – obligation – obligatory
To occur – occurrence,
to operate – operative - operational
Offer – offering,
to oppress – oppressed – oppression,
Practice:
Find roots, suffixes and prefixes in the following words

  Deepen, attendance, breadth administrator,
  brotherhood, addiction, boxing, glossary,          disappointment
  advertiser, adaptation, advertising, birdie,
  astronomer, adjustment, bomber, bulky,          • “dis-” is a prefix,
  autonomy, accumulation, bowler, bowling,
  boundary, breeder, broadcaster, booking,
                                                  • “appoint” is a root
  advisory, accusation, assumption, boredom,      • “-ment” is a suffix;
  attendant, activist, allied, boxer, awesome,
  accessory, banking, appraisal, aggression,
  advisory, library, accounting , acting,
  borrowing, abstraction, anticipation, bodily,
  abundant alarming, boyhood, bureaucracy,
  absent-minded, agricultural, ambiguous,
  advisable, allergic, approximate, etc.

          (see hand-outs: the table of affixes)
              Sound-and-stress Interchange

    Sound-and-stress-interchange is traced in the formation of new
    words that differ in a root-forming vowel/ consonant or stress
    patterns, e.g.,


-   Wide - width [ai – i], [- Ө]                          a ŕecord – to rećord
-   Strong – strength [o – e], [- Ө ]                     a pŕotest – to prot́est
-   to invite – invitation [ai – i]                       a ćontrast – to contŕast
-   to describe – description [ai – i], [b – p]           a ŕebel – to reb́el
-   to analyze – analysis [ai – i], [z – s]               an ́ally – to alĺy
-   a house – housing [s – z],                            a śuspect – to susṕect
-   to conclude – conclusion [d - ʒ]                      to ŕidicule – ridículous
                                                  (for more examples see handouts)
Suffixation: Splinters

  Splinters are parts of words which appeared as a result of clipping
  the end or the beginning of a word:
  mini- (from: miniature) minicar, miniradio;
  maxi- (from: maximum) maxi-house, maxi-sculpture;
  Euro- (from: European) Euromarket, Eurotunnel, Eurocard,

  -napper (from: kidnapper) busnapper, dognapper;
  -omat (from: automat) cashomat, laundromat;
  -eteria (from: cafeteria) booketeria, groceteria;
  -quake (from: earthquake) Moonquake, youthquake;
  -tel (from: hotel) motel, boatel, airtel;
  -burger (from: hamburger) fishburger, beefburger;;
  -scape (from: landscape) seascape, townscape;
                     Compounding

Compounding is combining of 2 or more stems of
words in order to form a third word with a new meaning:
e.g., a handbag, duty-free


The second word usually identifies an object while the
first word specifies what kind of object it is:
e.g., water tank, washing machine, videophone


It is usually the second stem that is a structural and
semantic center of a compound:
e.g., a matchbox, freehanded, well known
Additive compounds

 Additive compounds are formed from stems of
 independently functioning words of the same part of
 speech.

 They denote an object that is two things at the same
 time:
 e.g., a secretary-stenographer, a director-manager,
 parent-teacher (association).
Reduplicative compounds

  Reduplicative compounds are made up by repetition
  of the first stem; as a result duplicates are made:
  e.g., fifty-fifty, tick-tock, etc.

  Reduplicative compounds may be of 3 kinds:
1. an exact duplication of the first stem in a word: hush-
   hush, goody-goody, bye-bye;
2. variation of consonants in the root: clap-trap, willy-nilly
3. variation of vowels in the root: chitchat, zigzag, ping-
   pong.
Neo-classical compounds            (p. 124)


 Some compound words contain parts which are not
 themselves independent words.

 They are mostly compounds formed from Latin and
 Greek loanwords, for example, in a word like
 bibliography neither biblio-, nor -graphy are words in
 Modern English.

 Such compounds are treated as neo-classical compounds
 and their parts are defined as “combining forms”: bio-,
 electro-, tele-, -ology, -phile, -scope
 e.g., biography, telescope, Philology
Compounding: Practical
Define types of the following compound words


  One-sided, way-laid, onrush, hotchpotch, two-party (system), saw
  dust, shipshape, tricolor, freshman, tear-gas, hustle-bustle, goody-
  goody, take-home, week-end, week-ender, go-between, lipstick,
  fellow-lodger, willy-nilly, athlete-gymnast, triennial, eye-lid, Anglo-
  American, tick-tacks, hoity-toity, bye-bye, round-faced, star-chart,
  tit-bit, woman-hater, hotchpotch, helter-skelter, finger-print,
  director-manager, hurdy-gurdy, a blow-ball, hobnob, dairymaid,
  Afro-Asian, eyelevel, standpoint, hush-hush, director-producer,
  quake-stricken, slink-pink, shake-shack, mother-daughter
  (relationships), detective-policeman, flip-flop, Chinese-Canadian

                                      (for more examples see handouts)
Morphological Classification:
Types of stems joined together              (p. 124)


  Neutral compounds may be of 3 types:
  1. compounds proper that are formed by simple stems: ice-cold,
  bedroom, tallboy;
  2. derivational compounds one of the stems of which is derived:
  kind-hearted, music-lover, absent-mindedness, grass-hopper;
  3. compounds with a shortened stem: T-shirt, TV-set, phone call.

  Syntactic compounds consist of elements typical of a phrase or a
  sentence (articles, prepositions, particles, etc.):
  e.g., a mother-in-law, a sit-in, a forget-me-not, a man-of-war, up-
  to-date, etc.
Compounding: Practical 2
Define types of the following compounds according to the
morphological types of stems joined together:

  - neutral: proper, derivational, with shortened stem;
  - syntactic

  Heart-felt (talk), eye-witness (video), difficult-to-
  understand (proposal), shoe-maker, first-time (voter),
  Jack-o‟-lantern, drive-in (restaurant), hanky-panky, e-
  mail, walk-in (closet), four-volume (piece), week-ender,
  sit-in (demonstration), larger-than-life (character),
  merry-go-round, T-shirt, icebound (waters), shilly-shally,
  coin-box, actor-manager, stand-up (meal), puffed-up,
  short-sighted, shooting-star, sitter-in, paper-money,
  panic-stricken, detective-manager, stay-at-home
  (moms), a feel-good (factor)
Compounding: Practical 3
Define the degree of motivation in the following
compounds:

  (completely motivated, partially motivated, non-motivated)

  a cold duck, a grasshopper, hoodwink, a tricycle, a chatterbox, a
  cool beggar, a loudspeaker, horse-collar, earphones, huntsman, a
  bus-driver, hot-house, fireproof, higgledy-piggledy, hotheaded, a
  bookworm, hopscotch, star-dust, man-of-war, happy-go-lucky, red
  tape, will-o‟-the-wisp, kith-and-kin, devil-may-care, hide-and-seek,
  hand-to-hand (fighting), hang-dog, hen-hearted, herring-bone,
  highwayman, heyday, highball, holystone, hugger-mugger, hush-
  money, tableland, onlooker, out-and-out, bolster savings, hot dog,
  hot-headed, humbug, scandalmonger, shorthand, singsong, wool-
  gathering, runoff, walkie-talkie
Functional Classification

     Functionally, compounds are viewed as words of different parts of
     speech: their word-class is indicated by the second stem of a
     compound.

     Compound words may belong to different word-classes:
1.   nouns: a birthday, a weekend, a single mother;
2.   adjectives: long-legged, peace-loving, easy-going;
3.   adverbs: everywhere, outdoors, inside;
4.   pronouns: someone, nothing;
5.   connectives: within, without;
6.   verbs formed by means of conversion: to blacklist;
7.   verbs with verbal and adverbial stems: to bypass, to offset.
Functional Classification:
Word-class patterns of compound words

•   N + N: railway, summerhouse, cigar-ash;
•   Adj + N: short-term, blackberry, bluestocking;
•   N + Part I: soul-baring, fence-building, law-making,
•   N + Part II: horror-struck, smoke-blackened, technology-rejected;
•   Adj + Part II: short-lived, ill-prepared;
•   Adv + Part II: well known, badly-injured, half-seen;
•   Adj + Part I: freethinking, aggressive-sounding, slow-burning;
•   N + Adj: air tight, tobacco-mad;
•   Num + N: four-volume, one-vote, first-time; etc.
Functional Classification:
Functions in a Sentence

   In a sentence, compound words fulfill different functions. They may
   become the following members of a sentence:

• Subject - Japan‟s old job-for-life security has vanished…
• Object – I forced my manservant to help me…
• Predicate – My mentor was a great waterman. Langdon
  backpedaled;
• Attribute – A definite end-of-the-holiday gloom was in the air;
• Adverbial modifier of manner, time and order –
   … beautifully written in a neat penmanship…
   … He sat white knuckled in a passenger seat…
Compounding: Practical 5
Identify syntactic functions of the following compounds in a
sentence:
   (subject, object, predicate, attribute, adverbial modifier , etc.)

1. He was a little, white-faced, clean-shaven, grizzly-haired fellow…
2. I made a rash decision forcing my manservant to help me bring him
   to England.
3. … if she has to cook a crab, or anything else still alive, she grows
   teary-eyed and sings to them (Geisha).
4. … moving to the portentous stuff – like why-oh-why does he keep
   saying…
5. …it amounts to a keep-your-nerve-and-keep-your-chin-up appeal to
   Tory troops…
6. They shared an uninhibited, girl-behaving-badly attitude.
7. They had swallowed all his dim-witted lies (J.K. Rowling).
8. Sauniere was a no-brainer.
9. Langdon sat white-knuckled in passenger seat, twisted backward
10.The team conducted its review on-site.
11.The runoff from farmland can carry dirty water into the river.
Phonetic Classification                 (p. 123)


     Phonetically, a compound word gets a new stress pattern.

     Compounds may be built according to the following stress
     patterns:
1.   primary stress on the first component (┴ ─): doorway, blackboard.
2.   double stress, i.e. primary stress on the first component and
     secondary stress on the second component (┴ ┬): blood-vessel,
     washing-machine.
3.   level stress – both stems possess individual stresses(┴ ┴): open-
     minded, grass-green.
Graphical Classification                   (p. 123)


    According to the means of connection, compounds are divided into
    four groups:

1. compounds formed by simple placing one stem after another
   without any linking element: headache, warpath, flowerpot;
2. compounds stems of which are coined with the help of linking
   letters such as -o-, -i-, -s-: Afro-Asian, handicraft, statesman,
    neuroscience;
3. compounds written with a hyphen: third-rate, best-seller, well-
    being;
4. compounds written as separate words: writing table, dining room,
    school bus, single mother.
                         Conversion

Conversion is a process when a word is converted from
one word-class to another without any changes of a
form, but only through the changes in its paradigm
e.g., to cut – a cut, to swim – a swim, a shoulder – to shoulder.

Paradigm is an ordered set of grammatical forms of a
certain part of speech:

Nouns: a girl – girls – girl‟s – girls‟
Verbs: to write – wrote – written – writing – writes – write – will
write – will be writing – is written – was written – will be written –
would write – would be written, etc.
               Converted parts of speech

   Traditionally, conversion regards verbs and nouns transformations.

  Verbs made from nouns (N  V) are the most numerous:
• e.g., to hand, to face, to eye, to room, to monkey, to honeymoon,
  to can, to chin, to fist, etc.,
• cf., My mother clothed and shoed me.
   Verbs can also be made from adjectives (Adj  V):
• e.g., to pale, to yellow, to cool, etc.,
• cf., He narrowed his eyes.
   Nouns are made from verbs (V  N):
• e.g., a do, a go, a make, a run, a find, a catch, a walk, a move, a
  show, etc.,
• cf., She gave a little shiver.
          Converted parts of speech                    (cont)


  Adjectives are made from nouns (N Adj):
• a rich, a blind, a mute, etc.,
• cf., He is an absolute imbecile in his profession.

  Other parts of speech are not entirely unsusceptible to conversion:
• to but, to down, to out, the ups and downs, the ins and outs, etc.,
• cf., I was speculating with various whys, and whats and whos.
Conversion. Semantic correlations

    Semantic associations of converted verbs may be traced in:
• 1.     action characteristic of the object: witness – to witness, dog – to dog;
• 2.     instrumental use of the object: elbow – to elbow, hammer – to
         hammer;
•   3.   acquisition or addition of the object: to fish, to tail, to grass, to dust;
•   4.   derivation of an object: to skin, to dust, to bone;
•   5.   location: to bag, to pocket, to house;
•   6.   temporal relations: to winter, to week-end.
•
    Nouns converted from verbs may denote:
•   1.   moment of an action: a jump, a swim, a step, a laugh;
•   2.   agent or doer of an action: a help, a cheat, a bore;
•   3.   place of an action: a drive, a walk, a stand;
•   4.   result of an action: a cut, a peel, a find, a make.
Conversion: Practical 1
Define semantic correlations within
the following pairs of converted words:

  a pocket – to pocket, to jump – a jump, supper – to
  supper, grass – to grass, a winter – to winter, to shave –
  a shave, to make – a make, a face – to face, to cut – a
  cut, to smoke – a smoke, to swim – a swim, milk – to
  milk, to come down – a come down, pale – to pale, in /
  out – ins and outs, wounded – the wounded, a nose – to
  nose, a shoulder – to shoulder, an elbow - to elbow, a
  suspect – to suspect
                   GEPT vocabulary

Aboriginal Adj – N, Absurd Adj – N, Accessory N – Adj, Acting N –
Adj, Advocate V – N , Aggregate Adj – N – V , Ageing (aging) Adj –
N , Alien Adj – N , Ally N – V, Alternate V – Adj , Ambush V – N ,
Anchor N – V , Animate Adj – V , Antarctic Adj – N, Antibiotic – N –
Adj, Antique N – Adj , Apprentice N – V , Approximate Adj – V , Arc
N – V , Archive N – Adj , Arctic Adj – N , Armor N – V , Array N – V,
Articulate Adj – V , Assault N – Adj – V , Assuming Conj – Adj ,
Astray Adv – Adj , Attribute V – N, Auction N – V , Audit V – N, Avail
V – N, Awe N – V, Bodily Adj – Adv



                                  (for more examples see hand-outs)
           Conversion. Functional correlations


    Functionally, in a sentence converted words may be:
•   Subject: The silver had been taken by the murderer;
•   Object: I suggested a blind;
•   Attribute: I bought a new put-together toy set;
•   Predicate: My mother clothed and shoed me;
•   Predicative: She is still an evil;
•   Adverbial modifier: He paused a moment longer, eyeing the
    metal threshold, etc.
Conversion: Practical 3
Define cases of conversion in the following sentences:

1. Sometimes nothings mean more          Example:
     than many somethings.               I saw no blinds on the window.
2.   Good has come out of evil.              Blind(s) –
3.   She gave a little shiver.           • It is a Noun converted from an
4.   The English exercised a                 Adjective
     surprisingly tolerant hand-off      •   It denotes “an object of a certain
     policy…                                 quality”
5.   My wife was dogged by ill health    •   It functions as an Object in the
     for twelve years (M Spark)              sentence
6.   I narrowed my eyes…
7.   Her face blushed – then paled (A.
     Christie)
8.   What would happen to our father
     who was khakied like every other
     man? (L. Lee)
9.   I was speculating with various
     whys and whats and whos …
                       Shortening

  Shortening (abbreviation) of words is a way of
  formation of new words by means of substituting a part
  of the word for a whole.

  2 different types of abbreviations:
• graphical abbreviations and
• lexical abbreviations
Shortening. Graphical abbreviations

   Graphical abbreviations – substitutes of words used for writing
   purposes in written speech: scientific books, advertisements, letters,
   articles, etc.

   According to the way of formation, graphical abbreviations are
   subdivided into:
1. initial shortenings – shortened words that keep the initial letter
    only; the shortened variant is read as its full English equivalent
    e.g., cc – cubic centimeter, ml – milliliter, i.e. – “that is”, e.g. –
    “for example”
2. syllable shortenings – shortened words that keep syllables; the
    remaining part is read as a full word
    e.g., Oct - “October”, Dr.- “Doctor”
Shortening. Lexical abbreviations

  Lexical abbreviations represent shortened words used in oral
  speech.


  Lexical abbreviations proper are formed by a simultaneous
  operation of shortening and compounding.

  In this case they are made up of the following components:
   1. initial sounds
        e.g., IT - “informational technology”
   2. syllables of the components of a word-group
        e.g., pop-music - “popular music”
          Shortening. Lexical abbreviations

Lexical abbreviations proper differ in the ways of their formation
and reading.

Alphabetisms are formed and read as a succession of alphabetical
reading of the constituent letters:
e.g., V.I.P. - “a very important person”;
      EU - “European Union”,
      INTL – “international”,
      oj - “orange juice”;

Acronyms are formed and read as a succession of syllables denoted
by the constituent letters (see: names of organizations):
e.g., UNO – “United Nations Organization”,
SARS – “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome”,
SWAK – “sealed with a kiss” (at the end of a letter).
                  Shortening. Clipping


  Words may be built by the process of clipping – the
  process of cutting off one or several syllables of a word.

There are 4 types of clipping:
1. aphaeresis (initial clipping),
2. apocope (final clipping),
3. syncope (middle clipping) and
4. a mixed type.
                     Shortening. Clipping


• Aphaeresis takes place when the first part of a word is clipped:
   e.g., phone (telephone), fence (defense), spite (despite), cologne
   (au-de-cologne), bach (bachelor‟s snack).

• Apocope occurs when the last part of a word is clipped:
   e.g., demo (demonstration), limo (limousine).

• Syncope happens when the middle part of a word is clipped:
   e.g., maths (mathematics), specs (spectacles).

• A mixed type involves clipping at the beginning and at the end of a
   word: e.g., tec (detective), flu (influenza).
              Shortening. Ellipsis


Ellipsis is the omission of a word or words in a phrase
when the remaining part keeps the lexical meaning of a
whole phrase:
e.g., a sit-down is “a sit-down demonstration”,
     a Nat is “a National Party member”.
Shortening: Practical 1
Define types of the following shortened words

   lexical abbreviations proper:
- alphabetisms, acronyms;
- clipping: aphaeresis, apocope, syncope, mixed type;
- ellipsis;

   UNO, doc, sis, T-shirt, Aussie, e.g., A.D., P.T.O., prep, ft,
   FBI, gent, memo, maths, co-ed, M.P., fence, LA, U.K.,
   SARS, finals, taxi, EU, CNN, demo, exams, comfy, flu,
   Feb, USA, adj, Dr, Mrs, N.Y., info, e-mail, hol, 30℃, V-
   day, deco, cc, Joe, usu, in, a foot, metrop, circs, veggy,
   H.L., H.C., i.e., op. cit., Jan, TV, Beth, p.m., flu, fence,
   specs, spite, DOG-phone, comfy, a pub
                   GEPT vocabulary

•   Ad, advert = advertisement
•   AI = artificial intelligence
•   ATM = automatic teller machine
•   Auto = automobile, automatic
•   BS = British Standard; Bachelor of Science
•   Brassiere = bra
      Shortening. Functions in a sentence


Shortened words may fulfill the various functions
in a sentence:

– Subject: The BBC announced the report…
– Attribute: The LCD screen provided directions in several
  languages;
– Object: I would like to have your e-mail;
– Predicative: They were the original ATMs;
– Predicate: He was repeatedly phoning with no answer, etc.
              Shortening: Practical
   Define cases of shortening in the following sentences


1. …kids sleeping on backpacks and roving out to their portable
   MP3‟s players…
2. In a military manoeuvre worthy of the CIA…
3. He managed to manoeuvre the hijacked taxi to the far side of
   the Bois de Bouloque
4. The LCD screen provided directions in seven languages (D.
   Brown).
5. …a keypad similar to that of a bank ATM terminal (D. Brown).
6. In the area without phone and e-mail
7. The BBC producer loved Teabing‟s hot premise.
                                 Blending
    Blending is compounding by means of clipped words, e.g.:

•   Toyotire = Toyota + tire
•   Senseyes = sensitive + eyes
•   Oxbridge = Oxford + Cambridge
•   Medicare = medical + care
•   Cashomat = cash + automat
•   Fruice = fruit + juice
•   Popcert = popular + concert
•   Midterm = middle + tem
•   Yarden = yard + garden
•   Dollarature = dollar + literature
•   Cell-phone = cellular + telephone
•   Wango = waltz + tango
             List of idiomatic expressions
http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/words_and_their_stories.cfm


1. Ace in the hole: put on your poker face
2. Colors: I‟m feeling very blue today
3. Cold: she felt the cold hard reality of life
4. Chickenfeed: it doesn‟t add up to much
5. Nuts and bolts: the mechanics of any organization
6. Hot: he was a hotheaded hot shot!
7. Blizzard: don‟t let this expression snow you
8. Money talks: everything else walks
9. Hit: If a student„s grades hit bottom, it is time to hit the books
10. Nicknames: America‟s 50 states (Fourth of 4 parts)
11. Nicknames: America‟s 50 states (Third of 4 parts)
12. Nicknames: America‟s 50 states (Second of 4 parts)
List of idiomatic expressions                  (cont)


1. Nicknames: America‟s 50 states (First of 4 parts)
2. Get your act together: Organization is the name of the game
3. Money, money, money: dinner is on the house
4. More money: money can make people do strange things
5. Money: he hit the jackpot
6. Computer terms: ever Google sometime?
7. Water: she is in hot water
8. Losing it: it‟s hard when you lose control
9. Monkey: no monkey business here
10. Kick: this is an idea worth kicking around
11. Rocket scientist you do not have to be: extremely intelligent to
    understand this
12. Wildcat is it a fast car or false money?
List of idiomatic expressions               (cont)


1. Great Scott: what a surprise!
2. Swan song: it was my final effort and my finest work
3. Belittle: Thomas Jefferson first used this word
4. Hang: Don‟t get excited, just hang loose
5. Couch potato: life is a full-time television watcher
6. Top brass: what American workers call their employers
7. Baseball terms: this is a whole new ballgame
8. Hobson‟s choice: when there is really no choice at all
9. Heart to heart: let‟s get to the heart of the matter
10. All about names: he was a true Jack of all trades
11. Let‟s do business: I made a sweetheart deal last month
12. Mouth expressions: the experience left a bad taste in my mouth
List of idiomatic expressions               (cont)


1. Nose: the answer is as clear as the nose on your face
2. All about eyes: once he caught my eye, it was love everlasting
3. Fireworks: what is all the noise about?
4. More words about clothing: I am not talking through my hat
5. Words about clothing: let‟s see if I can name a few off the cuff
6. Bird words: someone who eats a bird eats very little
7. Back, shoulders and chest: a pat on the back for a job well done
8. Dog talk: life in a dog-eat-dog world
9. More numbers: two heads are better than one
10. Numbers: I, for one, use these expressions often
11. Medical terms: a clean bill of health from the doctor
12. Bigwig: such an important person
List of idiomatic expressions               (cont)


1. A chip on your shoulder: what are you going to do about it?
2. On a short leash: he had firm control over his workers
3. Fall guy: he took the blame for someone else
4. Buff: are you a buff about something?
5. Face: time to face the music
6. Heard it on the grapevine: What? Who told you that?
7. Baloney: it‟s just not true
8. Dutch: English expressions unrelated to Dutch people
9. Doughboy: military expressions
10. Feel the pinch: the pains of economic trouble
11. In the red: better to be in the black
12. Santa Claus: Do you believe?
List of idiomatic expressions                 (cont)


1. Green: More than just a color
2. Easy as falling off a log: not much effort involved!
3. Deep six: it is well hidden
4. It will not wash: Does it work or not?
5. Farm expressions
6. When the cat is away
7. The answer is as clear as your nose
8. All about eyes
9. More expressions that are old and true
10. Pulling a fast one
11. Hold your horses
12. Insect expressions
List of idiomatic expressions                (cont)


1. Like a rolling stone
2. Not much effort involved
3. Heart to heart: some heartfelt expressions
4. Deep-six: fishing for sailors‟ expressions
5. Water: diving into a sea of terms
6. Have a heart
7. To buffalo: to win by trick or threat
8. Holding the bag
9. Touching all bases
10. Circus: some agree it‟s the greatest show on earth
11. Holding the bag
12. Who put lipstick on that pig?
List of idiomatic expressions               (cont)


1. Some sayings about love, war, etc.
2. Hobson‟s choice: when there‟s really no choice
3. Every dog has his day
4. A couch potato
5. American election expressions
6. Let‟s get down to brass tacks
7. Fall guy
8. Doughboy
9. Eureka
10. Green
11. Pan
12. It will not wash
List of idiomatic expressions      (cont)


1. Fish expressions
2. Farm
3. Stock market
4. Hands
5. Feel the pinch
6. Nicknames for Chicago
7. Nicknames for Los Angeles
8. Nicknames for New York
9. Two heads are better than one
10. Get your act together
11. Ideas about how to live
12. Apple pie order
                     Set-Expressions

1. Ahead of one‟s time
2. At one‟s feet
3. Bend over backwards
4. Beneath one
5. Bite off more than one can chew
6. Black and white
7. Blow it
8. Bounce a check
9. Breathing room
10. Bring to one‟s feet
11. Bring to one‟s knees
12. Call the shots
                      Set-Expressions

1. Catch one‟s eye
2. Change one‟s tune
3. Cheap shot
4. Clear the air
5. Come alive
6. Corporate ladder
7. Cost an arm and a leg
8. Cough up
9. Couldn‟t care less
10. Cross that bridge when one comes to it
11. Cut corners
12. Cut it out
                     Set-Expressions

1. Doesn‟t grow on trees
2. Dressed to kill
3. Drive someone crazy
4. Drop in
5. Egg on one‟s face
6. Fair-weather friend
7. Fast track
8. Feather in one‟s cap
9. Feather one‟s nest
10. Feel ten feet tall
11. Fine line
12. Flash in the pan
                     Set-Expressions

1. Floor someone
2. Follow in someone‟s footsteps
3. For a song
4. Four-letter words
5. Get a leg up on someone
6. Get a risk out of someone
7. Get something/ someone off one‟s mind
8. Get one‟s gear turning
9. Get one‟s hand on something
10. Get rolling
11. Get something off the ground
12. Get the picture
                     Set-Expressions

1. Give someone a break
2. Give someone a ring
3. Give someone the runaround
4. Go belly-up
5. Go by the book
6. Go to get lengths
7. Go to the end of the earth
8. Hand over fist
9. Hands down
10. Hang on
11. Have a blast
12. Have a corner on something
                     Set-Expressions

1. Have a good head on one‟s shoulders
2. Have a nose for something
3. Have an edge
4. Have it both ways
5. Head over heels in love
6. In over one‟s head
7. In the black
8. In the red
9. Keep a level head
10. Keep something bottled up
11. Keep up with the Joneses
12. Keep up with the times
                      Set-Expressions

1. Know where one stands
2. The last word
3. Lay it in thick
4. Learn the ropes
5. Let someone down
6. Live it up
7. Live within one‟s means
8. Look like a million bucks
9. Make a mark
10. Make a plug
11. Make a splash
12. Make mountains out of molehills
                      Set-Expressions

1. Make one‟s day
2. Make something fly
3. Make waves
4. Mean beans
5. Mean business
6. Middle-of-the-road
7. Miss the boat
8. Nest egg
9. No ifs, ands, and buts
10. No strings attached
11. No sweat
12. Not have a prayer
                       Set-Expressions

1. Not see the forest for the trees
2. Odds are
3. Off the beaten path
4. Off the top of one‟s head
5. On the go
6. On the house
7. Open a can of worms
8. Open doors
9. Out of this world
10. Paint the town red
11. Promise the moon
12. Pros and cons
                      Set-Expressions

1. Put one‟s best foot forward
2. Put one‟s name on the line
3. Put someone on the pedestal
4. Raise eyebrows
5. Right around the corner
6. Right under one‟s nose
7. Rule out
8. Save face
9. Search high and low
10. See something in a whole new light
11. Show one‟s true colors
12. Sitting duck
                       Set-Expressions

1. Slip one‟s mind
2. Slip through one‟s fingers
3. Snowed under
4. Stack up
5. Stars in one‟s eyes
6. Stay in touch
7. Stay put
8. Stick one‟s neck out
9. Stop something in its tracks
10. Stretched too thin (to spread oneself too thin)
11. Strike a chord
12. Take a hike
                     Set-Expressions

1. Take center stage
2. Take it easy
3. Take it out on someone
4. Take one‟s breath away
5. Take someone to the cleaners
6. Take something in stride
7. Take the heat
8. Throw in the towel
9. Till the cows come home
10. To the letter
11. Toe the line
12. Too close for comfort
                        Set-Expressions

1.   Top banana
2.   Top-of-the-line
3.   Travel in the wrong circles
4.   Up in the air
5.   Uphill battle
6.   Warm up to
7.   Wipe out
8.   Worth one‟s salt

								
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