Knowledge production through publicly funded project research: Whose influence counts in India? Dinesh Abrol and Vinod Upadhyay, NISTADS Abstract Project funding is the second most important channel of public funding of research in India. The distinct organizational feature of project funding is the existence of some kind of agency selecting the project to be funded and allocating money to a research group. Since the practice of delegation to quasi-independent agencies is widespread in project funding, much discussion exists on its impact on the achievement of public goals in research and technology development in the national and global contexts. In this contribution we analyze the evolution of the objectives and outcomes of project funding with a view to find out about the kind of influence being exercised by different types of stakeholders over the development of research structures for the realization of social relevance and economic innovation in India. Introduction During the decades of nineties the discourse of macro-economic policymakers was focused on how the research policymaking apparatus needs to place now emphasis on getting the S&T community to move away from the ‘ivory tower” research and steer the instruments of public funding of research and development (R&D) far more towards the direction of technology development and application. But what kind of impact the macro- economic policy driven change has left on the project funding based instruments of public funding of research and technology development is not really known. However, in December 2008 the last parliament did go on to adopt a new legislation for the purpose of according a new thrust to the component of extramural research and development (R&D) through the establishment of a separate statutory organization, namely science and engineering research board. At the moment this board is expected to take the responsibility of allocating the extramural R&D funds of only the Department of Science and Technology (DST). This means that even after the establishment of this new board the system of extramural R&D has not been centralized in DST and decisions on the allocation of extramural R&D funding would continue to be embedded in a variety of agencies and departments. Extramural R&D funding is the most important component of project funding being undertaken by the S&T community with a view to support research and technology development in India. With the establishment of this new board a major increase in the funding of basic research of disciplinary and cross disciplinary nature can also be expected to take place in India. The S&T community has been able to enshrine this thrust quite clearly and explicitly in the preamble of this legislation. Particularly the rationale for this change is embedded in the S&T community’s perception of neglect of the component of basic research by the country during the decade of nineties. Although at the moment we are at the early stage of formation of the board, but it is not difficult to predict that this new policy instrument would be focused on providing a thrust to mainly a much larger allocation for funds for basic research of both types, academic as well as directed basic research. Although the area of extramural R&D funding has been monitored by the Department of science and technology at the level of production of an annual directory of extramural research projects since the beginning of nineties, but it is clear that for the time being a perception specific to the S&T community leaders has prevailed in pushing the change in priorities of extramural R&D funding. Extramural R&D funding priorities remain analytically speaking an understudied area of science policy / innovation system (IS) research. Not much thinking seems to have been done in-house by the implementing bodies functioning within the S&T departments of the Central Government mainly due to the lack of establishment of in-house capacity for systematic reflection and learning within the apparatus implementing the policies for research in India. However, as we show through even our own preliminary analysis reported in this paper, claims based on scanty evidence regarding the impact of the policy changes of nineties are still apparently becoming the basis of legitimization of the changes in S&T policy including the establishment of a new statutory board. In this paper we undertake an empirical investigation into the perusal of priorities of project funding with a view to find out about the actual impact of policy discourse driven changes on the system of extramural research and development (R&D) activities. In this preliminary empirical investigation we have confine our study to the objective of deciphering the emerging landscape of project funding for extramural R&D. We have examined the changes in magnitude and composition of funding at the level of structure of research performers, disciplines and portfolio of instruments used and kind of organizational mechanisms created at the level of operational and regulatory structures for mobilizing and allocating the volume of public funds available to S&T in India. Finally, we outline the work in progress and future directions of work being taken up by us on project funding at NISTADS in India. Funding agency wise pattern of allocation of EMR project funds Below we analyze the portfolio of extramural R&D projects of all the major funding agencies. We examine the changing composition of allocations made to projects on the basis of the objectives of the funding instruments, the categories of beneficiaries and the disciplines benefiting from extra-mural funding. For the managing agencies, we have used a simple classification between national government administration offering support to strategic and generic S&T through ministries, intermediary agencies including agencies with higher level of autonomy from the state (research councils) and councils / commissions with mandate for providing support to higher and technical education and user departments. We have also analyzed the changing composition of allocations made to projects on the basis of the model of delegation or discretion of the experts of S&T community used in the funding instruments, the categories of beneficiaries and the disciplines benefiting from extra-mural R&D funding. Extra-mural project funding is the second most important allocation mechanism for public research funding alongside intra-mural institutional funds allocated to research organizations and universities. A total of 12523 R&D projects costing Rs. 2198.47 crores were approved by 23 central government departments / agencies during the period 2000- 2005. The number of projects sanctioned in a year varied from 2009 to 2749 during this period and the total approved cost varied from Rs. 286.71 crores to Rs. 570.49 crores. See Table 1 for the detailed trends. Table 1: Funding Pattern of Sponsored Research by Scientific Agencies 200‐05 Year Number of projects Total approved cost (Rs. In crores) 2000-01 2009 286.71 2001-02 2304 444.96 2002-03 2718 448.69 2003-04 2743 447.62 2004-05 2749 570.49 Total 12523 2198.47 Source: Funding Pattern of Sponsored Research by Scientific Agencies 200-05, November 2008, NSTMIS Division, DST, GOI, New Delhi The R&D support reached out to a total of 9231 scientists as the principal investigators (PIs), spread over a total of 1773 institutions located in 408 cities and towns in the country. These institutions consisted of 156 universities, 624 science colleges, 186 engineering colleges, 143 medical and pharmacy colleges/ hospitals, 45 deemed universities, 9 institutes of national importance, 306 national laboratories, 55 state government departments/ state S&T councils, 47 scientific and industrial research organizations, 93 corporate sector companies / research institutions and 109 voluntary organizations. Going by the latest allocation figures of 2000-2005, the share of extramural R&D funding in the overall funding allocated to R&D by the Central Government is still hovering around only four percent. In most European countries, project funding for research covers as a whole by now between a quarter and a third of total public research funds. However, it does need a mention that the contribution of the component of extramural research system to the research output and outcomes is far more due to the fact of intramural funds being spent on salaries and maintenance. Project funding for extramural R&D is the lifeline of research being undertaken by a large number of academic institutions and national laboratories in India. At the moment it is in fact having a multiplying impact on the effectiveness of intramural research funding being undertaken for the public research system. Below we bring out the pattern of contribution of different funding agencies based on our own latest analysis of the observations running up to the year 2005-06. The number of extra-mural R&D projects supported by scientific agencies increased from 2718 in 2002- 03 to 3569 in 2005-06. The extramural R&D support by scientific agencies increased from Rs. 448.69 crores in 2002-03 to Rs. 1163.80 crores in 2005-06. The maximum extra-mural support for R&D of Rs. 572.11 crores (49.2%) was given by DST. This was followed by MCIT and DBT with extra-mural R&D support of (15.8%) and Rs. 174.73 crores respectively. The Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology (MCIT) and Department of Bio-technology (DBT) were the three agencies which provided 80% of total extramural R&D support during 2005-06. Further, it can be even seen from Table 1.2 that the strategic departments receiving close to 63.8 % of the S&T outlays provide only 7.77 % of the total EMR funds and this share has only marginally improved in the latest period of 2001-2006. Similarly, in the case of socio-economic ministries the share of EMR funds is also small and still not picking up in terms of emphasis. Table 1.2: Department/Agency – wise support to Extramural Projects during 1990-2006 Department/Agency 1990‐95 1995‐2000 2001‐2006 Number of Total Number of Total Number of Total Projects Approved Projects Approved Projects Approved Cost (Rs. In Cost (Rs. In Cost (Rs. In crores) crores) crores) Scientific 3104 339.34 3948 556.44 6783 1894.27 % 45.71 61.96 43.23 41.48 48.17 61.59 Socio‐economic 3063 169.07 4348 693.01 6106 942.43 % 45.11 30.89 47.61 51.63 43.36 30.66 Strategic 624 39.23 838 92.52 1194 238.86 % 9.19 7.17 9.18 6.89 8.48 7.77 Total 6881.82 640.49 9224.84 1435.08 14174.53 3167.81 *: Department of Education (DOED), **: Department of Electronics (DOE), @: Ministry of Information Technology (MIT), @@: Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Homeopathy (AYUSH) Source: Compiled from the annual reports obtaining for the relevant period on extramural R&D funded projects, NSTMIS, DST, GOI 2 Discipline wise pattern of allocation of EMR project funds An important aspect of the extra-mural funding is the issue of relative shares of EMR project funds received by the different types of disciplines. See Table 2.1 and Fig 2.1 for the progress regarding the changing relative shares in respect of different disciplines. It is interesting to note that the relative shares have been stable for most of the fields of natural sciences in the nineties. The fields of engineering and technology received maximum support during the period of 1990-2006. Medical Sciences had the next highest share of 16.90 % during the period of 1990-2006. Biological Sciences received the next highest share of 14 % during the period of 1990-2006. Chemical sciences received a share of over 10 % during the period of 1990-2006. Agricultural and Earth Sciences received the next highest level of share of over 9 %. Physical Sciences took a share of about 7.50 % during the period of 1990-2006. Mathematical Sciences received the lowest relative share of 0.55 % during the period of 1990-2006. The relative shares of different sciences are stable; the only area showing spurt is medical sciences. The share of medical sciences jumped from 6.7% in the period of 1995-2000 to 23 % in the period of 2001-2006. In terms of number of projects being supported through extra-mural funding, the trend of rapid growth in biological and medical sciences is also a noteworthy feature. The average cost of projects is on the rise in all fields. In the fields of engineering and medical sciences, it is in the range of about 30 lakhs. See Fig 1.2 for the details of changing relative cost of projects in different scientific disciplines. Table 2.1: Subject Area‐Wise Distribution of Extramural R&D Projects and their Approved Cost during the Year 1990‐91 to 2005‐2006 1990-91 to 1994-95 1995-96 to 1999-00 2001-02 to 2005-06 No. of Projects Total Approved No. of Projects Total Approved No. of Projects Total Approved Cost (Rs. In Cost (Rs. In Cost (Rs. In Crores) Crores) Crores) Subject Agricultural 799 (11.8%) 64.06 (11.7%) 882 (9.6%) 125.63 (9.4%) 1273 (9.0%) 263.76 (8.6%) Sciences Engineering & 1433 (21.1%) 156.44 (28.6%) 2779 (30.5%) 504.04 (37.5%) 2985 (21.2%) 918.39 (29.9%) Technology Medical Sciences 865 (12.8%) 40.64 (7.4%) 881 (9.6%) 90.20 (6.7%) 2037 (14.5%) 708.79 (23.0%) Natural Sciences Biological Sciences 1660 (24.4%) 155.67 (28.4%) 1820 (20.0%) 206.70 (15.4%) 2625 (18.6%) 332.47 (10.8%) Chemical Sciences 789 (11.6%) 34.52 (6.3%) 1141 (12.5%) 138.52 (10.3%) 2173 (15.4%) 343.37 (11.1%) Earth Sciences 532 (7.8%) 45.70 (8.3%) 688 (7.5%) 180.68 (13.5%) 1322 (9.4%) 254.97 (8.3%) Mathematics 97 (1.4%) 3.80 (0.7%) 149 (1.6%) 5.33 (0.4%) 365 (2.6%) 17.92 (0.6%) Physical Sciences 616 (9.1%) 46.81 (8.6%) 794 (8.7%) 90.69 (6.8%) 1303 (9.3%) 235.89 (7.7%) Total 6791 (100%) 547.64(100%) 9134 (100%) 1341.79(100%) 14083(100%) 3075.56(100%) Figure 2.1 Source: Compiled from the reports obtaining for the relevant period on extramural R&D funded projects, NSTMIS, DST, GOI Figure 2.2 3 Performer wise pattern of allocation of EMR project funds Another very important dimension of the extra-mural funding is the issue of relative shares of funds received by the different types of performing institutions with different kinds of research cultures in different. See Table 3.1 and Fig 3.1 for the pattern of distribution of extramural R&D in terms of number of projects & approved cost by types of research performing institutions during the Year 1990-91 to 2005-2006. In respect of the magnitude of total approved costs during the period of 1990-2006, while the share of project funds received by universities and colleges is highest it is the institutes of national importance that top the highly skewed pattern of project funds being made available through extra-funds to the institutions with different kinds of research cultures. The institutions belonging to the category of national laboratories receives the next highest share. The share of category of others which includes industry and NGOs is increasing. In the latest period of 2001-06 the share of others in project funds was close to twenty percent. See Table 3.2 for the details of the pattern of changing relative shares of different kinds of research performing institutions. See also Table 3.3 for the pattern of distribution of extra-mural funding is the issue of changing relative shares of funds received in different disciplines by the different types of R&D performing institutions. The share of national government administration offering support to strategic and generic S&T through ministries in extra-mural funding increased from 55.08% in the period of 1995-2000 to 64.26 in the period of 2001-2006. The share of intermediary agencies with higher level of autonomy from the state (research councils) and councils / commissions with mandate for providing support to higher and technical education declined from 24.40 % in the period of 1995-2000 to 15.30 % in the period of 2001-2006. The share of user departments too declined but by a smaller margin. It decreased from 20.82 % to in the period of 1995-2000 to 19.40 % in the period of 2001-2006. Table 3.1: Distribution of Extramural R&D Projects by types of Institutes and their Approved Cost during the Year 1990‐91 to 2005‐2006 1990-95 1995-2000 2001-2006 Total Total Total Types of Institutes Approved Approved Approved Number of Cost (Rs. Number of Cost (Rs. Number of Cost (Rs. In Institutes In Crores) Institutes In Crores) Institutes Crores) Universities/Colleges 576 195.09 836 426.07 2046 1012.73 (52.6%) (35.6%) (56.1%) (31.7%) (53.4%) (32.9%) Deemed Universities 16 45.92 24 84.39 127 225.92 (1.5%) (8.4%) (1.6%) (6.3%) (3.3%) (7.3%) Institutes of National 9 66.69 11 131.26 56 371.26 Importance (0.8%) (12.2%) (0.7%) (9.8%) (1.5%) (12.1%) National Laboratories 233 184.94 274 569.71 680 842.02 (21.3%) (33.8%) (18.4%) (42.5%) (17.7%) (27.4%) Others 261 55.00 346 130.35 923 623.64 (23.8%) (10.0%) (23.2%) (9.7%) (24.1%) (20.03%) 1095 547.64 1491 1341.79 3832 3075.57 Total (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) Figure 3.1: Distribution of Extramural R&D Number of Projects & Approved Cost by types of Institutes during the Year 1990-91 to 2005-2006 Source: Compiled from the reports obtaining for the relevant period on extramural R&D funded projects, NSTMIS, DST, GOI Table 3.2: Distribution in subject & Institute - wise Investment in Extramural R&D projects during the year 2001-02 to 2005-06. Cost ( Rs. in Lakh) Subject/ Institution University/ Deemed Inst. Natnl. Natnl. Others Total College University Importance Laboratories Agricultural Science 14456.86 2277.33 493.50 7642.80 1802.40 26672.89 % 54.20 8.54 1.85 28.65 6.76 100.00 Biological Science 15519.99 4981.23 1614.69 9204.84 1918.89 33239.64 % 46.69 14.99 4.86 27.69 5.77 100.00 Chemical Science 10687.43 3793.17 7550.25 9144.25 2164.60 33339.70 % 32.06 11.38 22.65 27.43 6.49 100.00 Earth Science 8225.28 954.45 2032.46 9553.26 4689.64 25455.09 % 32.31 3.75 7.98 37.53 18.42 100.00 Engineering &Technology 14374.06 14601.97 23763.16 26598.04 12528.28 91865.51 % 15.65 15.89 25.87 28.95 13.64 100.00 Medical Science 14999.34 4497.39 9914.96 24638.87 15907.04 69957.60 % 21.44 6.43 14.17 35.22 22.74 100.00 Mathematical Science 998.93 269.79 436.20 67.45 19.35 1791.72 % 55.75 15.06 24.35 3.76 1.08 100.00 Physical Science 9565.24 3544.87 5366.78 5202.52 656.39 24335.80 % 39.31 14.57 22.05 21.38 2.70 100.00 Table 3.3: Distribution in subject & Source - wise Investment in Extramural R&D projects during the year 2001-02 to 2005-06. Cost (Rs. in Lakh) Subject/ Institution Among Higher Among User Total S&T Educational Departments Agencies Department Agricultural Science 13304.17 287.53 781.27 14372.97 % 92.56 2.00 5.44 100.00 Biological Science 28160.52 2940.77 2138.35 33239.64 % 84.72 8.85 6.43 100.00 Chemical Science 30375.14 1793.72 2170.84 34339.70 % 88.45 5.22 6.32 100.00 Earth Science 20752.65 613.00 4089.44 25455.09 % 81.53 2.41 16.07 100.00 Engineering &Technology 42581.36 9292.23 39991.92 91865.51 % 46.35 10.12 43.53 100.00 Medical Science 64557.11 1595.83 3804.66 69957.60 % 92.28 2.28 5.44 100.00 Mathematical Science 1032.66 759.06 0.00 1791.72 % 57.64 42.36 0.00 100.00 Physical Science 22720.41 1539.63 75.76 24335.80 % 93.36 6.33 0.31 100.00 Source: Compiled from the reports obtaining for the relevant period on extramural R&D funded projects, NSTMIS, DST, GOI Declining share in project funds in respect of the contribution of CSIR system, a research council to the system of Universities and Colleges is an emerging feature. Intermediary organizations are now far less important to universities and colleges in respect of project funds. Since the research councils have been overtaken by the ministries and departments in project funds as well as total approved costs, the pattern of links of national laboratories with research institutes can be expected to undergo some changes. Further, although the spread of distribution of project funds in respect of universities and colleges is far more now, but the pattern of distribution of project funds is still highly skewed in favour of selected Central Universities and Institutes of National Importance. Among the Central Scientific Departments, the share of departments giving support to generic fields in the contribution to universities and colleges is on the rise. There has been little improvement in the share of strategic science and technology departments in the contribution to universities and colleges in project funds. Across the fields and different scientific disciplines, the contribution of strategic science and technology departments to universities and colleges is lower than even the research councils. Only in the field of physical sciences their contribution to universities and colleges in the project funds is significant. But what is equally of concern is that the share of top ten institutions from EMR funds is itself about 23 % and there have been only one new entrant into the league of top ten institutions over the period of last fifteen years (Table 3.7). Table 3.4: Top 10 Institutions by Number of Projects during 1990‐91 to 94‐95, 1995‐96 to1999‐ 00 & 2001‐02 to 2005‐06 1990-91 to 94-95 1995-96 to1999-00 2001-02 to 2005-06 No. of Total No. of Total No. of Total Projects Approved Projects Approved Projects Approved Cost (Rs in Cost (Rs in Cost (Rs in Institutions Crores) Institutions Crores) Institutions Crores) 260 29.37 335 57.19 449 202.15 IISc, Bangalore (3.8%) (5.4%) IISc, Bangalore (3.7%) (4.3%) IISc, Bangalore (3.2%) (6.6%) 183 13.40 230 29.78 346 70.50 IIT, Bombay (2.7%) (2.4%) IIT, Bombay (2.5%) (2.2%) IIT, Kharagpur (2.5%) (2.3%) 176 9.29 197 19.95 287 104.10 BHU (2.6%) (1.7%) IIT, Kanpur (2.2%) (1.5%) IIT, Kanpur (2.0%) (3.4%) 148 14.43 191 21.18 268 95.79 IIT, Delhi (2.2%) (2.6%) IIT, Delhi (2.1%) (1.8%) IIT, Bombay (1.9%) (3.1%) 147 9.55 171 13.00 226 51.97 AIIMS (2.2%) (1.7%) Jadavpur Univ. (1.9%) (1.0%) IIT, Delhi (1.6%) (1.7%) 132 9.38 153 11.79 211 30.03 IIT, Kanpur (1.9%) (1.7%) BHU (1.7%) (0.9%) Jadavpur Univ. (1.5%) (1.0%) 109 8.72 160 16.49 206 42.06 Delhi Univ. (1.6%) (1.6%) AIIMS (1.7%) (1.2%) AIIMS (1.5%) (1.4%) 104 8.57 150 16.74 206 52.94 IIT, Madras (1.5%) (1.6%) IIT, Kharagpur (1.6%) (1.2%) Delhi Univ. (1.5%) (1.7%) 97 7.04 143 17.61 195 45.35 IIT, Kharagpur (1.4%) (1.3%) Roorkee Univ. (1.5%) (1.3%) IIT, Madras (1.4%) (1.5%) 91 5.15 126 14.72 188 34.39 Osmania Univ. (1.3%) (0.9%) IIT, Madras (1.4%) (1.1%) BHU (1.3%) (1.1%) 1447 114.90 1856 218.45 2582 729.28 Total (21.3%) (21.3%) Total (20.3%) (16.3%) Total (18.3%) (23.7%) Source: Compiled from the reports obtaining for the relevant period on extramural R&D funded projects, NSTMIS, DST, GOI 4 Policy instrument wise pattern of allocation of EMR project funds The mapping and classification of instrument types proved to be more difficult and because a number of instruments are, at the level of aggregation considered with extra- mural R&D funding, rather heterogeneous. Below we resort to a classification of the policy instruments based on the models of delegation being used in the administration of policy instruments and also distinguish them in terms of three types of outcomes. In terms of the models of delegation, we distinguish the policy instruments as free projects / blind delegation or programmatic delegation. In terms of types of outcomes, specific cases of policy instruments are characterized as academic-oriented or directed / thematic / sectoral oriented (where themes are defined from the beginning) or demonstration and development / innovation oriented. Councils / Commissions Objectives Who can submit a Composition Project Evaluation Criteria of Type of Type of proposal of committee Methodology Approval Instrument Scheme by Schemes Agency /Intermediary, ex post by delegation nature of evaluation / Effects of model outcome ex post intermediary evaluation Research Programme Capacity building & University, Committee Evaluation by committee Scientific Free Research Academic- development of Government composed of members/proposals are quality of Project Basic patented technologies Institutions, Grant-in- experts screened by experts on Leader / PP +Applied AICTE & to generate aid Institutions and the subject, and if relevance Research (RP) Master’s and Doctoral Accredited Institutions recommended, degree candidates in the private sector presentation of the project proposal before an Expert Committee To promote research Professors/Scientists Academic The PCR is evaluated by Scientific Free research Academic- work in the field of and other experts in only Council experts identified by quality of project Basic + Research Scheme (RS) S&T including regular employment in is a Apex Research Committees project Applied agriculture, Universities, IITs, Post Body proposal Research engineering and Graduate Institutions, medicine, Preference Colleges, recognized is given to schemes R&D laboratories etc which have relevance to research programmes of CSIR laboratories. To provide support to A scientist who has Standing Evaluation by number of Scientific Free research Academic- Emeritus Scientist (ES) superannuated been actively engaged Committee referees and concerned quality of project Basic + outstanding scientists in scientific research CSIR Lab with Standing project leader Applied CSIR to pursue research in during the preceding Committee meeting Research their respective field five years of twice in a year of specialization and superannuation. having relevance to the programmes of CSIR The Directors of CSIR Professors/Scientists Academic Evaluation by committee Scientific Free research Thematic- Sponsored Scheme (SS) laboratories may and other experts in only Council members with research quality project Directed BR + invite applications for regular employment in is a Apex Committee meeting Applied research grants in Universities, IITs, Post Body twice in a year Research/Sect specific areas of Graduate Institutions, oral interest to their Colleges, recognized respective R&D laboratories etc laboratories. They will forward these to the CSIR HRD Group To plan, undertake, ICAR institutes, Academic ICAR is the apex Agricultural Free research Academic- aid, promote and agricultural or other only organisation of the Scientific project Basic Adhoc Research Scheme coordinate education, universities, public, national level and quality Applied research and its quasi-public and evaluation by eight Research application in private institutions and Advisory Committees (ADHOC) agricultural, other organisations consisted of experts from agroforestry, animal capable of undertaking different areas connected husbandry, fisheries, research in the area of with the subject for home science and agricultural research evaluation of new allied sciences. and education. proposals. ICAR Agricultural Produce Cess To provide, undertake ICAR institutes, Academic ICAR is the apex Agricultural Free research Academic- and promote agricultural or other only organisation of the Scientific project Basic consultancy services universities, public, national level and quality Applied Fund (APCF) in the field of quasi-public and evaluation by eight Research education, research private institutions and Advisory Committees training and other organisations consisted of experts from dissemination of capable of undertaking different areas connected information in research in the area of with the subject for agriculture. agricultural research evaluation of new and education. proposals. Proposals in Universities, medical Composition Reviewed by Project Biomedical/ Free Research Academic- fundamental/ strategic colleges, postgraduate of experts / Review Committees health Project Basic research, development institutions, recognized subject (PRCs) constituted by the relevance to Applied Adhoc (ADHOC) and evaluation of a research and specialist various technical theme of Research tool, Clinical and development committee divisions of ICMR for programme operational research laboratories and NGOs. different subject areas, are considered for Most of these projects ICMR support are also reviewed by subject specialists before being considered by the ICMR PRCs These projects are The ICMR’s Academic + Peer review is a strong Scientific Programmatic Thematic- time-bound, with a permanent Expert feature of ICMR for both quality Research Directed BR goal-oriented Institute/Centre can be committee adhoc and task force relevance to Project Applied Task Force (TF) approach and clearly one of the participating projects & goal oriented theme of Research/Sect defined targets, Centre of Task Force programme of national programme oral specific time frames multi-centric project priority areas of research. and conducted by standardised and uniform methodologies To promote Permanent/regular, Council with UGC shall organize mid- Scientific and Free Research Academic- excellence in research working/retired composition term group review educational Project Basic Major Projects (MJRP)& Minor in higher education teachers in the of expert meetings of all the development Applied by supporting research Universities and committee projects which have quality Research programmes of Colleges (Under completed one and a half Projects (MNRP) University and Section 2(f) & 12B of year to two years of College teachers in UGC Act, 1956) are duration where the UGC various disciplines. eligible. Principal Investigators would be invited for presentation of work being done by them before an Expert Committee constituted by the Commission. S&T Objectives Who can submit a Compositio Project Evaluation Criteria of Type of Type of proposal n of Methodology Approval Instrument Scheme by committee /Intermediary, ex by delegation nature of Schemes Agency post evaluation / model outcome Effects of ex post intermediary evaluation Marine Research Research & Development Biotechnology Academic Institutions, R&D Academic Internal screening, Scientific Free Research Academic- Research, Laboratories, Autonomous only peer review, task quality Project Basic + understanding life bodies, Industries etc. force committees, Applied processes and Biotechnology Research (R&D) DBT utilizing them to the Research Promotion advantage of Committee (BRPC) humanity. and experts groups. Development Fund Research in newly Scientists working in Academic Committee of Direct Free Research Thematic- relevance to Ocean Research Institutions and only Experts coming for relevance Project Directed BR + (MRDF) Science and Universities etc. inspection/review to ocean Applied DOD Technology science Research/Secto ral Probing the earth’s Universities, R&D Academic Project is monitored Scientific Programmatic Thematic- Deep Continental deep interior laboratories. Only by the quality Research Directed BR + Studies (DCS) through multi- Experts/PAMC. Project Applied disciplinary proposal is Research/Secto geological / considered for ral geophysical approval by DST. investigations R&D institutions National laboratory under Committee Reviewed by an Innovation Free Research Thematic- and Indian CSIR, ICMR, University composed of expert in the specific and Project Directed BR + Drugs & Pharmaceutical Research pharmaceutical department / other academic experts field and then economic Applied industry in institution such as IIT/IISc., considered by an potential of Research/Secto Programme (DPRP) developing drugs in etc and any other publicly Expert Committee project ral areas of national funded R&D Institution. periodically / once a relevance, to year. DST facilitate new drug development and skill development of human resources in R&D for drugs and pharmaceutical R&D projects in Any scientist from any Final Evaluation of Scientific Programmatic Thematic- Himalayan Glaciology Glaciology College/University and decision by Research Proposal quality Research Directed BR + Research Institution in India Programme through peer review relevance Project Applied Advisory system to theme of Research/Secto (HG) and programme ral Monitoring Committee Multi-disciplinary Any researcher working in Academic PAMC on Weather Scientific Free Research Thematic- Indian Climate Research studies are being the Government, Semi- only and Climate Research quality Project Directed BR + Programme (ICRP) undertaken to Government, Research and Programmes relevance Applied agricultural development organisations (WCRP) is to theme of Research/Secto production, in India responsible for programme ral meteorological evaluation of the extremes, global proposals warming, climate change, etc. Scientific and Universities, national R&D Committee To monitor the Relevance Free Research Academic- Technological laboratories /institutes, composed of project, officers from to theme of Project Basic + International Division (ID) Cooperation private R&D institutes and experts DST pay a visit to the programme Applied Agreements and industry institution/field to Research responsibility for know the current scientific and status/first-hand technological information about the aspects of activities project and to release of international further grants. organizations R&D Projects Scheme To formulate, scientists/engineers/technolo Committee The Steering Scientific Programmatic Thematic- Instrument Development coordinate and gists working in universities composed of Committee will be quality Research Directed BR + Programme (IDP) implement and other academic experts the approving / relevance Project Applied programmes institutions; R&D recommending to the Research/Secto leading to institutions /laboratories. authority for the theme ral indigenous proposal received development and up under the gradation of programme. instruments Creation of core Scientists and Technologists Committee peer review by Scientific Programmatic Thematic- groups/units around who are working in the composed of committee experts to quality Research Directed BR + Intensification of Research in High an outstanding academic sector, National experts and assist the SERC in relevance Project Applied DST Priority Areas (IRHPA) scientist, Setting up labs and other recognized steered by evolving, formulating to the Research/Secto of national facilities R&D laboratories, eminent and implementing theme ral in areas of high Universities/Colleges and scientist and monitoring the priority and Educational Institutions. programmes, Expert Evolving nationally Committees are coordinated scheme specific, area programmes in intensive and are multi-disciplinary steered by eminent areas of high scientists. priority. Promote application Scientists/engineers/technol Advisory Peer reviewed by Scientific Free Research Demonstration/ Joint Technology Programme (JTP) of ogists working in academic committee of experts The project is quality Project Development/ modern/advanced institutions/registered experts periodically relevance Innovation technologies to societies/R&D monitored by the to the socio-economic institutions/laboratories Project Review theme and problem solving; having adequate Committee (on site) for modernization of infrastructure/facilities to and/or Group economic traditional carry out Technology Monitoring developme technologies, tools Development work. Committee (at a nt and skills; common location encourage depending upon the development of stage of applications of development). R&D activities. Monsoon and Tropical Climate To understand the Any researcher working in Academic PAMC on Weather Scientific Programmatic Thematic- atmospheric the Government, Semi- only and Climate Research quality research Directed BR + Studies (MONTCLIM) processes over Government, Research and Programmes relevance Project Applied Indian tropics and Development Organizations (WCRP) is to the Research/Secto to develop in India responsible for theme ral appropriate models evaluation of the for studying the proposal Indian weather and climate. R&D Spatial Data Academic and research Mixed Project is monitored Scientific Programmatic Thematic- Natural Resources Data Management Management institutions, Voluntary composition through half yearly quality and research Directed BR + Technologies, organizations involved in ( academic + progress report basis economic project Applied modeling and the area of natural resources experts) and periodic reviews potential of Research/Secto operation research, management and local area by the Expert project ral System (NRDMS) applications of planning. Committee proposal spatial data in is referred to experts National Disasters, in the area. Mitigation like Comments of the landslides, experts are placed cyclones/tsunamis before the Expert etc. Committees constituted by the NRDMS Division. To study of the Scientists & Academicians Academic Peer review Scientific Free research Thematic- Science & Engineering Research Council – Basic Science PAC- Earth Science (PAC-ES) solid earth, its working in Universities, only mechanisms like quality project Directed BR + atmosphere, the National Labs, recognized Science & relevance Applied oceans, their R&D institutions and Engineering to theme Research/Secto interrelationships Centers of Excellence are Research Council ral and even the eligible. (SERC) steered by relationship the eminent scientists, earth bears to the technologists drawn DST Universe at large. from various universities/national laboratories To promote National labs and other Academic The mandate of Scientific Free Research Academic- research in newly recognized R&D institutions only promotion research quality Project Basic + emerging and Recognized R&D and development in Applied frontier areas of Laboratories, newly emerging and Research science and Universities/Colleges and frontier areas of engineering Educational Institutions science and including technology is multidisciplinary executed through (SERC-BS) fields, basic and innovative High applied research in Level peer review academic and mechanisms like research Science & institutions, in Engineering collaboration with Research Council industry and user (SERC). agencies, transfer such technologies for developmental activities. Science and Engineering Research Science and Engineering Research Council Provide Candidates should possess Committee The selection will be Scientific Free Research Academic- Opportunities to Masters degree in composed of through a peer review quality Project Basic + Young Scientists Engineering/Technology or specific mechanism. Specific Applied (below 35 years) for M.D. in Medicine with some experts. Expert Committees Research – Fast Trac (SERC FT) pursuing exciting research experience or a are constituted to and innovative Ph.D. in Basic assist the DST for research ideas, Science/Engineering. implementation and interaction and monitoring. exchange of ideas with the scientific community both at national and international level. Research areas in academic sector, National Council with The implementation Scientific Programmatic Thematic- Council – Nanomaterials Science I i i i (SERC Nano Science & labs and other recognized a mixed and monitoring of quality Research Directed BR + Technology, R&D institutions/ composition programmes are relevance Project Applied Generate trained laboratories, (academics + executed by DST to the Research/Secto Manpower in the Universities/Colleges and national with the assistance of theme and ral area and interface Educational Institutions experts + a National Expert for policy between Collaboratio Committee on NSTI. or educational n with Public Public partnership & economic institutions and & International developme &T h l industry for International collaboration nt application ) Promote R&D in R&D institutions, Colleges, Composition The schemes are Scientific Programmatic Thematic- the field of Universities, and reputed of experts operated under the quality research Directed BR + earthquake studies, Non-Governmental committee guidance of Expert relevance project Applied generating high Organizations (NGOs). Committees. to the Research/Secto Seismicity Programme (SP) quality data sets to Proposal in the theme ral facilitate advanced prescribed Performa research, to help in are evaluated by peer earthquake disaster review mechanism, mitigation and Progress is monitored management, create through presentation specialized at DST manpower and workshops/meetings capabilities in organized seismology and periodically, experts earthquake for evaluation. engineering S&T activities at State & Central Institutions, Monitoring Evaluated by Project Scientific Free Research Thematic- State Science & Technology Programme (SSTP) the State level so as State S&T Councils and Committee Evaluation Group as quality Project Directed BR + to ensure Non-Governmental well as by peer Applied integration of S&T Organisations (NGOs) review mechanism Research/Secto for overall socio- wherever necessary. ral economic Progress is monitored development with through presentation special emphasis on at Group Monitoring Location Specific Meetings organized Research & periodically and also Technology by field visits. Development To assist in undertaking Science and Technology demonstration projects in States. The scheme is to Scientists up to the age of 65 Academic This scheme is Scientific Free Research Academic- Utilisation of Scientific Expertise of utilize expertise and years are eligible provided only implemented through quality Project Basic + Retired Scientists (USERS) potential of that they do not have any an Expert Committee Applied eminent/senior other fellowship/programme Research scientists after superannuation for publishing books / monographs/state of the art reports on S&T related topics young scientists for The scheme is open to Academic scheme is operated Scientific Free Research Academic- Young Scientists Scheme (YSS) pursuing innovative young scientists, upper age only under the guidance of quality Project Basic + research ideas limit being 35 years (40 an Expert Applied which have direct years for Women) and Committee, evaluated Research bearing on social having a minimum by peer review problems and qualification of graduation mechanisms as well DST interaction/ in Engineering or Medicine as spot visits by exchange of ideas or post graduation in experts with the scientific Physical, Chemical, community Biological, Social or Behavioral sciences. Demonstration Programme (TDDP) Technology Industrial units either on Academic The project is Scientific Free Research Demonstration/ Promotion, their own or jointly with only monitored by a quality Project Development/ Technology Development & Development & research/educational Project Review Innovation Utilization institutions, international Committee. The Programme bodies, companies & Committee meets (TPDU)’ is individuals every month promoting Industry’s drive to take up New Product/Process Development The programme is Any Indian individual Academic After initial scrutiny, Technologi Free Research Demonstration/ jointly operated by innovators, from the owner only the proposal is cal quality Project Development/ Technopreneur Promotion Programme (TePP) DSIR the Department of of a ‘startup’ referred to the TePP of projects Innovation Scientific and company/industry if the Screening of firms/ Industrial Research annual turnover of the Committee. Decision industry & (DSIR) and company/industry does not of this Committee is Technopren Department of exceed Rs. 30 lakhs per final. eurs related Science and annum themes Technology (DST). TePP is a mechanism to promote individual innovators to become technology based entrepreneurs (Technopreneurs). Strategic Users Objectives Who can submit a Compositi Project Evaluation Criteria of Type of Type of proposal on of Methodology Approval Instrument Scheme by Schemes committee /Intermediary, ex by delegation nature of Agency post evaluation / model outcome Effects of ex post intermediary evaluation Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) Development Board (ARDB)/ Grant in Aeronautics Research Approved Research Academic Evaluation by scientific and Free Research Thematic- & Development Institutions, only committee members technological Project Directed BR + Board to coordinate, Universities or and experts DRDO military R&D Applied Aeronautical Research & fund and sensitize Colleges, Departments and Professor Research/Sect aid Schemes (GIA) futuristic, scientific or Laboratories or academic oral technological areas individuals attached to Institutions/ DRDO having potential reputed industrial Outcomes of project application for firms with R&D reviewing meeting aeronautical systems, facilities both in the at academic Government and Non- institutions and Government sector national scientific laboratories. The Department of Faculty members of Academic Evaluation by Technological Free Research Thematic- Atomic Energy the universities and only Advisory committee and economic Project Directed BR + Board for Research in supports research other similar and experts in the potential of Applied programmes in educational and field of constituted projects Research/Sect Nuclear Science and research institutions. for initial evaluation oral DAE Technology through collaborator from the Board of Research DAE in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS). To conduct research Individuals or groups Academic The progress of the relevance to Free Research Thematic- and development of scientists, engineers, only project is reviewed space theme Project Directed BR + activities in the members of the by expert teams at programme Applied relevant areas of teaching staff and ISRO centers twice Research/Sect space science, research workers in a yearExperts at oral Research Sponsored (RESPOND application and belonging to ISRO centers technology at the recognized academic evaluate the universities and institutions, proposal for its academic institutions universities and relevance to space in the country research organizations. programme and with their recommendations is forwarded to ISRO HQ programme offices for further processing and ISRO approval by ISRO Chairman. To conduct research Individuals or groups Academic The progress of the relevance to Programmatic Space Science Promotion (SSP) and development of scientists, engineers, only project is reviewed space theme Research Thematic- activities in the members of the by expert teams at programme Project Directed BR + relevant areas of teaching staff and ISRO centers twice Applied space science. research workers in a year. Experts at Research/Sect belonging to ISRO centers oral recognized academic evaluate the institutions, proposal for its universities and relevance to space research organizations. programme and approval by ISRO Chairman. Civilian Users Objectives Who can submit a Compositio Project Evaluation Criteria of Type of Type of proposal n of Methodology Approval Instrument Scheme by Schemes Agency committee /Intermediary, ex by nature of post evaluation / delegation outcome Effects of ex post model intermediary evaluation To promote research that Universities, Colleges Composition The Advisory Environment Programmat Thematic- would assist ecological recognized by UGC, of committee Committee makes al scientific ic research Directed BR Biosphere Reserve (BR) conservation both within and Institutions of CSIR, experts recommendations quality project + Applied areas adjacent to these ICAR, ICMR, ICSSR based on the relevance Research/Se reserves. To provide and recognized non- comments of experts theme of ctoral facilities for international governmental & The monitoring programme cooperation and people – scientific organizations committee evaluates environment interaction in a the progress of the whole range of bio-climatic project. and bio-geographic situations of the biosphere. To develop strategies, Universities, Colleges Academic During the year, three Scientific Free Thematic- Environment Research technologies, methodologies, recognized by UGC, only meetings of the quality Research Directed BR Programme (ERP) information and data Institutions of CSIR, Environment Research Project + Applied dissemination for better ICAR, ICMR, ICSSR Committee (ERC) Research/Se environment management and recognized non- were held to review / ctoral permitting sustainable governmental monitor the ongoing development. scientific organizations projects andto consider the new proposals Programme is to develop a Universities, Colleges Academic During the year, Scientific Free Thematic- Ecosystem Research Scheme (ERS) basis within the field of recognized by UGC, only Expert Committee for quality Research Directed BR natural and social sciences Institutions of CSIR, Ecosystem Research Project + Applied for rational use and ICAR, ICMR, ICSSR Scheme (ERS) met Research/Se MOEF conservation of resources for and recognized non- four times to consider ctoral general improvement of the governmental new proposals as well relationship between man scientific organizations as to monitor the on- and his environment and going projects. improvement of environmental quality, while permitting sustainable development. Under this programme, NA Composition During the year, four Scientific Programmat Thematic- Eastern & Western studies relating to bio- of expert meetings of the Expert quality ic research Directed BR Ghats (EWG) diversity, land use, impact of committee Committee for Eastern relevance project + Applied developmental activities etc. and Western Ghats theme of Research/Se are taken up to restore the Research Programme programme ctoral environmental quality of the (E&WGRP) region. NNRMS involves utilization NA Composition SC-B has constituted a Scientific Programmat Thematic- Management System (NNRMS) National Natural Resources of remote sensing of expert Technical & Financial quality ic research Directed BR technology for accurate committee Sub-Committee to project + Applied inventory of resources such scrutinize/review all Research/Se as land, water, the proposals ctoral forests,minerals, oceans, etc. submitted for funding and to utilize this under NNRMS informationfor monitoring changes in ecological system. Fresh water wetland Free Thematic- resources which exhibit a Research Directed BR great ecological diversity are Project + Applied of great economic, aesthetic Research/Se Wet lands (WL) and ecological importance. ctoral Research on various aspects MOEF of conservation and management of wetlands including enhancements of their productivity are promoted through appropriate agencies. Research Scheme on Power (RSP) The scheme basically aims Academic and R&D evaluated by Review of progress Scientific Free Thematic- to provide fund for carrying Institutions can also an expert projects are monitored quality Research Directed BR out need based research submit proposals committee by RSOP Cell of the R relevance to Project + Applied projects in power sector [RSOP- & D Coordination theme of Research/Se including solving of power Expert Division of CPRI in programme ctoral MOP system operational problems Committee] Bangalore. Quarterly in the country progress reports (physical & financial) are to be furnished by the Investigating with expert committee. The objectives are to Scientists/Engineers/R Academic After initial scrutiny Scientific Free Thematic- coordinate, fund and direct esearchers from only the proposals are quality Research Directed BR Science & Technology Mission Mode application of technology in Academic & Research considered by Project + Applied the development and Institutions, Public respective Technical Research/Se utilization of : suitable and Sector/Private Sector Advisory ctoral cost-effective aids and Industries, Non- Groups(TAGs. The appliances, methods of Governmental recommendations of (S&TM) MOSJE education and skills Organisations having the TAGs are placed development leading to some basic and before the Apex Level enhancement of essential facilities to Committee (ALC) for opportunities for carry out the research its approval.The employment, easier living programme. projects are monitored and mobility, quarterly with the help communication, recreation of the experts from the and integration in society. TAGs and ALC. MOWR promote research R&D institutes/labs of Academic Indian National Technologic Free Thematic- work in the field of Water the Central or State only Committees (INCs) al & Research Directed BR Research & Development for Water Resources Resources R&D Programme. Government, have been constituted Scientific Project + Applied Organisations under to co-ordinate the water related Research/Se MOWR, Universities R&D programme in research ctoral Management (R&D WRM) and Educational conjunction with R&D programme institutes, NGOs, non- Division, MOWR profit making private listed INC for MOWR R&D institutions/ Hydraulics Research organisations (INCH), INC for Hydrology (INCOH), INC for Irrigation & Drainage (INCID), INC for Geo-technical Engineering (INCGE) & INC for Construction Materials & Structures (INCCMS To promote research, Universities, Colle- Academic The project is Scientific Free Thematic- Research & Development development and ges, R&D Institutions, only monitored by the quality Research Directed BR deployment efforts aimed at Techn- ical & Department / Project + Applied petroleum conservation and Educational screening committee / Research/Se environment protection, fuel Institutions, Priv- ate reviewing committee. ctoral (R&D) PCRA efficient technology and Organizations, NGOs. alternate fuels. R&D activities in Coal and Research and Academic Peer review by Scientific Free Thematic- Science & Technology Lignite sectors educational only Standing Scientific quality Research Directed BR institutions, public Research Committee Project + Applied sector undertakings (SSRC) of the Research/Se (S&T) DOC and such other Ministry of Coal under ctoral agencies, which have the Chairmanship of capability to take up Secretary (Coal) is the R&D work. Apex body. To develop evidence based The institutions Mixed Evaluation Committee Scientific Programmat Thematic- support on the efficacy of seeking a project from composition consisting of Adviser quality ic Research Directed BR AYUSH drugs and therapies, the Department of ( academic + (Ayurveda / Unani/ relevance to Project + Applied Extra Mural Research (EMR) validation of relevant and AYUSH should have external Homoeo), Director theme & Research/Se promising practices and adequate infrastructure expert) (CCRAS/CCRUM/CC economic ctoral skills of traditional health to pursue the research RYN/CCRH) and two potential practitioners and to further project. In case of representatives of AYUSH develop their utility for clinical research, the CSIR/ICMR/DST/DB public benefit. hospital, laboratory T. Progress review in facilities for bio- six months chemical, pathological etc. necessary equipment are available. Promote research in In-house R&D units Academic After initial scrutiny, Free Academic- Research & Development Research and Development education development set-up by industry, is only the proposal is referred Research Basic + operated by the to experts and Project Applied Department of whenever necessary Research DOSHE (R&D) Scientific & Industrial the site is visited and Research (DSIR) then proposal is considered by a Screening Committee which meets every month. Supports Research and Academic Institutes, Mixed Evaluation and Technologic Free Thematic- Development projects for Research Laboratories composition appraisal of project al quality Research Directed BR promotion of indigenous and Industries with (academic + proposals is done relevance Project + Applied MOCIT technologies in identified proven track-record in Industrial through a Working theme of Research/Se (R&D) thrust areas R&D experts + Group consisting of programme ctoral eminent eminent scientists and scientist) industrial experts and academicians. Below we depict the results of our analysis of the pattern of evolution of extra mural research supported under different instrument types during the period 2001-2006. See Table 4.2 While considering the quantitative importance of the instrument types, the share of academic-oriented instruments is over 42 %. Theme-oriented instruments account for 47% of the total. Innovation-oriented instruments account for only 1 % of the total. In European countries, the share of academic-oriented instruments varies from more than 40% for Switzerland to little more than 20% for Austria, Italy and Norway. Innovation-oriented instruments account for 40% of the total in Austria, 20% in Italy, 17% in Norway, but less than 10% in France and Switzerland. Table 4.2: Scope of outcome & objective wise Support to Extramural R & D Projects approved during 2001‐02 to 2005‐06. Total Approved Cost (Rs. Schemes No. of Projects Crores) 2001-02 Thematic 1080 (46.9%) 294.17 (66.1%) Academic 1200 (52.1%) 142.91 (32.1%) Innovation 24 (1.0%) 7.88 (1.8%) Total 2304 (100%) 444.96 (100%) 2002-03 Thematic 1300 (47.8%) 306.15 (68.2%) Academic 1391 (51.2%) 134.19 (29.9%) Innovation 27 (1.0%) 8.35 (1.9%) Total 2718 (100%) 448.69 (100%) 2003-04 Thematic 1314 (47.9%) 325.62 (72.7%) Academic 1400 (51.0%) 109.26 (24.4%) Innovation 29 (1.1%) 12.74 (2.9%) Total 2743 (100%) 447.62 (100%) 2004-05 Thematic 1355 (49.3%) 431.77 (75.7%) Academic 1376 (50.0%) 133.18 (23.3%) Innovation 18 (0.7%) 5.54 (1.0%) Total 2749 570.49 2005-06 Thematic 1613 (45.2%) 913.49 (78.5%) Academic 1916 (53.7%) 220.34 (18.9%) Innovation 40 (1.1%) 29.97 (2.6%) Total 3569 (100%) 1163.80 (100%) 2001-02 to 2005-06 Thematic 6662 (47.3%) 2271.19 (73.8%) Academic 7283 (51.7%) 739.88 (24.1%) Innovation 138 (1.0%) 64.49 (2.1%) Total 14083 (100%) 3075.56 (100%) Source: Analysis of the authors for suprainstitutional project at NISTADS, 2009 Similarly, when we classified the policy instruments in terms of the models of delegation, it turns out that the S&T community has preferred to fund more of free projects rather than programmatic projects. For detailed analysis see Table 4.3 and 4.4 given below. Table 4.3: Evaluation of EMR projects in terms of delegation model during 2001-02 to 2005-06 Total approved cost (Rs. In crores) Free Agency Research Programmatic Total Project Research Project Councils/Commissions ( c) 413.03 56.99 470.02 Science & Technology (S&T) 1278.27 514.40 1792.67 Strategic Users (Str. U) 236.00 2.80 238.80 Civilian Users (Cvl. U) 530.77 42.97 573.74 Total 2458.07 617.16 3075.23 C: AICTE, CSIR, UGC, ICAR & ICMR. S&T: DBT, DSIR, DST & DOD. Str. U: DAE, DRDO & ISRO. Cvl. U: MOCIT, MOEF, MNES, DOC etc. Table 4.4: Evaluation of EMR projects in terms of delegation model year wise during 2001-02 to 2005-06 Total approved cost (Rs. In crores) 2001-02 to 2005-06 Science & Year Total Councils/Commissions Technology Strategic Users Civilian Users Free Program. Free Program. Free Program. Free Program. 2005-06 97.46 11.82 552.65 203.65 53.76 0.47 222.67 21.32 1163.8 2004-05 66.65 4.66 240.34 113.42 42.86 1.05 87.88 13.63 570.49 2003-04 80 8.96 153.2 61 35.86 0.41 105.25 2.85 447.53 2002-03 94.07 20.16 153.51 85.14 42.75 0.87 50.62 1.49 448.61 2001-02 74.85 11.39 178.57 51.19 60.77 0 64.35 3.68 444.8 Total 413.03 56.99 1278.27 514.4 236 2.8 530.77 42.97 3075.23 Source: Analysis of the authors for ASIALICS 2009 Conferennce at NISTADS, 2009 Concluding remarks It is quite clear from the above analysis that the leaders of S&T community appear to be mistaken if they think priorities were changed in the system of research in a radical way during the decade of nineties. If there is a change in the level of quality of excellence in the perusal of research, they need to look elsewhere for the sources of their difficulties. However, when look at the same evidence from the standpoint of society and state, it is also clear that those performing the boundary work did not perform their responsibility properly. There has been no radical change in the priorities of extramural R&D funding. The same ten top institutions continue to dominate and benefit from the allocation of EMR funds. Similarly, there has been no upsets even at the level of disciplines or in terms of relative shares the performing institutions have marginally only gone against national laboratories. The share of universities and colleges is only marginally different from what it was the case in 1990. Programmatic model of delegation is yet to take a significant root in the policy instruments created to work for “thematic oriented” mode 2 type knowledge outcomes. In terms of the implications for policymaking, it is clear that whatever understanding the S&T community has been propogating about the public sector research system for the decade of nineties is hardly borne out by the analysis undertaken of EMR funding. This analysis does throw a new challenge to the representatives of state and society who certainly need to rethink how they would like to intervene and help the system to learn better by developing capacity for systematic reflection.
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