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					Breakthroughs in Bioscience
   From NIH-Funded Basic Research
               to Improved Health


              Kentucky
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
                 Nation’s medical research
                  agency
                 Funds the science that leads to
                  medical advancement
                 Campus in Bethesda, MD – but
                  most funding is distributed to
                  university researchers
                  throughout the United States
                   Since 1998, NIH funding in Kentucky has
                    increased by over 344%
                   NIH awards to the state of Kentucky
                    totaled nearly $148 million in FY2008
       Research Enterprise Is Critical to
            Kentucky’s Economy
   In 2008, the University of Kentucky (UK) received $86.2 million in NIH
    awards
   University of Louisville received more than $53.5 million in the same year
   The state’s $400 million Bucks for Brains program leverages donor
    money to attract top-notch faculty to endowed chairs at University of
    Louisville
   The UK School of Medicine ranks 57th in funding for medical schools
    nationwide
   The UK Behavioral Science Department ranks #1 in NIH funding
    nationwide
   Both Lexington and Louisville ranked in the top 90 cities for NIH
    funding, with awards totalling almost $121 million
   A single $6.6 million award to the UK College of Agriculture directly
    created over 50 jobs at the institution
   Kentucky is home to the biotech company Alltech, which plans to build
    the first Center for Animal Nutrigenomics and Applied Animal Nutrition
 Facing the Challenges: Kentucky
Health from a National Perspective
In Kentucky, more adults smoke than any other state
Kentucky ranks sixth in prevalence of obesity nationwide
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Kentucky
Kentucky is ranked 3rd highest in cancer mortality rates
Kentucky is 5th in the nation for deaths from coronary heart disease
Nationally, Kentucky ranks 13th in premature deaths
    NIH Funding Supports Many Research
           Programs in Kentucky
   The NIH-funded program Kentucky-Health Education
    Rural Outreach Scientists (KY-H.E.R.O.S.) showcases
    biomedical researchers who work towards addressing health
    problems that impact Kentuckians, including heart disease,
    cancer, obesity, and gum disease
   In 2000, University of Louisville received a record $8.5
    million grant from NIH COBRE to support spinal cord
    research
   The Morris K. Udall Parkinson’s Disease Research Center is
    one of only 11 national centers funded by NIH
   UK received more than $10 million to support a COBRE in
    women’s health
   A $1.2 million grant allows investigators to increase cervical
    cancer screening in Appalachian women by reaching them
    through the faith-based community
    NIH: Saving Lives Through Science
 Current annual budget of around $29.3 billion
 Greater than 80% distributed throughout the country
    More than 50,000 grants
    212,000 scientists
    2,800 universities


 Portfolio of basic, translational, and clinical research

   NIH has been involved in nearly all the medical & health
           related discoveries of the past century
      How NIH Makes Science Happen…
 Researchers working at local universities, hospitals and research
  institutions are dependent on federal support to fund their research, hire
  lab personnel and train young scientists
 They write research grant proposals to compete for funding
     Must explain why they think it’s a good idea, how they’re going to do the
      experiments, and what impact it will have on science & medicine
 Proposals are reviewed in a two-tiered system
     Peer-reviewed by scientists to ensure highest quality science
     Reviewed again for applicability to scientific or health priorities by NIH
      officials and other stakeholders, including public members
     NIH review system is the envy of the world!
 Very competitive!!!
     Before - 1 in 3 proposals funded; now closer to 1 in 6
     High quality research is not being done for lack of funding
   Basic Research: From Bench to Bedside

 Much of NIH funding goes to basic or fundamental research
 Basic research is driven by interest in a scientific question
 The main motivation is to expand knowledge and
  understanding, not to create or invent something
 However, the insight into how the human body works and
  understanding of how diseases and disorders operate provides
  the foundation for medical progress
   "People cannot foresee the future well enough to predict
  what's going to develop from basic research. If we only did
  applied research, we would still be making better spears."
                 Dr. George Smoot, Berkeley National Lab
                What about medical breakthroughs?

 Medical breakthroughs often come from unrelated areas of
  science or medicine
    Research on cancer biology has led to drugs for: heart disease;
     viral diseases like influenza, Herpes & AIDS; and osteoporosis
    Physicists studying the effects of magnets on atomic particles
     made the discovery that gave us MRI
 Usually based on years or decades of fundamental knowledge
    Over time, scientists solve or find different pieces of the puzzle
 This makes it difficult to predict where the next
  breakthrough will come from
    Makes it imperative to support a broad range of scientific research
    Much of this research is too basic for the private sector
       The federal investment often lays the foundation for advances in
        healthcare
Evolution of Research to
      Healthcare

  Selected modern examples…
            Cardiovascular disease
    Information on the biochemical structure & synthesis
     of cholesterol led to the development of statins
    Discoveries in basic kidney biology and blood pressure
     regulation converged with an unexpected finding
     involving snake venom to yield ACE inhibitors, one of
     our most effective hypertension medications
    Understanding how the blood clots, together with a
     new cancer treatment and the first commercial use of
     recombinant technologies, resulted in rtPA, a clot-
     busting drug that can prevent death from heart attack
     or stroke

 RESULTS?? 63% REDUCTION IN DEATHS FROM HEART DISEASE
AND A 70% REDUCTION IN DEATHS DUE TO STROKE; MORE THAN 1
             MILLION LIVES SAVED IN 2006 ALONE
                         Cardiovascular disease
                        500
                                                             ~ 1,329,000
   Deaths per 100,000

                                                               Projected
                        400                               Deaths in 2000
                        300

                        200
                                                                  ~ 514,000
                                                                  Actual
                        100                                       Deaths in
                                                                  2000
                              50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 00
                                            Year



    30-year                                                      Economic return
Investment per                                                     of improved
   American                                                        treatment &
                                                                    prevention
~$110.00 Total
                                                                  $2.6 TRILLION
                      HIV / AIDS
 Fundamental knowledge of how viruses replicate gave
  scientists targets for therapy. Researchers looking for a new
  cancer drug hit one of those targets when they discovered a
  way to block replication, resulting in the development of
  AZT.
 Increased understanding of how HIV operates at the
  cellular and molecular level identified more targets, and
  eventually led to the combination of drugs knows as the
  ‘triple cocktail.’

  RESULTS?? AIDS HAS BEEN TRANSFORMED FROM AN ACUTE
 FATAL ILLNESS TO A CHRONIC CONDITION; THE PROPHYLACTIC
   USE OF ANTI-VIRALS PREVENTED ALMOST 350,000 DEATHS
                     WORLDWIDE IN 2005
HIV / AIDS


             Deaths from
             AIDS dropped
             nearly 70%
             between 1995
             and 2000


         Survival rates for
        those infected with
         HIV has increased
            by 10 years
                         Cancer

 Basic research into the shape and characteristics of the
  estrogen receptor gave us tamoxifen, which can reduce
  breast cancer incidence among women at risk by over 45%.
 The breakthrough finding that human papillomavirus
  (HPV) could cause cervical cancer has led to a new vaccine
  that NIH estimated could reduce cervical cancer incidence
  by as much as 90%.
 While investigating the cellular machinery controlling cell
  growth, scientists developed bortezomib - now used to treat
  patients with multiple myeloma.

      RESULTS?? FROM 1993-2002, CANCER DEATH RATES
     DROPPED 1.1% PER YEAR; MORE THAN 2/3 OF PEOPLE
   DIAGNOSED WITH CANCER CAN EXPECT TO LIVE 5+ YEARS
                       Cancer
Increase in Cancer Survivors




  Millions of People
                       9

                       6

                       3


                       1971 1986 1990 2003




                           30-year
                       Investment per
                          American
                       ~$260.00 Total
                  Infant mortality

 Studies on lung function led to the discovery of surfactant.
  This protein-lipid mixture is crucial for the survival of
  premature infants, decreasing the number of infant deaths
  from respiratory distress from 15,000 per year to less than
  1,000.
 The use of anti-virals to prevent mother to child HIV
  transmission has reduced the rate from 25% to about 1% in
  the U.S.
 Studies on a metabolite of progesterone, known as
  progesterone 17P, have led to the finding that injections of
  this compound can reduce pre-term deliveries by as much as
  30%, a particularly important result for African American
  RESULTS?? IN LESS THAN A CENTURY, INFANT MORTALITY IN
  women.
    THE U.S. HAS BEEN REDUCED BY 90%, TRANSLATING TO
          ALMOST 500,000 BABIES SAVED PER YEAR
                NIH-Funded Research in KY Shows Promise

   UK investigators in physical medicine and rehabilitation have found
    a promising compound that targets mitochondrial function and has
    potential for acute treatment of patients sustaining head injury or
    spinal cord injury
   A neurology professor at UK is engaged in a multi-institutional study
    which looks at methods of nutritional and respiratory support for
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients
   Univ. of Louisville has created interdisciplinary centers to identify
    mechanisms to decrease heart damage after a heart attack, support
    cardiovascular function with internal artificial hearts, and stimulate
    spinal cord regeneration with neural stem cells
   The UK department of neurobiology is also exploring RNA therapy to
    treat Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
   The UK College of Medicine’s molecular/cellular biochemistry
    department is pursuing a therapeutic approach using bone marrow
    stem cells to prevent and treat Alzheimer’s disease
          The Bottom Line…
 People are living longer, healthier lives
  because of NIH funded medical research
 What were once swiftly fatal illnesses have
  become treatable or manageable conditions
 For those suffering from diseases that have
  no current treatment or cure, medical
  research provides hope – which has a major
  impact on quality of life
                  The Challenge…
 NIH funding is entirely dependent on Congressional support
 In recent years, Congressional support has diminished, and
  the NIH budget is slowly eroding from lack of funding and
  inflation
 Lack of understanding in Congress about the importance of
  medical research and the treatments and hope it provides
 As the NIH budget falls, success rate also falls
   Diminished investment in NIH = loss of
talented researchers = missed opportunities
        = delays in medical progress
     Kentucky’s Congressmen Need to
        Advocate for NIH Funding

 Nothing should surpass improving our health as a
  national priority

 Opportunities for discoveries that translate to
  improved health for our citizens have never been
  greater

 Every increase in the NIH budget means additional
  funding for research in the state and new jobs
            We Need Your Help:
          Working Together for NIH
 Contact Senators McConnell and Bunning
  and your Representative
    Let them know that medical research is
     important to you and what a bargain it is
 Write a letter to the newspaper and talk to
  your friends
    Help educate policymakers and neighbors
     about the important work NIH is doing
 Nothing is more important than our health
    The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
     should be an American priority
          Want to know more??




                   Please visit
              http://opa.faseb.org


Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB)

				
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posted:5/15/2010
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