; Presentation - Automotive EMC Requirements and Product Liability
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Presentation - Automotive EMC Requirements and Product Liability


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									                                                                                        Automotive Electrical/Electronics
                                                                                        Subassemblies (ESA)

Automotive EMC Requirements                                                             n   Automotive Electrical Subassembly (ESA)
and Product Liability                                                                       means
                                                                                            n   an electrical and/or electronic device or set(s) of
                                                                                                devices intended to be part of a vehicle,

            Presented by: WAI Leong
                                                                                            n   together with any associated electrical connections
                                                                                                and wiring, which performs one or more
                                                                                                specialized functions.

Importance of Automotive ESA                                                            EMI and its hazards
                                                                                        n   Operation of electronic devices generates energies
n   Today automobiles resemble “  computers on wheels”because of the                        carried by electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields.
    increasing number of digital systems under the hood and inside the
    passenger cabin.
                                                                                        n   There is always such a possibility that an automotive
n   The advancement in modern electronics technologies (especially i n                      ESA may accidentally receive or pick up this kind of
    microelectronics) provides a feasible and cost-effective way of realizing
    the proliferating demands of the customers and the society on the                       energy generated by the other devices (either on-
    functionality, dependability and environmental compatibility of a car                   board or in the operation environment of the vehicle).
     n   e.g., driving comfort, handling, fuel efficiency, safety, minimal pollution.
     n   Vehicle manufacturers continue to offer more sophisticated ESA a ddressing
         vehicle safety, telematics, and infotainment.                                  n   This kind of energy then becomes disturbance signals
                                                                                            to the ESA, and the ESA may react to the
    The costs associated with these sophisticated systems are also r ising.

         Automotive ESA now account for 22 percent of a vehicle's cost and are
                                                                                            disturbances and consequently result in failure or
                                                                                            degradation of performance.
         projected to increase to up to 40 percent by year 2010.

Increasing Risks Due to EMI                                                             Regulatory EMC Requirements
                                                                                        n   EMC = Electromagnetic Compatibility
                                                                                            n   the ability of equipment
                                                                                                 n   to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment
                                                                                                 n   without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to
                                                                                                     other equipment in that environment

                                                                                        n   EMC is not (necessarily) a Safety Issue

                                                                                        n   EMC is an issue of public interest
                                                                                            n   because it concerns the relationship of a equipment with
                                                                                                 n   the other equipment in its near vicinity,
                                                                                                 n   not the individual devices within the equipment system
                                                                                            n   So EMC regulatory requirements exists (e.g. EMC Directive, etc.)
                                                                                          GAP Between Intrinsic Safety and
Intrinsic and Functional safety                                                           EMC Regulatory Requirements
n   Intrinsic safety:                                                                     n   Regulatory requirements are usually
                                                                                              n   The minimum technical requirements
     n   the possibility that injury or damage could                                          n   Permitting a product to be put on the market
         occur due to electric shock, fire,
         mechanical instability, sharp edges, etc.                                        n   There is a gap
     n                                                                                        n   between existing (intrinsic) safety and EMC
                                                                                                  regulations and standards
n   Functional safety:                                                                        n   which do not correctly address the issue of
                                                                                                  electromagnetic interference (EMI) from the
     n   the hazards and risks depend upon the                                                                                   EMC for Functional
                                                                                                  viewpoint of lifecycle safety (‘
         correct operation of devices/equipment                                                   Safety’).

                                                                                          Functional Safety Concerns of
EMC for Functional Safety                                                                 Automobiles – Car Defects
n   EMC for Functional Safety addresses the                                               n   Any loss or perceptible degradation in function of
                                                                                              automobile ESAs can result in Car Defects
    gap between
     n   intrinsic safety, and                                                            n   Car Defects can result in road accidents, and with
                                                                                              personal injuries and property losses
     n   electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
                                                                                          n   Some parties may, therefore, be liable to compensate
                                                                                              or taking remedial actions for the losses
n   Concerns/Focus more on immunity

General Legal Liabilities                                                                 Who is at Risk?
    Administrative Law
                                                                                              Manufacturers, designers and
     n In USA:                                                                            n
               FCC Rules

                                                                                              distributors of products

           n National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulations
     n   In EU:
               EC Directives
                                                                                                  direct and indirect

                      e.g. EMC Directive, Automotive EMC Directive, R&TTE, etc.

    Civil Law
                                                                                                  severally and jointly
     n    tort –injuries to persons or property                                               n
           n   could my acts or omissions lead to an injury to persons or property?
     n   contract
           n   have I agreed to do something for someone and have I done it completely?
     n   antitrust, unfair competition etc.
           n   do my actions cause injury to others against whom I compete?

n   Criminal Law
     n  K intentional misconduct
Administrative Liability                                                                                       Civil Liabilities
n   Policy - public interest protection
     n   health safety and welfare of public is paramount
                                                                                                               n   Civil Liabilities relevant to products:
     n   essential protection of limited public resources                                                          n   Negligence
     n   typical violation is putting a non-compliant product on the market or into service                             n   applies to designers, manufacturers, vendors, test labs
n   Technical vs. administrative non-compliance                                                                    n   Strict liability
     n  Technical non-compliance:                                                                                       n   everyone in chain of distribution can be liable
                Does not satisfy the specified limits or criteria
                                                                                                                       Warranty and Contract

     n   administrative non-compliance:
           n    Wrong product labeling
                Missing information or errors in technical files or evidence
                                                                                                                   Elements of proof are different

n   Sanctions for rule violations                                                                                  n   fault required for negligence
        generally broad spectrum of enforcement options, e.g.
                                                                                                                       defective product required for strict liability

           n    Refuse to issue or withdraw Type -approval certifications                                          n

           n    Order to recall                                                                                    n   warranty only covers products not services
                                                                                                                   n   warranty and contract requires privity with plaintiff

Civil Claims - Liability in motor
vehicle defect                                                                                                 Trends in Laws
    Product liability
n   Controlled by the doctrine of strict liability.                                                            n   Evolving notions of what is a “defective”
     n  Regardless of what steps a manufacturer or dealer says it takes in designing,
        assembling, or handling a motor vehicle, you can make a strict liability claim based on                    product
        a motor vehicle defect –
     n  without making any showing as to carelessness –                                                            n   non-state-of-art EMC design
           n    Burden of proof is shifted to the defendants
     n   if all three of the following conditions exist:
                The vehicle or one of its components had an "unreasonably dangerous" defect that injured
                                                                                                                   Expanded concept of foreseeability of harm

                you. The defect can come into existence either in the design of the vehicle, during            n
                manufacture, during handling or shipment (i.e. delivery from the manufacturer), or through a
                failure to warn consumers of a dangerous aspect of the vehicle.
           n    The defect caused an injury while the vehicle was being used in a way that it was intended
                to be used. For example, you may not be able to recover if a sports sedan were used to cross
                                                                                                                   n   foreseeable misuse
                a stream.
           n    The vehicle had not been substantially changed from the condition in which it was
                originally sold "Substantially" means in a way that affects how the vehicle pe rforms.

n   Rational:
                                                                                                               n   Expanded class of protected plaintiffs
     n   The most fundamental rationale for strict liability is
           n    to force producers to internalize the external costs they impose on society.
                                                                                                                   n   bystanders, “good Samaritans”covered

                                                                                                               Risk in potential losses
Sanction – Product Liability                                                                                   suffered
n   Civil Claim                                                                                                n   High costs and time spending in
     n   punitive damages
           n    above and beyond damages to compensate a plaintiff for
                                                                                                                   n   Law suits
                his or her injuries, and                                                                                n   Legal actions
           n    can range into the tens of millions of dollars in certain                                               n   Settlements
           n    intended to punish vehicle manufacturers and encourage                                                  n   Punitive damages or compensations
                them to fix inherent defects in vehicle designs that have
                resulted in injury.                                                                                n   Product recalls
                                                                                                                   n   Remedial works
     n   economic loss under contract and warranty
“Cost-benefit" analysis and                                                   Specific Automotive EMC
Punitive damage estimation                                                    Concerns
n   Traditionally, vehicle manufacturers have engaged in
    what is known as a "cost-benefit" analysis when                           n   Operational Environments of vehicles:
    deciding whether to change a potentially defective                             n   The mobility of an automobile permits it to travel into many different
                                                                                       electromagnetic situations, from benign remoter rural locations to airports
    vehicle design.                                                                    with high radar fields
                                                                                       Vehicles do not run in Controlled environments
        In this process, the manufacturer will calculate                           n

         n   the cost of implementing a design change (i.e. through vehicle
             recalls and repairs), and                                        n   Safety critical functions:
                                                                                       The safety-critical nature of many of the functions now performed on the
         n   weigh that cost against the potential cost of litigation and          n
                                                                                       vehicles. These vital functions include engine management, brakin g control
             settlement after the defect causes injuries.                              and airbag development
n   In USA, punitive damages are often awarded in order
    to add to the potential costs a manufacturer will face                    n   Uncontrolled and self-contained electromagnetic environments:
    if it decides not to fix a design defect, thus shifting                        n   A vehicle is a self-contained system including generator, battery and
    the cost-benefit analysis toward the elimination of                                operates at low DC voltage. The metal body and chassis connect t o the
                                                                                       negative terminal of the vehicle battery, which is not a true gr ound
    defects.                                                                           reference for both the

Near-Field Effect EMC                                                         Severe Electromagnetic
concerns for Automotive ESAs                                                  Environment for ESAs
n   EMC requirements for Automotive ESAs                                      n   Low power supply voltage of vehicle
    are dealing with Near-Field coupling                                          batteries (e.g. 12Vdc) gives high
    phenomena rather than the far-field                                           current carried by the electric wires
    effects because                                                                n   Which leads to high EMI levels
    n   Within the enclosure of an automotive                                 n   Hence automotive ESAs should be
        vehicle, the installation of different ESAs                               subject to much higher immunity test
        are in close vicinity
                                                                                  levels (e.g., over 100V/m)

Criteria in Defining Automotive                                               General Design / Quality
EMC Requirements                                                              Criteria for vehicles and ESAs
n   Functional safety relevant                                                n   Ultra-reliable systems with ultraquality control
n   Usually insufficient to protect the interests of                              that are demanded by the automotive market
                                                                                  and the society.
                                                                                   n   ultraquality is defined as a level of excellence so
    n   by only demonstrating compliance to regulatory                                 high that measuring it with confidence is close to
        requirements and getting the corresponding type-                               impossible. Yet measurable or not, it must be
        approval certifications                                                        achieved or the system will be judged a failure.
n   Shall intend to                                                           n   Ultra-reliable ESA are usually demanded
    n   Get rid of all "unreasonably dangerous"                                   because of their potential to reduce the
        defects                                                                   number and severity of road accidents
                                                                                                               International Automotive
Automotive EMC Standards                                                                                       EMC Standards for Testing
n   National / International Regulations
     n   e.g.
           n      s
                EC’ automotive EMC Directive
                                                                                                                                 Issue                                                     Tests Covered
n   National / International standards                                                                  Automotive Standard        Date(s)   Applicable Geographic Region
                                                                                                                                                                             Whole Vehicle              Component
     n   e.g.                                                                                             2004/104/EC            2004            European Union                    Radiated emissions and immunity
           n International: ISO, CISPR
          n  North America (US and Canada): SAE                                                             CISPR-12             2001                  Global               Radiated emissions
          n  Japan: JASO                                                                                    CISPR-25             2002                  Global                                    Radiated & conducted emissions
     n   Usually basic standards
                                                                                                           ISO 10605             2001                  Global                                    ESD
          n  i.e. only test methods and set-up are defined
                                                                                                            ISO 7637           1995 -2003              Global                                       Transient immunity
n   Automotive Manufacturers’(OEM) own internal standards:                                                 ISO 11451           1994 -2001              Global               Radiated immunity
     n   GM, Ford, BMW, Toyota                                                                             ISO 11452           1995 -2002              Global                                        Radiated immunity
     n   With test methods, set -up, categorization of products and corresponding                           SAE J551            Various           North America                  Various
         test levels / performance criteria
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Radiated & conducted
     n   MUCH MORE STRINGENT THAN REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS                                                  SAE J1113            Various           North America                                     emissions and immunity

Types of Automotive EMC Tests                                                                                  Automotive EMC tests
    Radiated Emissions
                                                                                                                     Vehicle level tests:

         Frequency range and test level:
           30 MHz - 1 GHz, 2 dB across the freq range (EC);
           150 KHz - 960 MHz, test level in 5 classes not continuous across the freq range (CISPR);
                                                                                                                              Carried by / for Vehicle manufacturers

     n                                       -3
           Many OEM extend upper freq to 2 GHz                                                                          n
n   Radiated Immunity
     n   Frequency range:
     n     20 MHz - 1 GHz, with limit levels (EC); 10 KHz - 18 MHz, multi-class of limit levels (ISO)

n   Conducted Emissions                                                                                         n    Component/ESA level tests:
     n   Frequency range:
     n     150 KHz – 108 MHz with 5 classes of limit levels (CISPR); 30 KHz – 120 MHz (BMW)
                                                                                                                        n     Carried by / for both vehicle manufacturers
n   Conducted Immunity
     n   ISO 7637: Part 1 – 12V power, Part 2 – 24V power, Part 3 – signal/control lines;                                     and component/ESA manufacturers
     n                                                                  e
         Transient immunity: power line transient and signal/control lin transients

n   Immunity to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
     n                  +/- 2 KV - +/- 25 KV
         Discharge level:

Automotive EMC Test
n   A good automotive EMC test laboratory
    should have
     n   good quality / management system and
         test capacity (human resources and
                                                                                                                                             Thank you
     n   Accreditation by appropriate accreditation
         bodies (e.g. A2LA)
     n   Recognitions by the targeted vehicle
         manufacturers (OEMs)

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