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Microsoft PowerPoint - AIC-41734 Marriage trafficking in Asia

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 3

									                                                                                                                   3/18/2010




                                                             WHAT IS MARRIAGE TRAFFICKING?
                                                              Some confusion and no single definition
                                                              A range of forms (means and purposes)
                                                              contributes to the confusion
                                                              Involves:
                                                              R      i       f              i l(      ll b
                                                              Recruitment of a women or girl (normally by
           FOR BETTER OR WORSE:                               force, coercion or deception)
           MARRIAGE TRAFFICKING                               For the purpose of either servile marriage AND/
           IN ASIA                                            OR deployment in prostitution/ forced labouring
           Dr Sallie Yea, Honorary Research Fellow, Monash    By means of the use of a broker or agency,
           Asia Institute, Monash University, Melbourne,      religious-cultural intermediaries, familial
           AUSTRALIA.
                                                              networks, or abductors




WHAT IS MARRIAGE TRAFFICKING?
(CONT...)                                                    BROKERED SERVILE MARRIAGE
 Marriage Trafficking can therefore take four                 Where marriage brokers/ facilitation agencies are
 main forms:                                                  involved in providing introductions and making
 Brokered servile marriage (where the                         arrangements for marriage between two parties;
 exploitation takes place primarily within the                can include situation where force is involved (see
 marriage)                                                                   g )
                                                              Forced Marriage).
 False marriage where marriage is a means of                  Case: Vietnam, Cambodia and the Philippines to
 realising the movement of and control over                   South Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia
 another person (where exploitation takes place               Case: North Korea to China
 primarily through, but not within the marriage)              Case: domestically within China
 OR a combination of the above two forms
 Forced servile marriage (where the exploitation
 also takes place primarily within the marriage)




FALSE MARRIAGE                                               FORCED MARRIAGE
 Marriage as a means of realising the movement                Where the marriage is conducted without the
 of and control over another                                  valid consent of one or both parties, where duress
 Case: Vietnam to South Korea                                 is a factor (emotional pressure or assault/
                                                              abduction)
                                                                                         India,
                                                              Case: domestically within India Pakistan
                                                              Case: transnationally from Australia to Lebanon




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                                                                                                            3/18/2010




ISSUES FOR MARRIAGE TRAFFICKING                      CASE STUDY OF MARRIAGE BROKERING/
VICTIMS                                              SERVILE MARRIAGE IN SOUTH KOREA
 Domestic Violence                                   THE RESEARCH
 Homicide & Suicide                                   Based on fieldwork conducted primarily in 2003
 Forced confinement                                   and 2005 (6 months in total); further work
 Removal of freedom of movement and association       planned pending funding
 Psychological harms                                                              in-depth
                                                      Qualitative study based on in depth interviews
 Child abuse                                          and observations over periods of 2 – 6 months
 Forced labour/ domestic servitude                    respectively
 (Marital) rape                                       Twelve participants from the Philippines
 Humiliation (eg. Forced virginity tests)             Accessed through a shelter and support centre for
 Malnutrition                                         Filipino migrants in South Korea (Seoul) (10
 Citizenship/ residency                               participants) and the Philippines Embassy Safe
                                                      House for Migrants (Seoul) (2 participants)




CASE STUDY OF MARRIAGE BROKERING/                    CASE STUDY OF MARRIAGE BROKERING/
SERVILE MARRIAGE IN SOUTH KOREA                      SERVILE MARRIAGE IN SOUTH KOREA
THE KOREAN CONTEXT                                   THE RISE OF FOREIGN MARRIAGES
 Rapid economic development and globalisation         INVOLVING SEA AND MONGOLIA
 The decline of agriculture as the socio-cultural     A major increase in the rise of foreign brides from
 and economic basis for Korean identity               SEA and Mongolia (also Russia and CARs) over
                                                      the past decade
 Gender       ii                  k f lfil “b i h
 G d transition as women seek to fulfil “bright
 lights” migration to urban areas                     The main source countries of brides are the
                                                      Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia,
 The export of Korean TV dramas to Southeast
                                                      Mongolia, Russia.
 Asia romanticising Korean familial life and
 modernisation achievements




CASE STUDY OF MARRIAGE BROKERING/                    CASE STUDY OF MARRIAGE BROKERING/
SERVILE MARRIAGE IN SOUTH KOREA                      SERVILE MARRIAGE IN SOUTH KOREA
BROKERS: A NEW KOREAN INDUSTRY                       FILIPINAS EXPERIENCES
 T’ongil Kyo (Unification Church) as international     Domestic Violence and a Husband’s Marginal
 marriage facilitator (1990s)                          Position
 The rise of private marriages agencies in the         Amelia
 2000s; including unlicensed agencies (borokko)
 and licensed agencies (kyorhon sangdamso)
                                                      Reproductive Labour and Livelihood Aspirations
 The concomitant rise of local governments            Dashed
 offering “marriage tours”
                                                      Glenda
 Many based in the provincial capitals ( for
 example, Kwangju, Chonju)
 Content analysis of 7 sites for this research




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                                                    EMERGING ISSUES AND FUTURE
HUMAN TRAFFICKING?                                  RESEARCH
 The women in this study were trafficked because,    The role of brokers and intermediaries as “agents of
                                                     deception” (eg. The fluidity of agents in different
 although they entered into their marriages          types of trafficking)
 voluntarily and without coercion or force, they     The differences and similarities between women of
 were all deceived about various matters             various ages and nationalities (motivations and
          g
 including...                                        experiences) (eg. Older women seeking “love”,
                                                     younger women seeking economic opportunities)
 Husband’s character                                 The departures marriage trafficking presents from
                                                     trafficking to the sex industry (eg. Isolation and
 Husband’s circumstances                             inability to detect marriage trafficking victims)
 Place of residence                                  Increasing understanding of victim’s needs and
                                                     circumstances (eg. Citizenship and child rights)
 Husband’s family
                                                     Cultural issues and understandings of marriage/
 Wife’s responsibilities and situation               wives and gender norms as they may relate to human
                                                     trafficking (eg. Boy preference)




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