Knowledge production through publicly funded project research by sdfwerte

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									Knowledge production through publicly funded project research: Whose
influence counts in India?

Dinesh Abrol and Vinod Upadhyay, NISTADS

Abstract
Project funding is the second most important channel of public funding of research in
India. The distinct organizational feature of project funding is the existence of some kind
of agency selecting the project to be funded and allocating money to a research group.
Since the practice of delegation to quasi-independent agencies is widespread in project
funding, much discussion exists on its impact on the achievement of public goals in
research and technology development in the national and global contexts. In this
contribution we analyze the evolution of the objectives and outcomes of project funding
with a view to find out about the kind of influence being exercised by different types of
stakeholders over the development of research structures for the realization of social
relevance and economic innovation in India.

Introduction
During the decades of nineties the discourse of macro-economic policymakers was
focused on how the research policymaking apparatus needs to place now emphasis on
getting the S&T community to move away from the ‘ivory tower” research and steer the
instruments of public funding of research and development (R&D) far more towards the
direction of technology development and application. But what kind of impact the macro-
economic policy driven change has left on the project funding based instruments of
public funding of research and technology development is not really known. However, in
December 2008 the last parliament did go on to adopt a new legislation for the purpose of
according a new thrust to the component of extramural research and development (R&D)
through the establishment of a separate statutory organization, namely science and
engineering research board. At the moment this board is expected to take the
responsibility of allocating the extramural R&D funds of only the Department of Science
and Technology (DST). This means that even after the establishment of this new board
the system of extramural R&D has not been centralized in DST and decisions on the
allocation of extramural R&D funding would continue to be embedded in a variety of
agencies and departments.

Extramural R&D funding is the most important component of project funding being
undertaken by the S&T community with a view to support research and technology
development in India. With the establishment of this new board a major increase in the
funding of basic research of disciplinary and cross disciplinary nature can also be
expected to take place in India. The S&T community has been able to enshrine this thrust
quite clearly and explicitly in the preamble of this legislation. Particularly the rationale
for this change is embedded in the S&T community’s perception of neglect of the
component of basic research by the country during the decade of nineties. Although at the
moment we are at the early stage of formation of the board, but it is not difficult to
predict that this new policy instrument would be focused on providing a thrust to mainly
a much larger allocation for funds for basic research of both types, academic as well as
directed basic research.

Although the area of extramural R&D funding has been monitored by the Department of
science and technology at the level of production of an annual directory of extramural
research projects since the beginning of nineties, but it is clear that for the time being a
perception specific to the S&T community leaders has prevailed in pushing the change in
priorities of extramural R&D funding. Extramural R&D funding priorities remain
analytically speaking an understudied area of science policy / innovation system (IS)
research. Not much thinking seems to have been done in-house by the implementing
bodies functioning within the S&T departments of the Central Government mainly due to
the lack of establishment of in-house capacity for systematic reflection and learning
within the apparatus implementing the policies for research in India. However, as we
show through even our own preliminary analysis reported in this paper, claims based on
scanty evidence regarding the impact of the policy changes of nineties are still apparently
becoming the basis of legitimization of the changes in S&T policy including the
establishment of a new statutory board.

In this paper we undertake an empirical investigation into the perusal of priorities of
project funding with a view to find out about the actual impact of policy discourse driven
changes on the system of extramural research and development (R&D) activities. In this
preliminary empirical investigation we have confine our study to the objective of
deciphering the emerging landscape of project funding for extramural R&D. We have
examined the changes in magnitude and composition of funding at the level of structure
of research performers, disciplines and portfolio of instruments used and kind of
organizational mechanisms created at the level of operational and regulatory structures
for mobilizing and allocating the volume of public funds available to S&T in India.
Finally, we outline the work in progress and future directions of work being taken up by
us on project funding at NISTADS in India.

Funding agency wise pattern of allocation of EMR project funds
Below we analyze the portfolio of extramural R&D projects of all the major funding
agencies. We examine the changing composition of allocations made to projects on the
basis of the objectives of the funding instruments, the categories of beneficiaries and the
disciplines benefiting from extra-mural funding. For the managing agencies, we have
used a simple classification between national government administration offering support
to strategic and generic S&T through ministries, intermediary agencies including
agencies with higher level of autonomy from the state (research councils) and councils /
commissions with mandate for providing support to higher and technical education and
user departments. We have also analyzed the changing composition of allocations made
to projects on the basis of the model of delegation or discretion of the experts of S&T
community used in the funding instruments, the categories of beneficiaries and the
disciplines benefiting from extra-mural R&D funding.

Extra-mural project funding is the second most important allocation mechanism for
public research funding alongside intra-mural institutional funds allocated to research
organizations and universities. A total of 12523 R&D projects costing Rs. 2198.47 crores
were approved by 23 central government departments / agencies during the period 2000-
2005. The number of projects sanctioned in a year varied from 2009 to 2749 during this
period and the total approved cost varied from Rs. 286.71 crores to Rs. 570.49 crores. See
Table 1 for the detailed trends.


Table 1: Funding Pattern of Sponsored Research by Scientific Agencies 200‐05 


Year                           Number of projects   Total approved cost (Rs. In
                                                    crores)
2000-01                   2009                      286.71
2001-02                   2304                      444.96
2002-03                   2718                      448.69
2003-04                   2743                      447.62
2004-05                   2749                      570.49
Total                     12523                     2198.47
Source: Funding Pattern of Sponsored Research by Scientific Agencies 200-05,
November 2008, NSTMIS Division, DST, GOI, New Delhi

The R&D support reached out to a total of 9231 scientists as the principal investigators
(PIs), spread over a total of 1773 institutions located in 408 cities and towns in the
country. These institutions consisted of 156 universities, 624 science colleges, 186
engineering colleges, 143 medical and pharmacy colleges/ hospitals, 45 deemed
universities, 9 institutes of national importance, 306 national laboratories, 55 state
government departments/ state S&T councils, 47 scientific and industrial research
organizations, 93 corporate sector companies / research institutions and 109 voluntary
organizations.

Going by the latest allocation figures of 2000-2005, the share of extramural R&D funding
in the overall funding allocated to R&D by the Central Government is still hovering
around only four percent. In most European countries, project funding for research covers
as a whole by now between a quarter and a third of total public research funds. However,
it does need a mention that the contribution of the component of extramural research
system to the research output and outcomes is far more due to the fact of intramural funds
being spent on salaries and maintenance. Project funding for extramural R&D is the
lifeline of research being undertaken by a large number of academic institutions and
national laboratories in India. At the moment it is in fact having a multiplying impact on
the effectiveness of intramural research funding being undertaken for the public research
system.

Below we bring out the pattern of contribution of different funding agencies based on our
own latest analysis of the observations running up to the year 2005-06. The number of
extra-mural R&D projects supported by scientific agencies increased from 2718 in 2002-
03 to 3569 in 2005-06. The extramural R&D support by scientific agencies increased
from Rs. 448.69 crores in 2002-03 to Rs. 1163.80 crores in 2005-06. The maximum
extra-mural support for R&D of Rs. 572.11 crores (49.2%) was given by DST. This was
followed by MCIT and DBT with extra-mural R&D support of (15.8%) and Rs. 174.73
crores respectively. The Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of
Communications & Information Technology (MCIT) and Department of Bio-technology
(DBT) were the three agencies which provided 80% of total extramural R&D support
during 2005-06. Further, it can be even seen from Table 1.2 that the strategic departments
receiving close to 63.8 % of the S&T outlays provide only 7.77 % of the total EMR funds
and this share has only marginally improved in the latest period of 2001-2006. Similarly,
in the case of socio-economic ministries the share of EMR funds is also small and still
not picking up in terms of emphasis.

Table 1.2: Department/Agency – wise support to Extramural Projects during 1990-2006
  Department/Agency          1990‐95               1995‐2000              2001‐2006 
                                Number of      Total           Number of    Total           Number of    Total 
                                Projects       Approved        Projects     Approved        Projects     Approved 
                                               Cost (Rs. In                 Cost (Rs. In                 Cost (Rs. In 
                                               crores)                      crores)                      crores) 

 Scientific                          3104        339.34            3948       556.44             6783     1894.27
 %                                  45.71         61.96           43.23        41.48            48.17       61.59
 Socio‐economic                      3063        169.07            4348       693.01             6106      942.43
 %                                  45.11         30.89           47.61        51.63            43.36       30.66
 Strategic                            624         39.23             838        92.52             1194      238.86
 %                                   9.19          7.17            9.18         6.89             8.48        7.77
 Total                            6881.82        640.49         9224.84      1435.08         14174.53     3167.81
*: Department of Education (DOED), **: Department of Electronics (DOE), @: Ministry of Information Technology
(MIT),
@@: Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Homeopathy (AYUSH)
Source: Compiled from the annual reports obtaining for the relevant period on extramural R&D funded
projects, NSTMIS, DST, GOI


2 Discipline wise pattern of allocation of EMR project funds
An important aspect of the extra-mural funding is the issue of relative shares of EMR
project funds received by the different types of disciplines. See Table 2.1 and Fig 2.1 for
the progress regarding the changing relative shares in respect of different disciplines. It is
interesting to note that the relative shares have been stable for most of the fields of
natural sciences in the nineties. The fields of engineering and technology received
maximum support during the period of 1990-2006. Medical Sciences had the next highest
share of 16.90 % during the period of 1990-2006. Biological Sciences received the next
highest share of 14 % during the period of 1990-2006. Chemical sciences received a
share of over 10 % during the period of 1990-2006. Agricultural and Earth Sciences
received the next highest level of share of over 9 %. Physical Sciences took a share of
about 7.50 % during the period of 1990-2006. Mathematical Sciences received the lowest
relative share of 0.55 % during the period of 1990-2006.

The relative shares of different sciences are stable; the only area showing spurt is medical
sciences. The share of medical sciences jumped from 6.7% in the period of 1995-2000 to
23 % in the period of 2001-2006. In terms of number of projects being supported through
extra-mural funding, the trend of rapid growth in biological and medical sciences is also a
noteworthy feature. The average cost of projects is on the rise in all fields. In the fields of
engineering and medical sciences, it is in the range of about 30 lakhs. See Fig 1.2 for the
details of changing relative cost of projects in different scientific disciplines.


Table 2.1: Subject Area‐Wise Distribution of Extramural R&D Projects and their Approved Cost 
             during the Year 1990‐91 to 2005‐2006 

                               1990-91 to 1994-95                 1995-96 to 1999-00                    2001-02 to 2005-06
                       No. of Projects   Total Approved   No. of Projects   Total Approved      No. of Projects   Total Approved
                                         Cost (Rs. In                       Cost (Rs. In                          Cost (Rs. In
                                         Crores)                            Crores)                               Crores)
 Subject
 Agricultural          799 (11.8%)       64.06 (11.7%)     882 (9.6%)       125.63 (9.4%)       1273 (9.0%)       263.76 (8.6%)
 Sciences
 Engineering &         1433 (21.1%)      156.44 (28.6%)   2779 (30.5%)      504.04 (37.5%)      2985 (21.2%)      918.39 (29.9%)
 Technology
 Medical Sciences      865 (12.8%)       40.64 (7.4%)     881   (9.6%)      90.20      (6.7%)   2037 (14.5%)      708.79 (23.0%)

 Natural Sciences
 Biological Sciences   1660 (24.4%)      155.67 (28.4%)   1820 (20.0%)      206.70 (15.4%)      2625 (18.6%)      332.47 (10.8%)

 Chemical Sciences     789 (11.6%)       34.52 (6.3%)     1141 (12.5%)      138.52 (10.3%)      2173 (15.4%)      343.37 (11.1%)

 Earth Sciences        532 (7.8%)        45.70 (8.3%)     688 (7.5%)        180.68 (13.5%)      1322 (9.4%)       254.97 (8.3%)

 Mathematics           97   (1.4%)       3.80   (0.7%)    149 (1.6%)        5.33       (0.4%)   365   (2.6%)      17.92      (0.6%)

 Physical Sciences     616 (9.1%)        46.81 (8.6%)     794 (8.7%)        90.69      (6.8%)   1303 (9.3%)       235.89 (7.7%)

 Total                 6791 (100%)       547.64(100%)     9134 (100%)       1341.79(100%)       14083(100%)       3075.56(100%)
                                              Figure 2.1




Source: Compiled from the reports obtaining for the relevant period on extramural R&D funded projects,
NSTMIS, DST, GOI
                                              Figure 2.2
3 Performer wise pattern of allocation of EMR project funds
Another very important dimension of the extra-mural funding is the issue of relative
shares of funds received by the different types of performing institutions with different
kinds of research cultures in different. See Table 3.1 and Fig 3.1 for the pattern of
distribution of extramural R&D in terms of number of projects & approved cost by types
of research performing institutions during the Year 1990-91 to 2005-2006. In respect of
the magnitude of total approved costs during the period of 1990-2006, while the share of
project funds received by universities and colleges is highest it is the institutes of national
importance that top the highly skewed pattern of project funds being made available
through extra-funds to the institutions with different kinds of research cultures. The
institutions belonging to the category of national laboratories receives the next highest
share.

The share of category of others which includes industry and NGOs is increasing. In the
latest period of 2001-06 the share of others in project funds was close to twenty percent.
See Table 3.2 for the details of the pattern of changing relative shares of different kinds
of research performing institutions. See also Table 3.3 for the pattern of distribution of
extra-mural funding is the issue of changing relative shares of funds received in different
disciplines by the different types of R&D performing institutions.

The share of national government administration offering support to strategic and generic
S&T through ministries in extra-mural funding increased from 55.08% in the period of
1995-2000 to 64.26 in the period of 2001-2006. The share of intermediary agencies with
higher level of autonomy from the state (research councils) and councils / commissions
with mandate for providing support to higher and technical education declined from
24.40 % in the period of 1995-2000 to 15.30 % in the period of 2001-2006. The share of
user departments too declined but by a smaller margin. It decreased from 20.82 % to in
the period of 1995-2000 to 19.40 % in the period of 2001-2006.


Table 3.1: Distribution of Extramural R&D Projects by types of Institutes and their Approved 
             Cost during the Year 1990‐91 to 2005‐2006 
                                  1990-95                 1995-2000                  2001-2006
                                         Total                     Total                     Total
  Types of Institutes                    Approved                  Approved                  Approved
                            Number of    Cost (Rs.    Number of    Cost (Rs.    Number of    Cost (Rs. In
                            Institutes   In Crores)   Institutes   In Crores)   Institutes   Crores)


  Universities/Colleges     576          195.09        836         426.07       2046         1012.73
                            (52.6%)      (35.6%)      (56.1%)      (31.7%)      (53.4%)      (32.9%)
  Deemed Universities       16           45.92        24           84.39        127          225.92
                            (1.5%)       (8.4%)       (1.6%)       (6.3%)       (3.3%)       (7.3%)
  Institutes of National    9            66.69        11           131.26       56           371.26
  Importance                (0.8%)       (12.2%)      (0.7%)       (9.8%)       (1.5%)       (12.1%)
  National Laboratories        233         184.94      274         569.71      680         842.02
                               (21.3%)     (33.8%)     (18.4%)     (42.5%)     (17.7%)     (27.4%)
  Others                       261         55.00       346         130.35      923         623.64
                               (23.8%)     (10.0%)     (23.2%)     (9.7%)      (24.1%)     (20.03%)
                               1095        547.64      1491        1341.79     3832        3075.57
  Total
                               (100%)      (100%)      (100%)      (100%)      (100%)      (100%)

Figure 3.1: Distribution of Extramural R&D Number of Projects & Approved Cost by
types of Institutes during the Year 1990-91 to 2005-2006




Source: Compiled from the reports obtaining for the relevant period on extramural R&D funded projects,
NSTMIS, DST, GOI
Table 3.2: Distribution in subject & Institute - wise Investment in Extramural R&D
projects during the year 2001-02 to 2005-06.
                                                                    Cost ( Rs. in Lakh)
 Subject/ Institution    University/       Deemed      Inst. Natnl.         Natnl.           Others         Total
                            College      University    Importance      Laboratories
 Agricultural
 Science                  14456.86         2277.33          493.50          7642.80         1802.40      26672.89
 %                           54.20            8.54            1.85            28.65            6.76       100.00
 Biological Science       15519.99         4981.23         1614.69          9204.84         1918.89      33239.64
 %                           46.69           14.99            4.86            27.69            5.77       100.00
 Chemical Science         10687.43         3793.17         7550.25          9144.25         2164.60      33339.70
 %                           32.06           11.38           22.65            27.43            6.49       100.00
 Earth Science             8225.28          954.45         2032.46          9553.26         4689.64      25455.09
 %                           32.31            3.75            7.98            37.53           18.42       100.00
 Engineering
 &Technology              14374.06        14601.97       23763.16          26598.04       12528.28       91865.51
 %                           15.65           15.89          25.87             28.95          13.64        100.00
 Medical Science          14999.34         4497.39        9914.96          24638.87       15907.04       69957.60
 %                           21.44            6.43          14.17             35.22          22.74        100.00
 Mathematical
 Science                     998.93         269.79          436.20            67.45           19.35       1791.72
 %                            55.75          15.06           24.35             3.76            1.08       100.00
 Physical Science           9565.24        3544.87         5366.78          5202.52          656.39      24335.80
 %                            39.31          14.57           22.05            21.38            2.70       100.00

Table 3.3: Distribution in subject & Source - wise Investment in Extramural R&D
projects during the year 2001-02 to 2005-06.
                                                                 Cost (Rs. in Lakh)
          Subject/ Institution        Among           Higher       Among User             Total
                                        S&T       Educational      Departments
                                     Agencies     Department
        Agricultural Science        13304.17          287.53             781.27       14372.97
        %                              92.56             2.00              5.44        100.00
        Biological Science          28160.52         2940.77            2138.35       33239.64
        %                              84.72             8.85              6.43        100.00
        Chemical Science            30375.14         1793.72            2170.84       34339.70
        %                              88.45             5.22              6.32        100.00
        Earth Science               20752.65          613.00            4089.44       25455.09
        %                              81.53             2.41             16.07        100.00
        Engineering
        &Technology                 42581.36          9292.23         39991.92        91865.51
        %                              46.35            10.12            43.53         100.00
        Medical Science             64557.11          1595.83          3804.66        69957.60
        %                              92.28             2.28             5.44         100.00
        Mathematical
        Science                      1032.66           759.06              0.00        1791.72
        %                              57.64            42.36              0.00        100.00
        Physical Science            22720.41          1539.63             75.76       24335.80
        %                              93.36             6.33              0.31        100.00

Source: Compiled from the reports obtaining for the relevant period on extramural R&D funded projects,
NSTMIS, DST, GOI
Declining share in project funds in respect of the contribution of CSIR system, a research
council to the system of Universities and Colleges is an emerging feature. Intermediary
organizations are now far less important to universities and colleges in respect of project
funds. Since the research councils have been overtaken by the ministries and departments
in project funds as well as total approved costs, the pattern of links of national
laboratories with research institutes can be expected to undergo some changes.

Further, although the spread of distribution of project funds in respect of universities and
colleges is far more now, but the pattern of distribution of project funds is still highly
skewed in favour of selected Central Universities and Institutes of National Importance.
Among the Central Scientific Departments, the share of departments giving support to
generic fields in the contribution to universities and colleges is on the rise. There has
been little improvement in the share of strategic science and technology departments in
the contribution to universities and colleges in project funds. Across the fields and
different scientific disciplines, the contribution of strategic science and technology
departments to universities and colleges is lower than even the research councils. Only in
the field of physical sciences their contribution to universities and colleges in the project
funds is significant.

But what is equally of concern is that the share of top ten institutions from EMR funds is
itself about 23 % and there have been only one new entrant into the league of top ten
institutions over the period of last fifteen years (Table 3.7).


Table 3.4: Top 10 Institutions by Number of Projects during 1990‐91 to 94‐95, 1995‐96 to1999‐
             00 & 2001‐02 to 2005‐06 
                       1990-91 to 94-95                           1995-96 to1999-00                          2001-02 to 2005-06

                   No. of      Total                           No. of      Total                           No. of     Total
                   Projects    Approved                        Projects    Approved                        Projects   Approved
                               Cost (Rs in                                 Cost (Rs in                                Cost (Rs in
Institutions                   Crores)       Institutions                  Crores)       Institutions                 Crores)
                      260         29.37                           335         57.19                           449       202.15
IISc, Bangalore     (3.8%)       (5.4%)      IISc, Bangalore    (3.7%)       (4.3%)      IISc, Bangalore    (3.2%)      (6.6%)
                      183         13.40                           230         29.78                           346        70.50
IIT, Bombay         (2.7%)       (2.4%)      IIT, Bombay        (2.5%)       (2.2%)      IIT, Kharagpur     (2.5%)      (2.3%)
                      176         9.29                            197         19.95                           287       104.10
BHU                 (2.6%)       (1.7%)      IIT, Kanpur        (2.2%)       (1.5%)      IIT, Kanpur        (2.0%)      (3.4%)
                      148         14.43                           191         21.18                           268        95.79
IIT, Delhi          (2.2%)       (2.6%)      IIT, Delhi         (2.1%)       (1.8%)      IIT, Bombay        (1.9%)      (3.1%)
                      147         9.55                            171         13.00                           226        51.97
AIIMS               (2.2%)       (1.7%)      Jadavpur Univ.     (1.9%)       (1.0%)      IIT, Delhi         (1.6%)      (1.7%)
                      132         9.38                            153         11.79                           211        30.03
IIT, Kanpur         (1.9%)       (1.7%)      BHU                (1.7%)       (0.9%)      Jadavpur Univ.     (1.5%)      (1.0%)
                      109         8.72                            160         16.49                           206        42.06
Delhi Univ.         (1.6%)       (1.6%)      AIIMS              (1.7%)       (1.2%)      AIIMS              (1.5%)      (1.4%)
                      104         8.57                            150         16.74                           206        52.94
IIT, Madras         (1.5%)       (1.6%)      IIT, Kharagpur     (1.6%)       (1.2%)      Delhi Univ.        (1.5%)      (1.7%)
                      97          7.04                            143         17.61                           195        45.35
IIT, Kharagpur      (1.4%)       (1.3%)      Roorkee Univ.      (1.5%)       (1.3%)      IIT, Madras        (1.4%)      (1.5%)
                      91          5.15                            126         14.72                           188        34.39
Osmania Univ.       (1.3%)       (0.9%)      IIT, Madras        (1.4%)       (1.1%)      BHU                (1.3%)      (1.1%)
                     1447        114.90                          1856        218.45                          2582       729.28
Total              (21.3%)      (21.3%)      Total             (20.3%)      (16.3%)      Total             (18.3%)     (23.7%)
Source: Compiled from the reports obtaining for the relevant period on extramural R&D funded projects, NSTMIS, DST,
GOI
4 Policy instrument wise pattern of allocation of EMR project funds
The mapping and classification of instrument types proved to be more difficult and
because a number of instruments are, at the level of aggregation considered with extra-
mural R&D funding, rather heterogeneous. Below we resort to a classification of the
policy instruments based on the models of delegation being used in the administration of
policy instruments and also distinguish them in terms of three types of outcomes.

In terms of the models of delegation, we distinguish the policy instruments as free
projects / blind delegation or programmatic delegation. In terms of types of outcomes,
specific cases of policy instruments are characterized as academic-oriented or directed /
thematic / sectoral oriented (where themes are defined from the beginning) or
demonstration and development / innovation oriented.

Councils / Commissions
                                   Objectives                Who can submit a           Composition    Project Evaluation        Criteria of        Type of         Type of
                                                             proposal                   of committee   Methodology               Approval           Instrument      Scheme by
         Schemes
Agency




                                                                                                       /Intermediary, ex post                       by delegation   nature of
                                                                                                       evaluation / Effects of                      model           outcome
                                                                                                       ex post intermediary
                                                                                                       evaluation
         Research Programme




                                   Capacity building &       University,                Committee      Evaluation by committee   Scientific         Free Research   Academic-
                                   development        of     Government                 composed of    members/proposals are     quality    of      Project         Basic
                                   patented technologies     Institutions, Grant-in-    experts        screened by experts on    Leader / PP                        +Applied
AICTE




                                   &      to    generate     aid Institutions and                      the subject, and if       relevance                          Research
                (RP)




                                   Master’s and Doctoral     Accredited Institutions                   recommended,
                                   degree candidates         in the private sector                     presentation   of   the
                                                                                                       project proposal before
                                                                                                       an Expert Committee
                                   To promote research       Professors/Scientists      Academic       The PCR is evaluated by   Scientific         Free research   Academic-
                                   work in the field of      and other experts in       only Council   experts identified by     quality       of   project         Basic +
         Research Scheme (RS)




                                   S&T           including   regular employment in      is a Apex      Research Committees       project                            Applied
                                   agriculture,              Universities, IITs, Post   Body                                     proposal                           Research
                                   engineering         and   Graduate Institutions,
                                   medicine, Preference      Colleges, recognized
                                   is given to schemes       R&D laboratories etc
                                   which have relevance
                                   to             research
                                   programmes of CSIR
                                   laboratories.
                                   To provide support to     A scientist who has        Standing       Evaluation by number of   Scientific         Free research   Academic-
         Emeritus Scientist (ES)




                                   superannuated             been actively engaged      Committee      referees and concerned    quality      of    project         Basic +
                                   outstanding scientists    in scientific research                    CSIR Lab with Standing    project leader                     Applied
CSIR




                                   to pursue research in     during the preceding                      Committee       meeting                                      Research
                                   their respective field    five     years      of                    twice in a year
                                   of specialization and     superannuation.
                                   having relevance to
                                   the programmes of
                                   CSIR
                                   The Directors of CSIR     Professors/Scientists      Academic       Evaluation by committee   Scientific         Free research   Thematic-
         Sponsored Scheme (SS)




                                   laboratories       may    and other experts in       only Council   members with research     quality            project         Directed BR +
                                   invite applications for   regular employment in      is a Apex      Committee       meeting                                      Applied
                                   research grants in        Universities, IITs, Post   Body           twice in a year                                              Research/Sect
                                   specific    areas    of   Graduate Institutions,                                                                                 oral
                                   interest     to   their   Colleges, recognized
                                   respective                R&D laboratories etc
                                   laboratories.     They
                                   will forward these to
                                   the CSIR HRD Group
                                       To plan, undertake,       ICAR          institutes,   Academic         ICAR is the apex             Agricultural     Free research   Academic-
                                      aid, promote and          agricultural or other        only            organisation     of    the    Scientific       project         Basic

       Adhoc Research Scheme
                                      coordinate education,     universities,      public,                   national     level     and    quality                          Applied
                                      research and its          quasi-public          and                    evaluation     by    eight                                     Research
                                      application in            private institutions and                     Advisory      Committees
             (ADHOC)
                                      agricultural,             other      organisations                     consisted of experts from
                                      agroforestry, animal      capable of undertaking                       different areas connected
                                      husbandry, fisheries,     research in the area of                      with the subject for
                                      home science and          agricultural     research                    evaluation     of     new
                                      allied sciences.          and education.                               proposals.
ICAR
       Agricultural Produce Cess




                                       To provide, undertake     ICAR          institutes,   Academic         ICAR is the apex             Agricultural     Free research   Academic-
                                      and           promote     agricultural or other        only            organisation      of    the   Scientific       project         Basic
                                      consultancy services      universities,      public,                   national     level      and   quality                          Applied
             Fund (APCF)




                                      in the field of           quasi-public          and                    evaluation     by     eight                                    Research
                                      education,    research    private institutions and                     Advisory       Committees
                                      training           and    other      organisations                     consisted of experts from
                                      dissemination       of    capable of undertaking                       different areas connected
                                      information         in    research in the area of                      with the subject for
                                      agriculture.              agricultural     research                    evaluation      of     new
                                                                and education.                               proposals.
                                      Proposals           in    Universities, medical        Composition     Reviewed by Project           Biomedical/      Free Research   Academic-
                                      fundamental/ strategic    colleges, postgraduate       of experts /    Review         Committees     health           Project         Basic
                                      research, development     institutions, recognized     subject         (PRCs) constituted by the     relevance to                     Applied
       Adhoc (ADHOC)




                                      and evaluation of a       research              and    specialist      various           technical   theme       of                   Research
                                      tool, Clinical and        development                  committee       divisions of ICMR for         programme
                                      operational research      laboratories and NGOs.                       different subject areas,
                                      are considered for                                                     Most of these projects
                                      ICMR support                                                           are also reviewed by
                                                                                                             subject specialists before
                                                                                                             being considered by the
ICMR




                                                                                                             PRCs
                                      These projects are        The             ICMR’s       Academic +      Peer review is a strong       Scientific       Programmatic    Thematic-
                                      time-bound, with a        permanent                    Expert          feature of ICMR for both      quality          Research        Directed BR
                                      goal-oriented             Institute/Centre can be      committee       adhoc and task force          relevance to     Project         Applied
       Task Force (TF)




                                      approach and clearly      one of the participating                     projects & goal oriented      theme      of                    Research/Sect
                                      defined       targets,    Centre of Task Force                         programme of national         programme                        oral
                                      specific time frames      multi-centric project                        priority areas of research.
                                      and conducted by
                                      standardised      and
                                      uniform
                                      methodologies

                                      To             promote    Permanent/regular,           Council with    UGC shall organize mid-       Scientific and   Free Research   Academic-
                                      excellence in research    working/retired              composition     term     group     review     educational      Project         Basic
       Major Projects (MJRP)& Minor




                                      in higher education       teachers     in    the       of     expert   meetings of all the           development                      Applied
                                      by supporting research    Universities       and       committee       projects which have           quality                          Research
                                      programmes           of   Colleges        (Under                       completed one and a half
              Projects (MNRP)




                                      University          and   Section 2(f) & 12B of                        year to two years of
                                      College teachers in       UGC Act, 1956) are                           duration     where     the
UGC




                                      various disciplines.      eligible.                                    Principal    Investigators
                                                                                                             would be invited for
                                                                                                             presentation of work
                                                                                                             being done by them
                                                                                                             before      an     Expert
                                                                                                             Committee constituted
                                                                                                             by the Commission.
S&T
                                              Objectives               Who can submit a                 Compositio    Project Evaluation       Criteria of    Type of         Type of
                                                                       proposal                         n of          Methodology              Approval       Instrument      Scheme by
                                                                                                        committee     /Intermediary, ex                       by delegation   nature of
         Schemes
Agency




                                                                                                                      post evaluation /                       model           outcome
                                                                                                                      Effects of ex post
                                                                                                                      intermediary
                                                                                                                      evaluation
          Marine Research Research & Development




                                              Biotechnology            Academic Institutions, R&D       Academic      Internal   screening,    Scientific     Free Research   Academic-
                                              Research,                Laboratories, Autonomous         only          peer review, task        quality        Project         Basic       +
                                              understanding life       bodies, Industries etc.                        force    committees,                                    Applied
                                              processes        and                                                    Biotechnology                                           Research
                                  (R&D)
DBT




                                              utilizing them to the                                                   Research Promotion
                                              advantage          of                                                   Committee (BRPC)
                                              humanity.                                                               and experts groups.
         Development Fund




                                              Research in newly        Scientists    working  in        Academic      Committee         of     Direct         Free Research   Thematic-
                                              relevance to Ocean       Research Institutions and        only          Experts coming for       relevance      Project         Directed BR +
             (MRDF)




                                              Science        and       Universities etc.                              inspection/review        to     ocean                   Applied
DOD




                                              Technology                                                                                       science                        Research/Secto
                                                                                                                                                                              ral


                                              Probing the earth’s      Universities,           R&D      Academic      Project is monitored     Scientific     Programmatic    Thematic-
         Deep Continental




                                              deep         interior    laboratories.                    Only          by               the     quality        Research        Directed BR +
          Studies (DCS)




                                              through        multi-                                                   Experts/PAMC.                           Project         Applied
                                              disciplinary                                                            proposal           is                                   Research/Secto
                                              geological          /                                                   considered       for                                    ral
                                              geophysical                                                             approval by DST.
                                              investigations

                                              R&D       institutions   National laboratory under        Committee     Reviewed by an           Innovation     Free Research   Thematic-
                                              and             Indian   CSIR, ICMR, University           composed of   expert in the specific   and            Project         Directed BR +
         Drugs & Pharmaceutical Research




                                              pharmaceutical           department / other academic      experts       field    and     then    economic                       Applied
                                              industry            in   institution such as IIT/IISc.,                 considered by an         potential of                   Research/Secto
               Programme (DPRP)




                                              developing drugs in      etc and any other publicly                     Expert     Committee     project                        ral
                                              areas of national        funded R&D Institution.                        periodically / once a
                                              relevance,          to                                                  year.
DST




                                              facilitate new drug
                                              development        and
                                              skill development
                                              of human resources
                                              in R&D for drugs
                                              and pharmaceutical


                                              R&D projects       in    Any scientist from any           Final         Evaluation        of     Scientific     Programmatic    Thematic-
         Himalayan Glaciology




                                              Glaciology               College/University        and    decision by   Research   Proposal      quality        Research        Directed BR +
                                                                       Research Institution in India    Programme     through peer review      relevance      Project         Applied
                                                                                                        Advisory      system                   to theme of                    Research/Secto
                (HG)




                                                                                                        and                                    programme                      ral
                                                                                                        Monitoring
                                                                                                        Committee
                                            Multi-disciplinary        Any researcher working in         Academic       PAMC on Weather           Scientific      Free Research   Thematic-



      Indian Climate Research
                                            studies are being         the Government, Semi-             only           and Climate Research      quality         Project         Directed BR +



        Programme (ICRP)
                                            undertaken         to     Government, Research and                         Programmes                relevance                       Applied
                                            agricultural              development organisations                        (WCRP)             is     to theme of                     Research/Secto
                                            production,               in India                                         responsible      for      programme                       ral
                                            meteorological                                                             evaluation of the
                                            extremes,     global                                                       proposals
                                            warming, climate
                                            change, etc.

                                            Scientific         and    Universities, national R&D        Committee      To      monitor     the   Relevance       Free Research   Academic-
                                            Technological             laboratories       /institutes,   composed of    project, officers from    to theme of     Project         Basic       +
      International Division (ID)




                                            Cooperation               private R&D institutes and        experts        DST pay a visit to the    programme                       Applied
                                            Agreements         and    industry                                         institution/field    to                                   Research
                                            responsibility      for                                                    know the current
                                            scientific         and                                                     status/first-hand
                                            technological                                                              information about the
                                            aspects of activities                                                      project and to release
                                            of       international                                                     further grants.
                                            organizations R&D
                                            Projects Scheme


                                            To        formulate,      scientists/engineers/technolo     Committee      The          Steering     Scientific      Programmatic    Thematic-
      Instrument Development




                                            coordinate      and       gists working in universities     composed of    Committee will be         quality         Research        Directed BR +
          Programme (IDP)




                                            implement                 and       other      academic     experts        the    approving    /     relevance       Project         Applied
                                            programmes                institutions;            R&D                     recommending              to        the                   Research/Secto
                                            leading           to      institutions /laboratories.                      authority for the         theme                           ral
                                            indigenous                                                                 proposal     received
                                            development and up                                                         under             the
                                            gradation         of                                                       programme.
                                            instruments

                                            Creation of core          Scientists and Technologists      Committee      peer review        by     Scientific      Programmatic    Thematic-
                                            groups/units around       who are working in the            composed of    committee experts to      quality         Research        Directed BR +
      Intensification of Research in High




                                            an        outstanding     academic sector, National         experts and    assist the SERC in        relevance       Project         Applied
DST

           Priority Areas (IRHPA)




                                            scientist, Setting up     labs and other recognized         steered   by   evolving, formulating     to        the                   Research/Secto
                                            of national facilities    R&D             laboratories,     eminent        and      implementing     theme                           ral
                                            in areas of high          Universities/Colleges     and     scientist      and monitoring the
                                            priority          and     Educational Institutions.                        programmes, Expert
                                            Evolving nationally                                                        Committees        are
                                            coordinated                                                                scheme specific, area
                                            programmes          in                                                     intensive and are
                                            multi-disciplinary                                                         steered by eminent
                                            areas      of    high                                                      scientists.
                                            priority.


                                            Promote application       Scientists/engineers/technol      Advisory       Peer reviewed by          Scientific      Free Research   Demonstration/
      Joint Technology Programme (JTP)




                                            of                        ogists working in academic        committee of   experts The project is    quality         Project         Development/
                                            modern/advanced           institutions/registered           experts        periodically              relevance                       Innovation
                                            technologies        to    societies/R&D                                    monitored by the          to        the
                                            socio-economic            institutions/laboratories                        Project       Review      theme and
                                            problem      solving;     having                adequate                   Committee (on site)       for
                                            modernization      of     infrastructure/facilities   to                   and/or         Group      economic
                                            traditional               carry     out     Technology                     Monitoring                developme
                                            technologies, tools       Development work.                                Committee (at a           nt
                                            and            skills;                                                     common       location
                                            encourage                                                                  depending upon the
                                            development        of                                                      stage              of
                                            applications       of                                                      development).
                                            R&D activities.
      Monsoon and Tropical Climate
                                                                                           To understand the         Any researcher working in       Academic       PAMC on Weather            Scientific      Programmatic    Thematic-
                                                                                           atmospheric               the Government, Semi-           only           and Climate Research       quality         research        Directed BR +


        Studies (MONTCLIM)
                                                                                           processes      over       Government, Research and                       Programmes                 relevance       Project         Applied
                                                                                           Indian tropics and        Development Organizations                      (WCRP)             is      to        the                   Research/Secto
                                                                                           to          develop       in India                                       responsible      for       theme                           ral
                                                                                           appropriate models                                                       evaluation of the
                                                                                           for studying the                                                         proposal
                                                                                           Indian weather and
                                                                                           climate.


                                                                                           R&D Spatial Data          Academic and research           Mixed          Project is monitored       Scientific      Programmatic    Thematic-
      Natural Resources Data Management




                                                                                           Management                institutions,      Voluntary    composition    through half yearly        quality and     research        Directed BR +
                                                                                           Technologies,             organizations involved in       ( academic +   progress report basis      economic        project         Applied
                                                                                           modeling        and       the area of natural resources   experts)       and periodic reviews       potential of                    Research/Secto
                                                                                           operation research,       management and local area                      by      the    Expert      project                         ral
               System (NRDMS)




                                                                                           applications      of      planning.                                      Committee proposal
                                                                                           spatial    data   in                                                     is referred to experts
                                                                                           National Disasters,                                                      in       the     area.
                                                                                           Mitigation      like                                                     Comments of the
                                                                                           landslides,                                                              experts are placed
                                                                                           cyclones/tsunamis                                                        before the Expert
                                                                                           etc.                                                                     Committees
                                                                                                                                                                    constituted by the
                                                                                                                                                                    NRDMS Division.

                                                                                           To study of the           Scientists & Academicians       Academic       Peer            review     Scientific      Free research   Thematic-
      Science & Engineering Research Council – Basic Science PAC- Earth Science (PAC-ES)




                                                                                           solid    earth,     its   working in Universities,        only           mechanisms         like    quality         project         Directed BR +
                                                                                           atmosphere,        the    National Labs, recognized                      Science               &    relevance                       Applied
                                                                                           oceans,          their    R&D       institutions and                     Engineering                to theme                        Research/Secto
                                                                                           interrelationships        Centers of Excellence are                      Research       Council                                     ral
                                                                                           and      even      the    eligible.                                      (SERC) steered by
                                                                                           relationship       the                                                   eminent      scientists,
                                                                                           earth bears to the                                                       technologists drawn
DST




                                                                                           Universe at large.                                                       from           various
                                                                                                                                                                    universities/national
                                                                                                                                                                    laboratories

                                                                                           To            promote     National labs and other         Academic       The     mandate    of      Scientific      Free Research   Academic-
                                                                                           research in newly         recognized R&D institutions     only           promotion research         quality         Project         Basic       +
                                                                                           emerging          and     Recognized              R&D                    and development in                                         Applied
                                                                                           frontier areas of         Laboratories,                                  newly emerging and                                         Research
                                                                                           science           and     Universities/Colleges    and                   frontier areas of
                                                                                           engineering               Educational Institutions                       science          and
                                                                                           including                                                                technology          is
                                                                                           multidisciplinary                                                        executed     through
                           (SERC-BS)




                                                                                           fields, basic and                                                        innovative      High
                                                                                           applied research in                                                      Level peer review
                                                                                           academic          and                                                    mechanisms       like
                                                                                           research                                                                 Science            &
                                                                                           institutions,      in                                                    Engineering
                                                                                           collaboration with                                                       Research     Council
                                                                                           industry and user                                                        (SERC).
                                                                                           agencies, transfer
                                                                                           such technologies
                                                                                           for developmental
                                                                                           activities.
      Science and Engineering Research Science and Engineering Research Council
                                                                            Provide                   Candidates should possess        Committee       The selection will be    Scientific      Free Research   Academic-
                                                                            Opportunities       to    Masters      degree      in      composed of     through a peer review    quality         Project         Basic       +
                                                                            Young       Scientists    Engineering/Technology or        specific        mechanism. Specific                                      Applied
                                                                            (below 35 years) for      M.D. in Medicine with some       experts.        Expert Committees                                        Research
                                                – Fast Trac (SERC FT)
                                                                            pursuing exciting         research experience or a                         are constituted to
                                                                            and       innovative      Ph.D.       in        Basic                      assist the DST for
                                                                            research        ideas,    Science/Engineering.                             implementation and
                                                                            interaction       and                                                      monitoring.
                                                                            exchange of ideas
                                                                            with the scientific
                                                                            community both at
                                                                            national          and
                                                                            international level.


                                                                            Research areas in         academic sector, National        Council with    The implementation       Scientific      Programmatic    Thematic-
      Council – Nanomaterials Science
                     I i i i (SERC




                                                                            Nano Science &            labs and other recognized        a       mixed   and monitoring of        quality         Research        Directed BR +
                                                                            Technology,               R&D              institutions/   composition     programmes         are   relevance       Project         Applied
                                                                            Generate     trained      laboratories,                    (academics +    executed by DST          to        the                   Research/Secto
                                                                            Manpower in the           Universities/Colleges     and    national        with the assistance of   theme and                       ral
                                                                            area and interface        Educational Institutions         experts     +   a National Expert        for policy
                                                                            between                                                    Collaboratio    Committee on NSTI.       or
                                                                            educational                                                n with Public   Public partnership &     economic
                                                                            institutions     and                                       &               International            developme
       &T h l




                                                                            industry          for                                      International   collaboration            nt
                                                                            application                                                )


                                                                            Promote R&D in            R&D institutions, Colleges,      Composition     The schemes are          Scientific      Programmatic    Thematic-
                                                                            the       field   of      Universities, and reputed        of  experts     operated under the       quality         research        Directed BR +
                                                                            earthquake studies,       Non-Governmental                 committee       guidance of Expert       relevance       project         Applied
                                                                            generating      high      Organizations (NGOs).                            Committees.              to        the                   Research/Secto
      Seismicity Programme (SP)




                                                                            quality data sets to                                                       Proposal     in   the    theme                           ral
                                                                            facilitate advanced                                                        prescribed Performa
                                                                            research, to help in                                                       are evaluated by peer
                                                                            earthquake disaster                                                        review mechanism,
                                                                            mitigation       and                                                       Progress is monitored
                                                                            management, create                                                         through presentation
                                                                            specialized                                                                at
DST




                                                                            manpower         and                                                       workshops/meetings
                                                                            capabilities      in                                                       organized
                                                                            seismology       and                                                       periodically, experts
                                                                            earthquake                                                                 for evaluation.
                                                                            engineering


                                                                            S&T activities at         State & Central Institutions,    Monitoring      Evaluated by Project     Scientific      Free Research   Thematic-
      State Science & Technology Programme (SSTP)




                                                                            the State level so as     State S&T Councils and           Committee       Evaluation Group as      quality         Project         Directed BR +
                                                                            to             ensure     Non-Governmental                                 well as by peer                                          Applied
                                                                            integration of S&T        Organisations (NGOs)                             review     mechanism                                     Research/Secto
                                                                            for overall socio-                                                         wherever necessary.                                      ral
                                                                            economic                                                                   Progress is monitored
                                                                            development with                                                           through presentation
                                                                            special emphasis on                                                        at Group Monitoring
                                                                            Location Specific                                                          Meetings organized
                                                                            Research             &                                                     periodically and also
                                                                            Technology                                                                 by field visits.
                                                                            Development         To
                                                                            assist               in
                                                                            undertaking Science
                                                                            and      Technology
                                                                            demonstration
                                                                            projects in States.
                                                  The scheme is to         Scientists up to the age of 65   Academic   This    scheme    is      Scientific     Free Research   Academic-



       Utilisation of Scientific Expertise of
                                                  utilize expertise and    years are eligible provided      only       implemented through       quality        Project         Basic       +



            Retired Scientists (USERS)
                                                  potential           of   that they do not have any                   an Expert Committee                                      Applied
                                                  eminent/senior           other fellowship/programme                                                                           Research
                                                  scientists       after
                                                  superannuation for
                                                  publishing books /
                                                  monographs/state of
                                                  the art reports on
                                                  S&T related topics



                                                  young scientists for     The scheme is open to            Academic   scheme is operated        Scientific     Free Research   Academic-
       Young Scientists Scheme (YSS)




                                                  pursuing innovative      young scientists, upper age      only       under the guidance of     quality        Project         Basic       +
                                                  research       ideas     limit being 35 years (40                    an             Expert                                    Applied
                                                  which have direct        years for Women) and                        Committee, evaluated                                     Research
                                                  bearing on social        having       a     minimum                  by    peer    review
                                                  problems         and     qualification of graduation                 mechanisms as well
DST




                                                  interaction/             in Engineering or Medicine                  as spot visits by
                                                  exchange of ideas        or post graduation in                       experts
                                                  with the scientific      Physical,         Chemical,
                                                  community                Biological,    Social    or
                                                                           Behavioral sciences.
       Demonstration Programme (TDDP)




                                                  Technology               Industrial units either on       Academic   The     project    is     Scientific     Free Research   Demonstration/
                                                  Promotion,               their own or jointly with        only       monitored    by     a     quality        Project         Development/
         Technology Development &




                                                  Development      &       research/educational                        Project      Review                                      Innovation
                                                  Utilization              institutions,    international              Committee.       The
                                                  Programme                bodies,       companies     &               Committee       meets
                                                  (TPDU)’          is      individuals                                 every month
                                                  promoting
                                                  Industry’s drive to
                                                  take     up    New
                                                  Product/Process
                                                  Development


                                                  The programme is         Any     Indian    individual     Academic   After initial scrutiny,   Technologi     Free Research   Demonstration/
                                                  jointly operated by      innovators, from the owner       only       the     proposal     is   cal quality    Project         Development/
       Technopreneur Promotion Programme (TePP)
DSIR




                                                  the Department of        of        a         ‘startup’               referred to the TePP      of projects                    Innovation
                                                  Scientific      and      company/industry if the                     Screening                 of    firms/
                                                  Industrial Research      annual turnover of the                      Committee. Decision       industry &
                                                  (DSIR)          and      company/industry does not                   of this Committee is      Technopren
                                                  Department        of     exceed Rs. 30 lakhs per                     final.                    eurs related
                                                  Science         and      annum                                                                 themes
                                                  Technology (DST).
                                                  TePP       is      a
                                                  mechanism         to
                                                  promote individual
                                                  innovators        to
                                                  become technology
                                                  based entrepreneurs
                                                  (Technopreneurs).
Strategic Users
                                                                       Objectives                 Who can submit a            Compositi   Project Evaluation       Criteria of      Type of         Type of
                                                                                                  proposal                    on of       Methodology              Approval         Instrument      Scheme by
          Schemes                                                                                                             committee   /Intermediary, ex                         by delegation   nature of
 Agency



                                                                                                                                          post evaluation /                         model           outcome
                                                                                                                                          Effects of ex post
                                                                                                                                          intermediary
                                                                                                                                          evaluation
          Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) Development Board (ARDB)/ Grant in




                                                                       Aeronautics Research       Approved       Research     Academic    Evaluation         by    scientific and   Free Research   Thematic-
                                                                       &         Development      Institutions,               only        committee members        technological    Project         Directed BR +
                                                                       Board to coordinate,       Universities           or               and experts DRDO         military R&D                     Applied
                                        Aeronautical Research &




                                                                       fund and sensitize         Colleges, Departments                   and         Professor                                     Research/Sect
                                          aid Schemes (GIA)




                                                                       futuristic, scientific     or Laboratories or                      academic                                                  oral
                                                                       technological areas        individuals attached to                 Institutions/
 DRDO




                                                                       having         potential   reputed        industrial               Outcomes of project
                                                                       application          for   firms     with     R&D                  reviewing meeting
                                                                       aeronautical systems,      facilities both in the
                                                                       at            academic     Government and Non-
                                                                       institutions        and    Government sector
                                                                       national      scientific
                                                                       laboratories.
                                                                       The Department of          Faculty members of          Academic    Evaluation          by   Technological    Free Research   Thematic-
                                                                       Atomic         Energy      the universities and        only        Advisory committee       and economic     Project         Directed BR +
           Board for Research in




                                                                       supports      research     other             similar               and experts in the       potential  of                    Applied
                                                                       programmes          in     educational          and                field of constituted     projects                         Research/Sect
                                                                       Nuclear Science and        research institutions.                  for initial evaluation                                    oral
 DAE




                                                                       Technology through                                                 collaborator from
                                                                       the Board of Research                                              DAE
                                                                       in Nuclear Sciences
                                                                       (BRNS).


                                                                       To conduct research        Individuals or groups       Academic    The progress of the      relevance to     Free Research   Thematic-
                                                                       and        development     of scientists, engineers,   only        project is reviewed      space theme      Project         Directed BR +
                                                                       activities    in    the    members        of     the               by expert teams at       programme                        Applied
                                                                       relevant areas of          teaching staff and                      ISRO centers twice                                        Research/Sect
                                                                       space          science,    research         workers                in a yearExperts at                                       oral
          Research Sponsored (RESPOND




                                                                       application        and     belonging              to               ISRO         centers
                                                                       technology at the          recognized academic                     evaluate          the
                                                                       universities       and     institutions,                           proposal for its
                                                                       academic institutions      universities         and                relevance to space
                                                                       in the country             research organizations.                 programme        and
                                                                                                                                          with            their
                                                                                                                                          recommendations is
                                                                                                                                          forwarded to ISRO
                                                                                                                                          HQ       programme
                                                                                                                                          offices for further
                                                                                                                                          processing       and
 ISRO




                                                                                                                                          approval by ISRO
                                                                                                                                          Chairman.


                                                                       To conduct research        Individuals or groups       Academic    The progress of the      relevance to     Programmatic
          Space Science Promotion (SSP)




                                                                       and        development     of scientists, engineers,   only        project is reviewed      space theme      Research        Thematic-
                                                                       activities    in   the     members        of     the               by expert teams at       programme        Project         Directed BR +
                                                                       relevant areas of          teaching staff and                      ISRO centers twice                                        Applied
                                                                       space science.             research         workers                in a year. Experts at                                     Research/Sect
                                                                                                  belonging              to               ISRO         centers                                      oral
                                                                                                  recognized academic                     evaluate          the
                                                                                                  institutions,                           proposal for its
                                                                                                  universities         and                relevance to space
                                                                                                  research organizations.                 programme        and
                                                                                                                                          approval by ISRO
                                                                                                                                          Chairman.
Civilian Users
                                            Objectives                          Who can submit a           Compositio     Project Evaluation        Criteria of     Type of       Type of
                                                                                proposal                   n of           Methodology               Approval        Instrument    Scheme by
          Schemes
 Agency
                                                                                                           committee      /Intermediary, ex                         by            nature of
                                                                                                                          post evaluation /                         delegation    outcome
                                                                                                                          Effects of ex post                        model
                                                                                                                          intermediary
                                                                                                                          evaluation
                                            To promote research that            Universities, Colleges     Composition    The           Advisory    Environment     Programmat    Thematic-
                                            would assist ecological             recognized by UGC,         of committee   Committee        makes    al scientific   ic research   Directed BR
          Biosphere Reserve (BR)




                                            conservation both within and        Institutions of CSIR,      experts        recommendations           quality         project       + Applied
                                            areas adjacent to these             ICAR, ICMR, ICSSR                         based       on     the    relevance                     Research/Se
                                            reserves.      To      provide      and recognized non-                       comments of experts       theme      of                 ctoral
                                            facilities for international        governmental                              & The monitoring          programme
                                            cooperation and people –            scientific organizations                  committee evaluates
                                            environment interaction in a                                                  the progress of the
                                            whole range of bio-climatic                                                   project.
                                            and            bio-geographic
                                            situations of the biosphere.


                                            To     develop    strategies,       Universities, Colleges     Academic       During the year, three    Scientific      Free          Thematic-
          Environment Research




                                            technologies, methodologies,        recognized by UGC,         only           meetings      of    the   quality         Research      Directed BR
            Programme (ERP)




                                            information     and     data        Institutions of CSIR,                     Environment Research                      Project       + Applied
                                            dissemination for better            ICAR, ICMR, ICSSR                         Committee        (ERC)                                  Research/Se
                                            environment     management          and recognized non-                       were held to review /                                   ctoral
                                            permitting       sustainable        governmental                              monitor the ongoing
                                            development.                        scientific organizations                  projects andto consider
                                                                                                                          the new proposals


                                            Programme is to develop a           Universities, Colleges     Academic       During     the   year,    Scientific      Free          Thematic-
          Ecosystem Research Scheme (ERS)




                                            basis within the field of           recognized by UGC,         only           Expert Committee for      quality         Research      Directed BR
                                            natural and social sciences         Institutions of CSIR,                     Ecosystem Research                        Project       + Applied
                                            for    rational   use    and        ICAR, ICMR, ICSSR                         Scheme (ERS) met                                        Research/Se
 MOEF




                                            conservation of resources for       and recognized non-                       four times to consider                                  ctoral
                                            general improvement of the          governmental                              new proposals as well
                                            relationship between man            scientific organizations                  as to monitor the on-
                                            and his environment and                                                       going projects.
                                            improvement                of
                                            environmental quality, while
                                            permitting        sustainable
                                            development.

                                            Under this programme,               NA                         Composition    During the year, four     Scientific      Programmat    Thematic-
          Eastern & Western




                                            studies relating to bio-                                       of   expert    meetings of the Expert    quality         ic research   Directed BR
            Ghats (EWG)




                                            diversity, land use, impact of                                 committee      Committee for Eastern     relevance       project       + Applied
                                            developmental activities etc.                                                 and Western Ghats         theme      of                 Research/Se
                                            are taken up to restore the                                                   Research Programme        programme                     ctoral
                                            environmental quality of the                                                  (E&WGRP)
                                            region.

                                            NNRMS involves utilization          NA                         Composition    SC-B has constituted a    Scientific      Programmat    Thematic-
          Management System (NNRMS)
           National Natural Resources




                                            of       remote          sensing                               of   expert    Technical & Financial     quality         ic research   Directed BR
                                            technology for accurate                                        committee      Sub-Committee        to                   project       + Applied
                                            inventory of resources such                                                   scrutinize/review all                                   Research/Se
                                            as         land,          water,                                              the           proposals                                 ctoral
                                            forests,minerals, oceans, etc.                                                submitted for funding
                                            and     to       utilize     this                                             under NNRMS
                                            informationfor monitoring
                                            changes       in      ecological
                                            system.
                                                          Fresh water wetland                                                                                                Free       Thematic-
                                                     resources which exhibit a                                                                                               Research   Directed BR
                                                     great ecological diversity are                                                                                          Project    + Applied
                                                     of great economic, aesthetic                                                                                                       Research/Se
        Wet lands (WL)                               and ecological importance.                                                                                                         ctoral
                                                     Research on various aspects
MOEF



                                                     of      conservation       and
                                                     management of wetlands
                                                     including enhancements of
                                                     their     productivity      are
                                                     promoted               through
                                                     appropriate agencies.
        Research Scheme on Power (RSP)




                                                     The scheme basically aims         Academic and R&D            evaluated by    Review of progress        Scientific      Free       Thematic-
                                                     to provide fund for carrying      Institutions can also       an     expert   projects are monitored    quality         Research   Directed BR
                                                     out need based research           submit proposals            committee       by RSOP Cell of the R     relevance to    Project    + Applied
                                                     projects in power sector                                      [RSOP-          & D Coordination          theme      of              Research/Se
                                                     including solving of power                                    Expert          Division of CPRI in       programme                  ctoral
MOP




                                                     system operational problems                                   Committee]      Bangalore. Quarterly
                                                     in the country                                                                progress        reports
                                                                                                                                   (physical & financial)
                                                                                                                                   are to be furnished by
                                                                                                                                   the Investigating with
                                                                                                                                   expert committee.

                                                     The objectives are to             Scientists/Engineers/R      Academic        After initial scrutiny    Scientific      Free       Thematic-
                                                     coordinate, fund and direct       esearchers         from     only            the    proposals are      quality         Research   Directed BR
        Science & Technology Mission Mode




                                                     application of technology in      Academic & Research                         considered           by                   Project    + Applied
                                                     the      development       and    Institutions,     Public                    respective Technical                                 Research/Se
                                                     utilization of : suitable and     Sector/Private Sector                       Advisory                                             ctoral
                                                     cost-effective    aids     and    Industries,        Non-                     Groups(TAGs. The
                                                     appliances,      methods of       Governmental                                recommendations of
                     (S&TM)
MOSJE




                                                     education      and       skills   Organisations having                        the TAGs are placed
                                                     development leading to            some       basic     and                    before the Apex Level
                                                     enhancement                  of   essential facilities to                     Committee (ALC) for
                                                     opportunities               for   carry out the research                      its       approval.The
                                                     employment, easier living         programme.                                  projects are monitored
                                                     and                  mobility,                                                quarterly with the help
                                                     communication, recreation                                                     of the experts from the
                                                     and integration in society.                                                   TAGs and ALC.

                                                     MOWR promote research             R&D institutes/labs of      Academic        Indian         National   Technologic     Free       Thematic-
                                                     work in the field of Water        the Central or State        only            Committees      (INCs)    al         &    Research   Directed BR
        Research & Development for Water Resources




                                                     Resources R&D Programme.          Government,                                 have been constituted     Scientific      Project    + Applied
                                                                                       Organisations      under                    to co-ordinate the        water related              Research/Se
                                                                                       MOWR, Universities                          R&D programme in          research                   ctoral
                 Management (R&D WRM)




                                                                                       and         Educational                     conjunction with R&D      programme
                                                                                       institutes, NGOs, non-                      Division,      MOWR
                                                                                       profit making private                       listed     INC      for
MOWR




                                                                                       R&D         institutions/                   Hydraulics Research
                                                                                       organisations                               (INCH),     INC     for
                                                                                                                                   Hydrology (INCOH),
                                                                                                                                   INC for Irrigation &
                                                                                                                                   Drainage      (INCID),
                                                                                                                                   INC for Geo-technical
                                                                                                                                   Engineering (INCGE)
                                                                                                                                   &        INC        for
                                                                                                                                   Construction Materials
                                                                                                                                   &            Structures
                                                                                                                                   (INCCMS
                                                          To      promote    research,   Universities,     Colle-   Academic       The      project    is      Scientific      Free          Thematic-



        Research & Development
                                                          development             and    ges, R&D Institutions,     only           monitored by the            quality         Research      Directed BR
                                                          deployment efforts aimed at    Techn-       ical     &                   Department           /                      Project       + Applied
                                                          petroleum conservation and     Educational                               screening committee /                                     Research/Se
                                                          environment protection, fuel   Institutions, Priv- ate                   reviewing committee.                                      ctoral
                (R&D)
PCRA


                                                          efficient technology and       Organizations, NGOs.
                                                          alternate fuels.




                                                          R&D activities in Coal and     Research             and   Academic       Peer     review      by     Scientific      Free          Thematic-
        Science & Technology




                                                          Lignite sectors                educational                only           Standing      Scientific    quality         Research      Directed BR
                                                                                         institutions,     public                  Research Committee                          Project       + Applied
                                                                                         sector      undertakings                  (SSRC)       of     the                                   Research/Se
                (S&T)
DOC




                                                                                         and       such     other                  Ministry of Coal under                                    ctoral
                                                                                         agencies, which have                      the Chairmanship of
                                                                                         capability to take up                     Secretary (Coal) is the
                                                                                         R&D work.                                 Apex body.

                                                          To develop evidence based      The         institutions   Mixed          Evaluation Committee        Scientific      Programmat    Thematic-
                                                          support on the efficacy of     seeking a project from     composition    consisting of Adviser       quality         ic Research   Directed BR
                                                          AYUSH drugs and therapies,     the Department of          ( academic +   (Ayurveda / Unani/          relevance to    Project       + Applied
        Extra Mural Research (EMR)




                                                          validation of relevant and     AYUSH should have          external       Homoeo),       Director     theme      &                  Research/Se
                                                          promising practices and        adequate infrastructure    expert)        (CCRAS/CCRUM/CC             economic                      ctoral
                                                          skills of traditional health   to pursue the research                    RYN/CCRH) and two           potential
                                                          practitioners and to further   project. In case of                       representatives      of
AYUSH




                                                          develop their utility for      clinical research, the                    CSIR/ICMR/DST/DB
                                                          public benefit.                hospital,    laboratory                   T. Progress review in
                                                                                         facilities  for     bio-                  six months
                                                                                         chemical, pathological
                                                                                         etc.          necessary
                                                                                         equipment            are
                                                                                         available.



                                                          Promote      research     in   In-house R&D units         Academic       After initial scrutiny,                     Free          Academic-
        Research & Development Research and Development




                                                          education development          set-up by industry, is     only           the proposal is referred                    Research      Basic     +
                                                                                         operated     by    the                    to      experts      and                    Project       Applied
                                                                                         Department           of                   whenever      necessary                                   Research
DOSHE

                                        (R&D)




                                                                                         Scientific & Industrial                   the site is visited and
                                                                                         Research (DSIR)                           then     proposal      is
                                                                                                                                   considered      by      a
                                                                                                                                   Screening Committee
                                                                                                                                   which meets every
                                                                                                                                   month.
                                                          Supports     Research  and     Academic Institutes,       Mixed          Evaluation           and    Technologic     Free          Thematic-
                                                          Development projects for       Research Laboratories      composition    appraisal of project        al    quality   Research      Directed BR
                                                          promotion of indigenous        and Industries with        (academic +    proposals is done           relevance       Project       + Applied
MOCIT




                                                          technologies in identified     proven track-record in     Industrial     through a Working           theme      of                 Research/Se
                (R&D)




                                                          thrust areas                   R&D                        experts    +   Group consisting of         programme                     ctoral
                                                                                                                    eminent        eminent scientists and
                                                                                                                    scientist)     industrial experts and
                                                                                                                                   academicians.
Below we depict the results of our analysis of the pattern of evolution of extra mural
research supported under different instrument types during the period 2001-2006. See
Table 4.2 While considering the quantitative importance of the instrument types, the
share of academic-oriented instruments is over 42 %. Theme-oriented instruments
account for 47% of the total. Innovation-oriented instruments account for only 1 % of the
total. In European countries, the share of academic-oriented instruments varies from more
than 40% for Switzerland to little more than 20% for Austria, Italy and Norway.
Innovation-oriented instruments account for 40% of the total in Austria, 20% in Italy,
17% in Norway, but less than 10% in France and Switzerland.


Table 4.2: Scope of outcome & objective wise Support to Extramural R & D Projects approved 
             during 2001‐02 to 2005‐06. 
                                                                 Total Approved Cost (Rs.
               Schemes                 No. of Projects
                                                                 Crores)
                                                 2001-02
               Thematic                         1080 (46.9%)           294.17 (66.1%)
               Academic                         1200 (52.1%)           142.91 (32.1%)
               Innovation                          24 (1.0%)             7.88 (1.8%)
               Total                             2304 (100%)           444.96 (100%)
                                                 2002-03
               Thematic                         1300 (47.8%)           306.15 (68.2%)
               Academic                         1391 (51.2%)           134.19 (29.9%)
               Innovation                          27 (1.0%)             8.35 (1.9%)
               Total                             2718 (100%)           448.69 (100%)
                                                 2003-04
               Thematic                         1314 (47.9%)           325.62 (72.7%)
               Academic                         1400 (51.0%)           109.26 (24.4%)
               Innovation                          29 (1.1%)            12.74 (2.9%)
               Total                             2743 (100%)           447.62 (100%)
                                                 2004-05
               Thematic                         1355 (49.3%)           431.77 (75.7%)
               Academic                         1376 (50.0%)           133.18 (23.3%)
               Innovation                          18 (0.7%)             5.54 (1.0%)
               Total                                 2749                  570.49
                                                 2005-06
               Thematic                         1613 (45.2%)           913.49 (78.5%)
               Academic                         1916 (53.7%)           220.34 (18.9%)
               Innovation                          40 (1.1%)            29.97 (2.6%)
               Total                             3569 (100%)           1163.80 (100%)
                                            2001-02 to 2005-06
               Thematic                         6662 (47.3%)           2271.19 (73.8%)
               Academic                         7283 (51.7%)           739.88 (24.1%)
               Innovation                         138 (1.0%)             64.49 (2.1%)
               Total                            14083 (100%)           3075.56 (100%)


    Source: Analysis of the authors for suprainstitutional project at NISTADS, 2009
    Similarly, when we classified the policy instruments in terms of the models of delegation,
    it turns out that the S&T community has preferred to fund more of free projects rather
    than programmatic projects. For detailed analysis see Table 4.3 and 4.4 given below.

    Table 4.3: Evaluation of EMR projects in terms of delegation model during 2001-02
    to 2005-06
                                                       Total approved cost (Rs. In crores)
                                       Free
                Agency              Research           Programmatic                 Total
                                     Project         Research Project
     Councils/Commissions ( c)        413.03                 56.99                 470.02
        Science & Technology
                 (S&T)               1278.27                514.40                1792.67
       Strategic Users (Str. U)       236.00                 2.80                  238.80
        Civilian Users (Cvl. U)       530.77                 42.97                 573.74
                 Total               2458.07                617.16                3075.23

    C: AICTE, CSIR, UGC, ICAR & ICMR. S&T: DBT, DSIR, DST & DOD. Str. U: DAE, DRDO & ISRO.
    Cvl. U: MOCIT, MOEF, MNES, DOC etc.

    Table 4.4: Evaluation of EMR projects in terms of delegation model year wise
    during 2001-02 to 2005-06
                                                       Total approved cost (Rs. In crores)

                                            2001-02 to 2005-06
                                       Science &
  Year                                                                                               Total
            Councils/Commissions      Technology          Strategic Users        Civilian Users
                Free   Program.       Free   Program.     Free    Program.        Free   Program.
2005-06        97.46       11.82    552.65     203.65     53.76       0.47      222.67       21.32    1163.8
2004-05        66.65        4.66    240.34     113.42     42.86       1.05       87.88       13.63    570.49
2003-04           80        8.96     153.2         61     35.86       0.41      105.25        2.85    447.53
2002-03        94.07       20.16    153.51      85.14     42.75       0.87       50.62        1.49    448.61
2001-02        74.85       11.39    178.57      51.19     60.77             0    64.35        3.68     444.8
Total         413.03       56.99   1278.27      514.4      236          2.8     530.77       42.97   3075.23

         Source: Analysis of the authors for ASIALICS 2009 Conferennce at NISTADS, 2009
Concluding remarks
It is quite clear from the above analysis that the leaders of S&T community appear to be
mistaken if they think priorities were changed in the system of research in a radical way
during the decade of nineties. If there is a change in the level of quality of excellence in
the perusal of research, they need to look elsewhere for the sources of their difficulties.
However, when look at the same evidence from the standpoint of society and state, it is
also clear that those performing the boundary work did not perform their responsibility
properly. There has been no radical change in the priorities of extramural R&D funding.
The same ten top institutions continue to dominate and benefit from the allocation of
EMR funds. Similarly, there has been no upsets even at the level of disciplines or in
terms of relative shares the performing institutions have marginally only gone against
national laboratories. The share of universities and colleges is only marginally different
from what it was the case in 1990. Programmatic model of delegation is yet to take a
significant root in the policy instruments created to work for “thematic oriented” mode 2
type knowledge outcomes.

In terms of the implications for policymaking, it is clear that whatever understanding the
S&T community has been propogating about the public sector research system for the
decade of nineties is hardly borne out by the analysis undertaken of EMR funding. This
analysis does throw a new challenge to the representatives of state and society who
certainly need to rethink how they would like to intervene and help the system to learn
better by developing capacity for systematic reflection.

								
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