Greece by maclaren1

VIEWS: 21 PAGES: 62

									Greece
Geography of Greece
 Rugged Peninsula
 Juts out into the
  Aegean Sea
 Also made up of
  many islands in
  Ionian/Aegean
  Seas
Geography of Greece
 Has  no navigable rivers – rough
  mountains, narrow valleys, excellent
  bays
 ¾ is covered with mountains
 Mt. Olympus – highest peak
Results:
 Sea shapes Greek civilization
 Greeks live in isolated independent
  communities
 Population small
Early Greeks
 Herders    and farmers
     Sheep & goats, grains, grapes & olives
 Pirates,   sailors, traders, & fishermen
Minoan Civilization
1750BC -1500BC
   King Minos
Sir Arthur Evans – Palace at Knossos
   Frescos
Minoan Civilization
 Religion- polytheistic worshipped the
  forces of nature
 Economy- traders, traveled
  throughout the Mediterranean
 Women- enjoyed a higher status then
  other ancient civilizations
Mycenaean Civilization
1400BC – 1200BC
 Warlike  people
 Settled in the Peloponnesus
 Mycenae – Chief city
 Economy- sea traders and raiders
Trojan War- 1250BC
 Iliad – Homer
 Helen – wife of
  Menalaus
 Agamemnon
Trojan War – Achilles v. Hector
Odyssey - Homer
 Odysseus
Trojan War
 The Iliad and the Odyssey reveal many of
 the values of ancient Greeks. Homer’s
 heroes display honor, courage, and
 eloquence.
The epics of Homer have been inspiring
 writers for almost 3,000 years.
Heinrich Schliemann
Greek Dark Ages
 Invaded    by Dorians
 Results:
   Cities plundered
   Trade disrupted

   Writing & artistic skills forgotten
 Review of Section 1: Get out a piece
 of paper
Describe the importance of the
following people , pictures or terms
 SirArthur Evans
 Heinrich Schliemann
SECTION 2: Development of Greek
City-States
Development of Greek City-States
 Polis   – fortified hilltop & surrounding
  fields
 Acropolis- center – home of the
  temples
 Agora – the public square – center
  for politics
Greek Government
Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., the
  Greeks evolved different forms of
  government.
 Monarchy- government by King or
  Queen
Greek Government
Slowly, power shifted to a class of
 noble landowners. At first, the nobles
 defended the king, but in time, they
 won power for themselves. A
 government ruled by a landholding
 elite is called an aristocracy.
Greek Government
As trade expanded, a new class of
 wealthy merchants, farmers, and
 artisans came to dominate some city-
 states. A government in which power
 is in the hands of a small, powerful
 elite, usually from the business class,
 is called an oligarchy.
Changes in warfare
 650BC – iron age
 Hoplites
 Phalanx
SPARTA
 Rulers  formed a military society.
    Conquered people were turned
  into slaves, called helots.
  Especially their neighbors, the
  Messenians.
Sparta
    Rulers were two kings and a council
  of elders known as theEPHORS
 5 Citizens, elected yearly
  “brainwashers & childbeaters”
 also judges in Civil trials
 GEROUSIA-    28 over age 60 male
  citizens
 elected for life
 Criminal trial judges
 Brought issues to the Apella
APELLA
 All male citizens over age 30
 Voted yes or no on issues brought
  forth by Gerousia
 Elect Ephors & Gerousia
Sparta
 Rulers forbade trade and travel.
 Male, native-born Spartans over age
 30 were citizens.
 Government ran every aspect of
 citizens life
Sparta
    All boys received military training
  until age 20. Sent off for training at
  age 7.
 Served in military until age 60.
    Girls were raised to produce
  healthy sons for the army. Fitness and
  strength important for them, too.
    Women had the right to inherit
  property.
 “Black Broth”
 “Come back with your shield or on it!”
 All poetry or art about the glorification
  of honor in battle & war
 Stable society but at what cost?
DO YOU REMEMBER ANYTHING
FROM FRIDAY?
 What  thing made one visitor to
  Sparta say “ I can see why the
  Spartans are not afraid to die!”
 Which group in the Spartan
  governement were the “brainwashers
  & childbeaters”?
 At what age did Spartan boys begin
  military training?
 What does this mean “ Come back
  with your shield or on it!”
 What was one reason Spartan
  leaders discouraged travel?
Athens – 700BC
   Society grew into a limited democracy over
    the years
   All male citizens over age 30 were
    members of the assembly.
   Rulers encouraged trade with other city-
    states.
Athens
  Women were considered inferior.
  Boys received education in many areas,
  not just military training.
RISE OF TYRANTS
  Draco first to draw a a written code of laws-
  very harsh, though.
“draconian”
Athens
 Solon   – 594 BC
  Abolished slavery
  Extended citizenship to artisans that
   helped Greek economy
  Limited land ownership- but didn’t do
   the one thing he really needed to:
   redistribute the land
Athens – The rise of Tyrants
 Pisistratus  – 546BC
 Public festivals, building projects
     Non-land owners gained citizenship
           – 507BC Father of
 Cleisthenes
 Greek Democracy
   Created law making assembly
   Council of 500
Greek Society
 Local ties, independent spirit, and
 economic rivalries led to fighting
 among the Greek city-states. Despite
 these divisions, the Greeks shared a
 common culture.
Greek Society
 They honored the same ancient heroes.
 They participated in common festivals.
 They prayed to the same gods.
 They shared the Greek language.
 They felt superior to non-Greeks, whom
  they called “barbaroi,” people who did not
  speak Greek.
Persian Wars
Persian Wars
 Cause:  Greeks support of a rebellion
  against Persia
 King Darius – 490 BC Battle of
  Marathon - Pheidippides
Results:
 Themistocles –
  convince Athens
  to build up navy
 King Xerxes –
  480 BC Battle of
  Thermopylae –
  300 Spartans led
  by Leonidas
Aftermath of the war
 Delian League – defensive alliance
  with Athens in charge
 Peloponnesian League – defensive
  league with Sparta
The Golden Age of Athens
460 BC – 429 BC
 Pericles
   Opened all political offices to any citizen
   More voice in government

   Great for the arts

 Parthenon    – temple to Athena
Peloponnesian Wars
431 BC – 404 BC
 Peloponnesian League – counter to the
  Delian League
 Starts with dispute between Corinth &
  Athens
 Sparta destroys Attica – source of
  Athenian food.
 Athens withdraws behind its wall – safe as
  long as seaport remains open
Peloponnesian Wars
431 BC – 404 BC
 Athens   falls – two causes:
   A plague hits Athens
   Sparta allies itself with Persia – needs
    their navy to blockade Athenian port
GREEK CULTURE
Greek Philosophy
 Philosophers – “lovers of wisdom”
 First was Thales – believed that
  water was the basis of Life
SOCRATES            PLATO- The             ARISTOTLE
                    Republic
Developed           Emphasized             Favored rule by
Socratic method,    importance of          single strong and
whereby a           reason                 virtuous leader
series of
questions are       Believed the ideal     Taught that good
posed in order to   state should           conduct meant
challenge           regulate every         pursuing
implications of     aspect of citizens’    moderation
answers             lives to provide for
                    their best interest
Arts & Architecture
ARCHITECTURE                 Art
Architects tried to convey   Early sculptors imitated
a sense of perfect balance   rigid Egyptian poses.
to reflect the harmony of
the universe.                Later sculptors emphasized
                             natural poses that were
Example: The Parthenon       lifelike but also idealistic.

                             Paintings offer views of
                             Greek life.
GREEK ARCHITECTURE-
COLUMNS
 DORIC
 IONIC
 CORINTHIAN– HOMEWORK-
 FIND A PICTURE OF EACH
 TYPE OF COLUMN
Literature
 Greek Dramas – developed out of
  celebrations to Dionysus – god of
  wine
 Presented in Amphitheaters
Tragedies
Aeschylus – father    Sophocles –wrote
of Greek tragedy      127 plays
Wrote 90 but only 7   Very few still survive
still exist           Oedipus the King
ORESTIA               Antigone
                      The Trojan Women
Comedies
 Plays  which ridiculed people, ideas &
  social customs– THE
  GOVERNMENT!
 Aristophanes – greatest of Greek
  comedy writers – mocked everyone
  including his audience
History
 The Greeks applied reason, observation, and logic to
 the study of history.

 Herodotus is called the “Father of History.”

 Herodotus stressed the importance of research, while
 Thucydides showed the need to avoid bias.

 Herodotus and Thucydides set standards for future
 historians.
Achievements of the GREEK Culture
Pythagoras derived a formula to calculate
 the relationship between the sides of a
 triangle. The Pythagorean Theorem
Euclid wrote The Elements, a textbook that
 became the basis for modern geometry.
Archimedes used principles of physics to make
  practical inventions, such as the lever and the
  pulley.
Achievements of the Greek Culture
Aristarchus theorized about a heliocentric, or
  sun-centered, solar system.
Eratosthenes showed that the Earth was round
  and accurately calculated its circumference.
Greek physicians described the human nervous
  system
Hippocrates studied illnesses and cures and set
  ethical standards for medical care. Hippocratic
  Oath
Achievements of the Greek Culture –
other philosophies
 Zeno – founded the philosophy of
  Stoicism – accept what life brings
 Epicurus - founded the philosophy of
  Epicurism – greatest good was to be
  happy in life
 Diogenes – followed philosophy of
  Cynicism – criticized materialism – live
  according to nature

								
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