A Nation Torn Apart

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					A Nation Torn Apart

                 Civil War:

   Social and Political History of Civil War
           War’s effect on South
            War’s effect on North
           Disunity and Tensions
Early part of Civil War

   Beginning of war in society
       Time of optimism on both sides
       Patriotic sentiments on both sides
       Celebrations
       Rush to volunteer
       Eager to fight
       Romantic notions of war in 1861
       Why this optimism?
       Why early support for war on both sides?
Military Battles 1861-62

   July 21, 1861 – First Battle of Bull Run
    – victory for Confederacy
   Union learned lesson from this battle
       Not as easy to win as they fought
       Foreshadowed tough battles ahead
       Advantage in resources but England also
        had advantage in resources at start of
        Revolutionary War
        Military Battles 1861-62
    Both sides stressed importance of the West – attacks on
    Indians (fiercer than before and this would continue for
    decades after)
   Coastal war by Union naval forces
   Union remained in control of New Mexico
   1862 – Tennessee victories for Union (Grant)
   Battle of Shiloh – no clear victor but both sides suffered
    tremendous losses – 24,000 total killed out of 100,000 total
   Robert E. Lee in Virginia to counter McClellan’s Union
   Lee’s victories in Virginia after McClellan withdrew
   Jefferson Davis wanted to get European recognition of
       Tried to force war into the north, into Maryland and Kentucky
       Offensive failed
    Military Battles 1861-63
   Between 1861 and 1863, the Confederacy won a number of
    important Civil War battles, including the war's first major
    engagement, the First Battle of Bull Run.
   Lee did not always succeed, however. His two attempted invasions
    of the North were stopped at Antietam and Gettysburg.
   1863: Grant moved down the Mississippi River and took the
    Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863, an action that
    effectively cut the Confederacy in half. Another victory at Port
    Hudson on July 9 gave the Union control of the Mississippi River
    from Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico.
   These victories, combined with the Confederate defeat at
    Gettysburg, seemed to foreshadow the Union's ultimate victory, but
    the South was not ready to surrender. The Confederates won a
    desperate victory in the swamps of Chickamauga in September
    1863, then laid siege to Chattanooga in November.
   After three separate attacks, Grant broke the siege on November
    25, paving the way for William T. Sherman's devastating March to
    the Sea in 1864, a campaign that left much of Georgia in ruins.
Major Battles 1861-1863

   We will be learning about Gettysburg
    from final projects of a few students.
      Military Battles 1864-65
   The last year of the Civil War was marked by devastating losses on both sides
    as the contest dragged on to its bloody end.
   General Ulysses S. Grant, supreme commander of all Union armies by late
    1863, decided to engage his Confederate counterpart, General Robert E. Lee, in
    a direct challenge in Virginia.
   Grant assigned General William T. Sherman the task of subduing the Deep
    South by destroying Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston's Tennessee
    Army and capturing the industrial stronghold of Atlanta. Sherman and Johnston
    first clashed at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain on June 27, 1864. Despite
    losing 3,000 troops to Johnston, Sherman continued to push toward Atlanta. By
    late August, the Confederates were cornered in Atlanta, and on September 2,
    the mayor surrendered the city.
   In November, Sherman began his March to the Sea, devastating huge portions
    of Georgia before taking Savannah on December 21. Sherman's troops
    marched through South Carolina and captured the ruined city of Charleston—
    already evacuated and burned in anticipation of the Union advance—on
    February 18, 1865.
   Near the end of 1864, Confederate commander John Bell Hood attempted to
    distract Sherman by attacking Union forces in Tennessee. Hood won a victory in
    Franklin on November 30, but was crushed when he tried to take the heavily
    fortified Union position at Nashville in December.
      Military history 1864-65
   In Virginia, Grant began his Overland campaign (May–June, 1864) to
    capture Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy.
   Unlike previous Union generals, Grant never backed away from
    Confederate commander Robert E. Lee, even when faced with
    compelling losses.
   During the Overland campaign, the Union lost more than 60,000 men
    at battles like the Wilderness (May 5–6), Spotsylvania (May 12–18),
    and Cold Harbor (June 3), where 7,000 Union soldiers fell in the space
    of half an hour.
   Undaunted, Grant pushed on toward Richmond. He led his army to
    Petersburg, 20 miles south of the Confederate capital, and laid the
    groundwork for a siege that would last almost a year.
   Lee tried to draw Union troops away from the city with a surprise attack
    at Cedar Creek in October, but General Philip Sheridan launched a
    crushing counterattack and held the field. Petersburg collapsed in April
    1865, and Richmond followed soon after.
   On April 9, 1865, Lee formally surrendered to Grant at the Appomattox
    Court House, bringing the four-year war to an end.
    Political, Social and Economic
    histories of the Civil War

   Battles are taking place in the country, on
    people’s property, on town streets
   War disrupts everything in society – social,
    political and economic structures
   Many ideologies are questioned or challenged
   Race, class and gender
       Role of African Americans during war
       Role of working class – supplying the war effort
        and begin to demand labor rights
       Role of women – new responsibilities and jobs
        during war
Black Troops Liberate North Carolina Slaves
                Date: 1864
Black Children Entertain Union Troops
            Louisiana, 1861
    War in the South:
    South Transformed
   With the success of Union Navy in 1861, slave society is
    greatly threatened
   Approach of ships, many planters abandoned land and
   Confederate forces tried to round up slaves, but it
    became impossible
   Slaves thought the Union navy was there to rescue them
    Runaway salves flocked to Union soldiers
   Union army, in 1861, is not fighting a war on slavery so
    there was confusion and debate about what to do
       Did not formally acknowledge slaves as free
       Began to enlist slaves into Union army
       Confusion over how to treat freedmen
       Finally, decided to treat them as contraband – thus, they did not
        have to be returned but they were still viewed as property
    Southern society during war
   Disruptions in civilian life
   Challenged and changed long-held beliefs and traditions
       Preference for local and limited government
       States’ rights was a formative ideology of Confederacy but soon
        realized that state governments were weak and realized need
        for strong, centralized government
       Centralization under Jefferson Davis
       By 1862, spirit of volunteering had died down
       April 1862 – first draft law in American history enacted by
        Confederate government
       Mandated switch from cash crops to food crops – drastic
        change in farmers’ lives
       Compelled industry to work on government contracts and
        supplying military
Southern society during war
   Confederate nationalism
   Culture and ideology of nationalism in an area
    strongly opposed to nationalism
   Forge own symbols and identity – to create their
    own history
   Flags, songs, language, seals, school readers
   George Washington as Confederate symbol –
    believed they were the side fighting for liberty and
   Defense of slavery as benign, protective and idea of
    faithful slave was at heart of nationalist sentiment
    Southern society during war
   Role of women during wartime
   Clerks and other Confederate officials in towns and
    cities had always been males
   Now, ―government girls‖ staffed bureaucracy
   White women gained new public responsibilities during
   Wives and mothers now headed households and
    performed ―men’s work‖, raising crops and livestock
   In cities, white women found jobs denied previously
   Female school teachers
   Nursing and other war-related duties
    Southern society during war:
    Life on Homefront
   Cities, towns, factories – large increase in investment in
    infrastructure in South to supply war
   Mass poverty
   Farm families lost their breadwinner to the war
   Women demanded end to war
   Draft of one craftsman could disrupt entire town – sparsely
    populated – blacksmiths, physicians, wheelwrights in high demand
   High inflation
   Inequities in the Confederate Draft
       Greater class divisions
       Could pay for substitutes if you were drafted
       ―Exempted from military duty anyone holding at least twenty slaves‖
           Why?
           First time poor whites and free blacks fought issue together
           Fear of class warfare
   War magnified existing social tensions in Confederacy
War in the North:
Northern Economy and Society

   North disrupted as well
   Factories and social organizations rallied to
    support war
   Federal government gained more power
   Industrializing society in north
       War encourages even more industrialization
       High productivity
       Northern farms and factories benefited and
        prospered during war (unlike south)
       Idealism and greed
War’s effect on Northern
   Northern firms lost southern business and Southern
    debt became un-collectable
   Shortage of labor due to army enlistment
   Textile mills, farms and other businesses vital to
    government’s war effort
   Wartime partnership between business and
   Iron and steel production greatly enhanced
   Complementary relationship between agriculture
    and industry – buy machines to do labor on farms
   Northern farm families whose breadwinners went to
    war did not suffer as much as southern families
Northern society during war

   Economy is prosperous in North
   Not everyone benefited equally (is this
    any surprise?)
   Industrial workers
       Jobs plentiful but inflation high
       Not livable wages
       Decline in standard of living
       Lost job security
Northern society during war
   Labor issues in North
   New union activism
   Unions formed by skilled craftsmen
   Unions also formed by unskilled workers and
   High number of strikes
   Employers viewed this activity as a threat –
    blacklists of union activists
   Strikebreakers hired from blacks, immigrants and
    women who could not find jobs elsewhere
   Despite labor activity and protests, businesses in
    North profited considerably from war effort
Northern society during war
   Lincoln and the expansion of Presidential
    power during wartime
   Far more than in the War of 1812, Lincoln
    expanded Presidential power, often without
    authority, and set precedence for increased
    power of President during war
   Examples: suspended writ of habeas corpus
    in Maryland, repeatedly invoked martial law,
    used war department funds to fund political
    allies in state elections
        Northern society during war:
        Life on homefront
   Union Cause - Northern morale high for first 2 years of war
   Support to preserve Union – an abstract idea, but at the
    time meant the preservation of a social and political order
    that people cherished
   Women took on new roles (as in the South)
        Middle and upper class women managed soldiers’ aid societies
        US Sanitary Commission – nutritional and medical aid to soldiers
        Nurses
            Had to fight for position
            Clara Barton fired in 1863
            Professionalization of medicine and many male physicians did not
             want women’s aid
            Civil War nurses left long legacy of supporting the professionalization
             of nurses and established nursing schools
   Varied, diverse group of Union supporters
       Contradictory - Materialism and greed alongside idealism, religious
        conviction and self-sacrifice
       Not all abolitionists Why did we end up with emancipation during war?
   Lacked clarity of purpose of war (on both sides)
       Not really sure why we were fighting
       Unsure of purpose, but needed to convince citizens that war was
   Slavery issue avoided at first
       Davis wanted to unite south and feared that slavery would ignite class
        conflicts and belief that war only being fought for rich slaveholders
       Lincoln did not want to antagonize border slave states and he hoped that
        a pro-Union majority would assert itself in south
       Lincoln believed raising the slavery issue would undermine a quick end
        to the war
       Lincoln needed to keep new Republican party together – not all
       No northern consensus on slavery

   Personally, Lincoln believed slavery wrong
    but politically not ready to enforce this
   Attacked by many abolitionist groups for not
    being a strong supporter
   1861 – Lincoln proposed that states
    consider emancipation and federal
    government would provide monetary
Emancipation Proclamation
   Julian, Sumner and Stevens in House and Senate
    strongly believed in emancipation
   Passed Confiscation Acts whereby the Union could
    confiscate ―property‖ from the south
   Used to capture slaves and set them free
   Lincoln opposed to act
   Lincoln’s first priority was to save the Union; slavery
    came second
   September 22, 1862 – Lincoln issued Emancipation
       On Jan 1, 1863, all slaves in states in rebellion would be
       *All areas under Union control or still part of the Union
        were exempted from this – slavery was not outlawed
        everywhere in the nation
Emancipation Proclamation
               • On January 1, 1863,
                 President Lincoln issued
                 the Emancipation
                 Proclamation, which
                 effectively freed slaves in
                 the Confederate states and
                 allowed blacks to join the
                 Union Army.
               • This popularized version of
                 the document depicts
                 newly freed African
                 Americans enjoying their
                 new-found freedom. They
                 are shown entering public
                 schools, collecting wages,
                 and waving goodbye to
                 slave masters.
Emancipation and the Union
   Emancipation Proclamation
       Did not deal with status of freed blacks
       Only emancipated slaves where he had no power to enforce it
       Ambiguous document
   Legally ambiguous, but it was a powerful moral and political
       Abolitionists thrilled – war against slavery now
       Lincoln could perform a balancing act between reformers and
        conservatives in support of Union
       Slaves and newly freed slaves celebrated
       Symbolic measure – redefined Civil War in public opinion to be
        war against slavery
   June 1864 – Lincoln gave support to constitutional ban on
       Thirteenth Amendment – passed in 1865
   Who freed the slaves?
       Does Lincoln deserve title ―Great Emancipator‖?
    Soldiers’ lives during war
   Experienced first war in modern sense
       New technology – rifle, new type of bullet
       Higher death rate because of new weapons
   Soldiers
       Young, average between 18-21
       Small towns and farms
   Life in the military
       Benefit of new canned condensed milk
       Blankets, clothing and arms often poor quality
       Hospitals in poor condition at first – remember lack of sanitation
       Many soldiers died from disease
       Extensive network of hospitals did come into existence
           White and black female volunteers
Soldiers’ lives during war

   Learned war was not glorious
   Saw death and destruction for first time
   Violence, bloodshed, horrible conditions
   Yet, developed deep commitments to each
    other and to their task
   Developed deep bonds among soldiers
   Their fellow soldiers became their family
African American Soldiers
   Union Army
   Racism strong within Union forces
       Refused to fight alongside black soldiers because ―we are too
        superior a race for that‖
       Given high death rate and need for troops, black soldiers allowed
        to enlist
   Experience of war also changed some minds about racial
       Saw black soldiers fight nobly
           Elevated opinion of blacks’ abilities
           Officers stated ―I know that many of them are vastly superior to
            those who would condemn them to a life of brutal degradation‖
           ―remarkable aptitude for military training‖
   Black troops crated this change in sentiment through their own
    actions, dedication and strong commitment to the Union cause
   Sought to abolish slavery and demonstrate their equality
   54th Massachusetts cavalry
War and US Society:
Disunity, Tensions, Debates

   South, North and West
   1864 and 1865
   Time of growing discontent on both
   Northerners and southerners opposing
   Revealed social pressures in all areas
    of nation
   Why?
Disunity, Tensions, Debates:

   Southerners felt cost of war more directly
    than northerners (economic costs –
    resources, industry, etc)
   Southern class system threatened
    Confederate cause
   Remember past discussions – class issues
    plays a large role and after three years of
    poverty and economic pressures, class
    issues come to forefront
Disunity, Tensions, Debates:
   Planters upset with government – taxes, burning of
    fields, talking slaves for the army
   Centralizing policies unpopular
   Many southerners upset with conscription – saw it
    as illegal and unjust
   Farmers upset being forced to switch from cotton
    (cash crop) to food crops
   Food Riots in South
   Desertions from Confederate Army
   Peace movements
   Active dissent and non-support of Confederate
    government took over many towns in South
   Did North win war or did Southerners stop fighting?
Disunity, Tensions, Debates:
   Peace movements developed in North as
   Opposition to increasingly centralized and
    powerful federal government
   Desertion rate in army high
   Lincoln had more contact with citizens and
    sought to reach out (Davis didn’t) and
    helped to lessen some dissent
   Wartime protest largely political
   Democratic party as party of peace and
    blamed Lincoln and Republicans for war
Disunity, Tensions, Debates:
   Draft Riots in North (especially in New York
   Draft became law in 1863
   Draftee could pay $300 or provide a
    substitute to get out of serving
   Who was forced to serve?
   Urban poor and immigrants
   Racial, ethnic and class tensions all
    contributed to violent draft riots in July 1863
       Immigrants felt targeted
       Poor could not afford to avoid draft
       Workers afraid of inflow of black labor from
    Disunity, Tensions, Debates:
   Civil War of a different kind on Great Plains and in the
   Full-scale war by union army against Indian tribes to
    eliminate Indians from Colorado (Colonel Chivington
    (Into the West – we saw him justify the attacks because
    his soldiers needed to do something)
   Sand Creek was supposed to be safe haven as told by
    US government but Sand Creek was attacked (this is
    where Margaret’s husband died) ―Sand Creek Massacre‖

   How did this connect to Civil War between North and
   No region of country left untouched by Civil War
United States Civil War
   Surrender at Appomattox
   Financial Toll: over $20 billion
   Death toll: over 620,000
       Casualties on both sides over 1 million
       360,000 Union soldiers died
       260,000 Confederate soldiers died
       More soldiers died in Civil War than in all wars
        combined until Vietnam
   Human toll: immeasurable
    Legacy of Civil War
   Fundamental battle over nature of the United
    States and nature of liberty itself
   Did liberty extend to all people? What was
    liberty based on? What was personal liberty?
    Race, class, political representation – many
    issues at stake
   Altered Americans forever
   Changed Americans’ perception of
    themselves, of war, of society, of the nation
   What has been the legacy of the Civil War?
   Are we fighting any of the same battles today?
End of Civil War

   With the end of the Civil War, what
    happens to the country?
   What happens to the hate, resentment,
    disunity, labor issues, racism and
    various other tensions within and
    among the North, South and West?
   How does the country once again
    become a United States of America?
   How is the nation Reconstructed?

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