REL 105

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					 REL 105

       Why Study the Bible?

Bumper Sticker Theology:
The Bible/God said it;
I’ve read it;
That settles it.
       Terms for the Bible

Greek = Eng. “the books”
Scripture; Writing; 2 Covenants;
2 Testaments
Hebrew Bible (24), aka Tanakh
Old Testament (39);
New Testament (27)
                  The OT Canon

Canon, Gr.: measuring rod, rule;
   set collection of texts
Council of Jamnia: AD 90, set Hebrew Bible canon
1.   Textual: conform to Torah
2.   Chronology: Ezra (400BC) or prior
3.   Linguistic: Hebrew
4.   Geographical: Palestine
     *Apocrypha: In LXX; not in Masoretic Text
    Structure of the Bible

2 Testaments: Old & New Covenant
Hebrew Bible (24): (Tanakh)

4 Ways of Structuring the Bible

1. Judaism: canon and order of
   Masoretic text
2. Greek Orthodoxy: canon and
   order of LXX
3. Roman Catholicism: canon and
   order of LXX, with apocrypha at end
4. Protestantism: canon of the
   Masoretic text, order of LXX
      OT Divisions/Groups

1. Law (Torah, Pentateuch)
2. History (Josh-Nehemiah)
3. Writings (Esther-Song of Sol.)
     Wisdom Lit: Job, Prov, Ecclesiastes
4. Prophets (Isaiah-Malachi)
   4 Major: Is, Jer, Ez, Daniel
   12 Minor
5. Apocrypha (Deuterocanonical) 7 books
        Approaches to the Bible
1. Devotional
2. Academic

Biblical criticism: investigating the Bible
    (critical does not mean negative, but rather
  Reading as Interpreting



Exegesis v. Eisegesis
    Quadriga: Fourfold Sense

Quadriga: popular in Middle ages
•   Literal
•   Allegorical
•   Tropological (moral; ethical)
•   Anagogical (future fulfillment)
    Reading in Four Stages

Popularized by Guigo (d. 1188)
1. Reading (lectio)
2. Meditation (meditatio)
3. Prayer (oratio)
4. Contemplation (contemplatio)
  > Each step points and prepares for
    the next
           Interpreting the Bible

Tasks of Hermeneutics:
1. Exegesis - discover the text’s
   original meaning
       (v. eisegesis)

2.   Application: relate the text to today
        Interpreting the Bible

Influences on Hermeneutics:
1.   Presuppositions

2.   Context

3.   Intelligibility
      Dual-Nature of Scripture

1.   Eternal relevance

2.   Historical particularity
       Nature of the OT

1. YHWH is the defining
2. Inspired
3. Ideological
4. Scripture   (as referenced in NT)

5. History
              OT as History
1. Salvation History
2. Theological Interpretation
           Authority of Bible
Inspired: God-breathed           (2 Tim 3.16-17)

Reformers: Sola scriptura
RCC: Scripture, Creeds, Reason, & Tradition
   (papal decisions, councils)

Word of God:
   Jesus Christ
          Authority of the OT

1. Torah = Law; Pentateuch (lit.: 5 scrolls)
2. Nevi’im = Prophets
3. Ketuvim = Writings
1. Dietary laws
2. Sabbath/Sunday
3. NT view of OT (L & P: Mt 5.17; Acts 28.23;
   L,P, & Pss: Lk 24.44)
        God in the Bible

OT: Nobody has seen God
  Human nature
  Human sinfulness
  God’s majesty & wonder (Glory)
NT: Jesus is the incarnation of God
  Face (Jn 14.9)
  Image (Col. 1.15)
  Representation (Heb. 1.3)
      Principal Literary Types

1.   Drama       6. Poetry
2.   Law         7. Visions/Apocalyptic works
3.   Genealogy 8. Allegory/Parables
4.   History     9. Prophecy
5.   Narrative 10. Epistles/Letters
         Important Terms

Covenant (suzerainty, parity)
Day of Atonement
       Important Terms

         Important Terms

Pharisaic (Pharisees)
        Important Terms

Septuagint (275-100 BC)
         Names of God in OT

• Elohim Gen 1.1 (2300+ times)
  •   strength, power
  •   Plural, yet often takes singular verbs
• Yahweh Elohim (beginning with Gen 2.4b)
• YHWH (See next slide)
• Adonai: Heb. Lord

•   Tetragrammaton (Lit. Gr: 4 letters)
•   Lit: “to be” (Ex 3.13)
•   6500+ times in OT
•   Jews refuse to write or say this name (Ex. 20.7)
•   Rendered: Yahweh or Jehovah in English
•   Rendered: kyrios (Lord) in Greek (LXX)
•   Only refers to God of Abraham, Isaac, and
    Jacob; never to other gods (unlike other
    Hebrew words for a divine figure)
         Types of Biblical Criticism
                  (FMR, 35-50)

1.   Textual             6.   Canonical
2.   Historical          7.   Social-Scientific
3.   Source              8.   Narrative
4.   Form                9.   Reader-response
5.   Redaction
     Documentary Hypothesis

1.   J: Yahwist (Yahweh)
2.   E: Elohist (Elohim)
3.   P: Priestly
4.   D: Deuteronomist
** For more see: Biblical Exegesis, by John Hayes and Carl Holladay
       Periods in Israel’s History
1. Pre-monarchial:
  beginning of Israel >
  rise of David (1000B.C.)
2. Monarchial: rise of David >
  destruction of Temple (587B.C.)
3. Post-monarchial: post-587B.C.
         I. The Torah

• Titles: Pentateuch; 5 Books of Moses;
  Law; Instruction

• Authorship: Moses?

• Importance: chief

• Contents: Narratives & Commands
I. Primeval History (1-11)

II. Patriarchal History (12-50)
         Primeval History (1-11)
I. Creation & Fall (1-3)

II. Implications of the Fall (4-11)
      Creation Narrative (1)

Prologue to Creation Gen 1.1-2:
  God created the Heavens and Earth
Day: Event:
1 Separates light from darkness
2 Separates waters (creates the sky, heavens)
3 Separates land from water; vegetation
4 Creates 2 Lights (Sun, Moon) and Stars
5 Creates Fish & Birds
6 Creates land animals, humanity
7 Blessed, hallowed the 7th day; rested
           Creation Narratives

1st Narrative (1.1-2.3; uses Elohim)
Days of:
Separation (1-3): Creation (4-6):
Environment:       Occupants:
1: Light         4: Luminaries
2: Waters (Heavens, sky) 5: Fish & Birds
3: Earth, vegetation 6: land animals, man
             7: Sabbath
         Creation Narratives

• Announcement: “and God said”
• Command: “let there be/let it be gathered/let it
  bring forth”
• Report/fulfilment: “and it was so”
• Evaluation/Commendation: “and God saw that it
  was good”
• Temporal Framework/concluding formula:
  “there was morning and there was evening”
          Creation Narratives

There are at least 2 similarities & 7 differences

1 bonus point on Exam 1 to each group member for each
    correct answer.
     12 Theological Assessments

God (1-5):
1. There is 1 God
2. Distinction between humanity & God
3. God is free and majestic
4. God is active in creation from beginning to
5. For Christians, God is a Trinity
  12 Theol. Assessments, cont’d

Creation (6-8):
6. Creation is essentially good
7. Creation is linked to redemption
8. Creation is an affirmation of faith
Humanity (9-12)
9. Humanity is made in God’s image
10. The problem of evil (and sin) is due to the moral
    failure of human beings
11. This problem places humanity in conflict with each
    other, the world, and God
12. Humanity has a special role (responsible for creation)
     The Fall and its Implications, I

4 Falls:
1.    Adam & Eve (3)
2.    Cain and Abel (fratricide) (4.1-24 [v.8])
3.    Noah & Ark (the flood) (6.5-9.17)
4.    Tower at Babel (11.1-9)
             The Flood

Documentary Hypothesis:
J document & P document
• Gen 6.5-8 & Gen 6.11-16
• Gen 7.1 & Gen 6.17-18
• Gen 7.2-5 & Gen 6.19-22
• Gen 6.10 & 6.11
• Gen 8.6-12 & 8.13-16
• Gen 8.20-22 & 9.8-17
Noah (Gen. 9.1-17)
Covenant: contract between 2 parties
 Universality (9.8-11)
  The Fall and its Implications, II

Repeated cycle of sin:
  Rebellion, judgment, & promise (3-11)
Correspondence of sin to punishment:
  Serpent: seduced Eve into eating; he must eat dust
  Cain: settled (a farmer); becomes a wanderer,
  Tower: punishment is directed toward the
  instrument of sin (1 language) and the intent of the
  sin: to avoid being scattered