Answer Key 1.According to Kohlberg, which of the following phrases describes the basis of moral reasoning in early childhood? Don't get caught Don't be a jerk We all have rights It's the law 2.You would expect an individual at a higher level of moral development to show an increase in concern over understanding rules and laws concern over the ethics of a person's actions concern over the consequences of a person's actions concern over doing what society thinks is right 3.Which of the following student statements is an example of Kohlberg's preconventional level? Antonio: "I like getting good grades because my parents got good grades." Betsy: "I like getting good grades because the school requires it." Charlie: "I like getting good grades because my parents pay me when I do." Diana: "I like getting good grades because I want good grades." 4.The Eisenbergs want to raise their children to be highly moral. Which positive parenting strategies might they use to accomplish this? Providing their children with an external moral orientation Providing their children with consistently strict discipline Providing their children with information on expected behaviors Providing their children with rational logic rather than warmth 5.If Elena does not cheat on tests because she feels it is important to obey rules set down by her teachers, then she is probably functioning at the _______ stage of moral development. preconventional conventional postconventional universal ethical principles 6.A child decides to steal a small item from a neighborhood store in order to be accepted into a club. The child reasons that the stealing behavior is acceptable because it is what his friends expect of him. According to Kohlberg, this child is operating at the _______ level. preconventional heteronomous universal ethical principles conventional 7.In Kohlberg's theory, conventional level is to self-sacrifice as preconventional is to equity. individual survival is to principled. principled is to preconventional. preconventional is to individual survival. 8.At the preconventional level of moral development, individuals decide right and wrong based on society's laws. parental standards. individual ethical principles. punishments or rewards. 9.In Erikson's stage theory of development, the stages are known as Crises Blending points Choice points Milestones 10.What is NOT one major difference between Erikson's theory and Freud's theory? Erikson's theory is a stage theory, while Freud's theory is not a stage theory Freud believed that the personality is formed during early childhood, while Erikson believed that development continues throughout life While both viewed development as a series of conflicts or crises, Freud's theory focused more on psychosexual development and Erikson's theory focused more on psychosocial development In Freud's theory, conflicts and their resolution revolve more around early family relationships, while in Erikson's theory, they revolve more around relationships with both family and society 11.The absolute threshold is the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be ______ and the difference threshold is the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be ______. Generated; generated half the time Generated half the time; generated Detected half the time; detected Detected; detected half the time 12.Tom walked into the anatomy lab for the first time and was overpowered by the odor of formaldehyde. By the end of the lab, he said there was only a slight smell. This can best be explained by Stereochemical desensitization Opponent-process theory Sensory adaptation Gustatory adaptation 13.When you are paid $1 instead of $2, it is a big deal. When you are paid $91 instead of $92, it feels less painful. This is similar to Absolute thresholds Perceptual constancy Weber's law 14.When we refer to the hue of a light wave, we are referring to what we perceive as Intensity Radiation Brightness Color 15.Regarding light, wavelength is the ______ as intensity is the ______. Hue; brightness Brightness; hue Hue; saturation Brightness; saturation 16.You are outside enjoying a beautiful day. The sky is bright blue. When the sun sets, the sky turns a gorgeous salmon pink. After the sun has set, the sky pales to pink, then lavender; as it gets dark, the sky becomes a deeper purple, then midnight blue and finally it looks black. The color changes you perceive in the sky are due to the __________ of light that it reflects. Amplitude Purity Wavelength Saturation 17.MC The major purpose of the iris Protect the eye from injury Regulate the amount of light entering the eye Focus light on the retina 18.The unit of measure for the intensity of sound is Pitch Saturation Hue Decibel 19.The different pitches of the beeps you hear on a touch-tone telephone are due to differences in the _____ of the beeps. Intensity Timbre Decibels Frequency 20 You are listening to music with a wide dynamic range. In the world of amplitude, what do the louder and softer sounds have to do with the air and your ears? With louder sounds, air is pressing with more force on your ears; with softer sounds, air is pressing with less force on your ears With both louder and softer sounds, the air presses with equal force upon your ears The louder sounds move faster through the air to your ears than the softer sounds do The louder and softer sounds you are hearing have nothing to do with the air 21.What area of the brain is most associated with arousal? cerebral cortex reticular activating system hippocampus temporal lobe 22.What level of awareness would be engaged for the average person driving his or her car? higher-level consciousness automatic process subconscious awareness no awareness 23.Completing a calculus test would be an example of lower-level awareness. an automatic process. a controlled process. 24.At what age do children usually begin to develop a theory of mind? two years old three years old four years old 25.Which brain waves are most desynchronous? alpha waves beta waves gamma waves theta waves 26.What brain structure is most responsible for monitoring circadian rhythms? hypothalamus reticular formation suprachiasmatic nucleus nucleus accumbens 27.What type of brain waves are present when we are awake? alpha waves delta waves gamma waves theta waves 28.Sleep spindles occur in which stage of sleep? stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 29.The majority of dreaming occurs in which stage of sleep? stage 2 stage 3 stage 4 stage 5 30.What is the minimum number of hours of sleep that is usually needed for healthy functioning? 4 hours 6 hours 8 hours 10 hours 31.A full sleep cycle lasts about 30 minutes. 60 minutes. 90 minutes. 120 minutes. 32.Which neurotransmitter is most associated with REM sleep? serotonin norepinephrine adenosine acetylcholine 33.Which of the following statements are correct? Night terrors occur during non-REM sleep, while nightmares occur during REM sleep. Night terrors are more common than nightmares. Night terrors do not involve physiological reactions, such as sweating and increased heart rate, whereas nightmares do. Both night terrors and nightmares increase in frequency up through middle-adulthood. 34.What theory of dreams states that dreams are the byproduct of neural activity in the lower brain? cognitive theory activation-synthesis theory parallel-processing theory Freudian-interpretation theory 35 Which of the following statements is correct? Meditation is a state of altered consciousness. Meditation has health benefits. Brain waves among people in a meditative state are the same as people who are asleep. Meditation allows people to avoid their thoughts. 36.According to the University of Arizona's "Partners for Life" program, Married college students who take special classes together have lower divorce rates Married college students contemplating divorce stay married an average of 8 years longer when a special counseling regiment with service dogs is provided There are approximately 15,000 service dogs in the United States Nursing home residents live longer if husbands and wives are allowed to stay together with their pets 37.Any situation that involves learning requires some relatively permanent change to occur requires a great deal of effort involves conscious determination is relatively automatic 38. In classical conditioning situations, the _____ connection is innate, but the _____ connection is learned. UCS-CS; UCR-CR UCS-UCR; CS-CR UCR-CR; UCS-CS CS-CR; UCS-UCR 39.You feel fine as you sit down in your usual seat in German class. However, when Dr. Kraus announces that there will be a pop quiz over 100 of the most difficult vocabulary words covered in the last few class sessions, your heart starts pounding and you get a queasy feeling in your stomach. This reaction is most likely a(n) CR UCR CS UCS 40.Boris is trying to use classical conditioning to teach his goldfish to come to the top of the tank to eat whenever he turns on the aquarium light. He drops food into the tank and then turns on the light. After several such trials, the fish show no more inclination to come to the top of the tank when the light is turned on than they did on the first trial. What would you suggest that Boris do to improve his training technique? He should turn on the light before he drops the food into the tank He should keep the light on at all times He should forget the whole idea because goldfish aren't good candidates for classical conditioning training He should turn the light on and then off before dropping the food into the tank 41.Watson and Raynor used _____ as a CS in order to condition fear in Little Albert. a white rat a loud noise a scary mask a rabbit 42.Carol gives her dog, Cutie Pie, a treat each time Cutie Pie sits on command. Carol is using a _____ schedule to train her dog to sit on command. continuous reinforcement variable ratio fixed interval fixed ratio 43.Which of the following is NOT associated with Skinner? The Skinner box Operant conditioning Schedules of reinforcement Free will 44.Carol's dog, Cutie Pie, sits whenever she says, "Sit." Carol now wants to teach Cutie Pie a new trick. She wants to teach him to bark each time she says, "Speak," but whenever Carol says, "Speak," Cutie Pie sits. The dog's behavior is an example of Generalization Habituation Contiguous occurrences Contingent occurrences 45.After extensive training, Carol's dog, Cutie Pie, sits when Carol says "Speak," and barks when Carol says "Sit." Initially, Cutie Pie sat down whenever Carol said either "speak" or "sit." Cutie Pie is now demonstrating Command confusion Generalization Discrimination Purposive learning 46.Dr. Meyer is known for his difficult pop quizzes. Immediately before he springs a pop quiz on his students, he typically goes to the classroom door and closes it. Students soon learn to anticipate a pop quiz whenever Dr. Meyer closes the classroom door. Closing the door has become a(n) CS UCS UCR CR 47.Kelley is scolded each time she teases her little brother. Her mother notices that the frequency of teasing has decreased. Scolding Kelley is an effective negative reinforcer negative punisher conditioner positive punisher 48.Matt wants to train his dog, Buster, to sit on command. He gives Buster a doggie biscuit each time Buster sits when commanded, but only for the first 10 trials. He then changes the rules. Buster now has to sit on command three times before he gets a biscuit. Matt used _____ schedule first and then _____ schedule to train Buster. a continuous reinforcement schedule; a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement; a continuous reinforcement schedule a variable ratio schedule a continuous reinforcement schedule; a fixed interval schedule 49.Four month old Baby Nimo quickly learns that he will be picked up if he cries. From a behaviorist perspective, picking up Baby Nimo whenever he cries Is a positive reinforcer for crying Is a negative reinforcer for crying Should be done only on a partial reinforcement schedule Will have no effect on his crying behavior because Baby Nimo is too young to be aware of associative contingencies 50.Larry is sent to his room each time he hits his little brother. After a few times of being sent to his room, Larry's misbehavior towards his little brother decreases. Sending Larry to his room is an example of positive punishment negative punishment negative reinforcement negative rewarding 51.Two year-old Sarah's parents are trying to get her to go to bed each night at 7:00. On the first 3 nights of this new regimen, Sarah cried for 3 hours before crying herself to sleep. On the fourth night, Sarah's parents relented and let her stay up until she fell asleep on her own, around 10:00 p.m. According to the partial reinforcement effect, what will happen to Sarah's crying behavior at bedtime now? Sarah's crying behavior will be more difficult to control. Sarah's crying behavior will be easier to control Sarah's crying behavior will stop for a while, but then reoccur Sarah's crying behavior won't start until 10:00 p.m 52.Fred's parents are very inconsistent with their childrearing rules. Most of the time Fred can climb on the furniture but sometimes he can't. Fred is sometimes allowed to stay up until he falls asleep on his own, but sometimes his parents will demand that he go to bed at an earlier time. Fred frequently throws temper tantrums when he can't get his way and his parents typically give-in to his demands, although sometimes they don't. Fred's parents can't understand why he isn't a better behaved child. Fred's parents are reinforcing his negative behaviors on a fixed ratio schedule fixed interval schedule partial reinforcement schedule continuous reinforcement schedule 53. The behavioral approach ... The behavioral approach to learning defines learning in terms of thoughts and feelings wishes and fantasies change grades 54.Anticipating a scary event whenever eerie music is played in a movie is a function of associative learning observational learning operant conditioning stimulus experience 55.In _____ situations, organisms learn the association between two stimuli. In _____situations, organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence. classical conditioning; operant conditioning operant conditioning; classical conditioning classical conditioning; observational learning observational learning; classical conditioning 56.According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, memory storage involves which of the following three systems? Sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory Attentive memory, short term memory and long term memory Sensory memory, selective memory and long term memory Sensory memory, selective memory and exhaustive memory 57.You tell your friends about the great time you had at a famous vacation amusement park. Most of the information that you have forgotten about this experience was most likely processed in your Sensory memory Short term memory Long term memory Personal memory 58.You are engrossed in your favorite TV show in the living room. Your roommate yells for you to quickly bring a flyswatter to the kitchen. Vaguely aware that a request is being made of you, you ask your roommate to repeat herself. Before she can reply, however, the words, "bring a flyswatter to the kitchen," play through your mind. This is an example of Storic memory Echoic memory Iconic memory Personal memory 59.The sensory memory for which of the following have been studied LEAST? Smell Hearing Sight Walking 60.Imagine that you were a participant in Sperling's classic study on iconic memory. Why aren't you able to identify all the letters presented on the screen? They are presented too briefly for you to identify them They weren't presented audibly They weren't distinctive enough The font size was too small 61.Short-term memory has a _____ capacity than sensory memory and a_____ duration. More limited; longer Less limited; longer Larger; shorter More limited; shorter 62.George Miller's classic paper on the "magical" seven plus or minus two phenomenon refers to a person's Memory span Memory capacity Memory recall Memory lobe 63.Chunking involves Immediately scanning information for relevant details Elaborative encoding of information Immediately forgetting relevant information Using Miller's framework for memory retrieval 64.After hearing a friend's telephone number for the first time, you are able to recite back to her all seven digits in perfect order. This feat is made possible by your Digit rehearsal system Performance increment capacity Number recall capacity Memory span 65When asked to memorize the 15 letters, C I A C B S A B C F B I I R S, Mary reorganizes them into CIA, CBS, ABC, FBI and IRS. Mary used the tactic of Mental structuring Visual structuring Chunking Cueing 66.Which of the following would NOT be a defining property of an airplane? It is used for transportation. It has tires. It is silver. It has an engine. 67.Which of the following best describes the difference between the classical model of concepts and the prototype model? The classical model uses defining properties and the prototype model uses characteristics. The prototype model using defining properties and the classical model uses characteristics. The prototype model is more rigid than the classical model. The prototype model is all or none regarding concept structure. 68.In everyday situations, finding and framing problems can be difficult because most real-life problems Are vague and ill-defined. Suggest obvious operations. Provide clear definitions. Are beyond the average person's ability to solve. 69.Problem solving in the real world often involves seeing and defining problems in situations that most others Don't see as a problem. Don't understand. Pretend not to notice. Are afraid to tackle. 70.Your textbook describes.... Your textbook describes how Levi Hutchins, a young clockmaker, resolved to rise at 4 A.M. every morning. This resolution to wake up before sunrise each morning motivated Hutchins to invent the alarm clock. The most likely first step in solving the problem of waking up early was for Hutchins to Rethink and redefine the problem. Find and frame the problem. Evaluate the solutions. Employ good problem-solving strategies. 71Jim needs a backyard shed.... Jim needs a backyard shed to house his motorcycle. Although he has never built a shed, he decides to build one and buys a book of professionally drawn detailed shed plans. In this situation, Jim is using a(n) Algorithm. Heuristic. Prototype. Category. 72.Sam manages a fast-food restaurant. He is frustrated because employees often call in sick at the last minute before they are supposed to start their shift. Given that Sam recognizes this problem, what should he do next? Sam should call a meeting with all his employees and explain the problem to them in language that they can understand. Sam should threaten to fire anyone who calls in sick before they are supposed to start their shift. Sam should ignore the problem. Sam should define the problem in detail. 73.Shantae is a sales representative and uses MapQuest to get driving directions to her clients' offices. Shantae is using a(n) _____ to get to her destinations. Algorithm Heuristic Prototype Category 74.You have to study four chapters of information for your next test. If you decide to use the problem solving strategy of subgoaling, you would do which of the following? You would cram the night before the test. You would break the topics to be studied into smaller areas and focus on each in an organized sequence. You would decide who should be your study partner. You would study the learning objectives for each chapter instead of reading the chapters. 75.An effective way to strategize your organization of subgoals is to Work forward in your planning, first creating a subgoal closest to the start and finally creating a subgoal close to the final goal. Not create more than two subgoals. Not create less than ten subgoals. Work backward in your planning; first creating a subgoal that is closest to the final goal and then work backward to the subgoal that is closest to the beginning of the problemsolving effort. .
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