Answer Key 1According to Kohlberg_ which of the following phrases by maclaren1

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									Answer Key
1.According to Kohlberg, which of the following phrases describes the basis of moral reasoning
in early childhood?
Don't get caught
Don't be a jerk
We all have rights
It's the law

2.You would expect an individual at a higher level of moral development to show an increase
concern over understanding rules and laws
concern over the ethics of a person's actions
concern over the consequences of a person's actions
concern over doing what society thinks is right

3.Which of the following student statements is an example of Kohlberg's preconventional
Antonio: "I like getting good grades because my parents got good grades."
Betsy: "I like getting good grades because the school requires it."
Charlie: "I like getting good grades because my parents pay me when I do."
Diana: "I like getting good grades because I want good grades."

4.The Eisenbergs want to raise their children to be highly moral. Which positive parenting
strategies might they use to accomplish this?
Providing their children with an external moral orientation
Providing their children with consistently strict discipline
Providing their children with information on expected behaviors
Providing their children with rational logic rather than warmth

5.If Elena does not cheat on tests because she feels it is important to obey rules set down by her
teachers, then she is probably functioning at the _______ stage of moral development.
universal ethical principles

6.A child decides to steal a small item from a neighborhood store in order to be accepted into a
club. The child reasons that the stealing behavior is acceptable because it is what his friends
expect of him. According to Kohlberg, this child is operating at the _______ level.
universal ethical principles

7.In Kohlberg's theory, conventional level is to self-sacrifice as
preconventional is to equity.
individual survival is to principled.
principled is to preconventional.
preconventional is to individual survival.

8.At the preconventional level of moral development, individuals decide right and wrong
based on
society's laws.
parental standards.
individual ethical principles.
punishments or rewards.

9.In Erikson's stage theory of development, the stages are known as
Blending points
Choice points

10.What is NOT one major difference between Erikson's theory and Freud's theory?
Erikson's theory is a stage theory, while Freud's theory is not a stage theory
Freud believed that the personality is formed during early childhood, while Erikson
believed that development continues throughout life
While both viewed development as a series of conflicts or crises, Freud's theory focused
more on psychosexual development and Erikson's theory focused more on psychosocial
In Freud's theory, conflicts and their resolution revolve more around early family
relationships, while in Erikson's theory, they revolve more around relationships with both
family and society

11.The absolute threshold is the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be ______ and the
difference threshold is the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be ______.
Generated; generated half the time
Generated half the time; generated
Detected half the time; detected
Detected; detected half the time

12.Tom walked into the anatomy lab for the first time and was overpowered by the odor of
formaldehyde. By the end of the lab, he said there was only a slight smell. This can best be
explained by
Stereochemical desensitization
Opponent-process theory
Sensory adaptation
Gustatory adaptation

13.When you are paid $1 instead of $2, it is a big deal. When you are paid $91 instead of $92, it
feels less painful. This is similar to
Absolute thresholds
Perceptual constancy
Weber's law

14.When we refer to the hue of a light wave, we are referring to what we perceive as

15.Regarding light, wavelength is the ______ as intensity is the ______.
Hue; brightness
Brightness; hue
Hue; saturation
Brightness; saturation

16.You are outside enjoying a beautiful day. The sky is bright blue. When the sun sets, the sky turns
a gorgeous salmon pink. After the sun has set, the sky pales to pink, then lavender; as it gets
dark, the sky becomes a deeper purple, then midnight blue and finally it looks black. The color
changes you perceive in the sky are due to the __________ of light that it reflects.

17.MC The major purpose of the iris
Protect the eye from injury
Regulate the amount of light entering the eye
Focus light on the retina

18.The unit of measure for the intensity of sound is

19.The different pitches of the beeps you hear on a touch-tone telephone are due to differences in
the _____ of the beeps.

20 You are listening to music with a wide dynamic range. In the world of amplitude, what do the louder
and softer sounds have to do with the air and your ears?
 With louder sounds, air is pressing with more force on your ears; with softer sounds, air is pressing
 with less force on your ears
 With both louder and softer sounds, the air presses with equal force upon your ears
 The louder sounds move faster through the air to your ears than the softer sounds do
 The louder and softer sounds you are hearing have nothing to do with the air

21.What area of the brain is most associated with arousal?
cerebral cortex
reticular activating system
temporal lobe

22.What level of awareness would be engaged for the average person driving his or her car?
higher-level consciousness
automatic process
subconscious awareness
no awareness

23.Completing a calculus test would be an example of
lower-level awareness.
an automatic process.
a controlled process.

24.At what age do children usually begin to develop a theory of mind?
two years old
three years old
four years old

25.Which brain waves are most desynchronous?
alpha waves
beta waves
gamma waves
theta waves

26.What brain structure is most responsible for monitoring circadian rhythms?
reticular formation
suprachiasmatic nucleus
nucleus accumbens

27.What type of brain waves are present when we are awake?
alpha waves
delta waves
gamma waves
theta waves

28.Sleep spindles occur in which stage of sleep?
stage 1
stage 2
stage 3

29.The majority of dreaming occurs in which stage of sleep?
stage 2
stage 3
stage 4
stage 5
30.What is the minimum number of hours of sleep that is usually needed for healthy
4 hours
6 hours
8 hours
10 hours

31.A full sleep cycle lasts about
30 minutes.
60 minutes.
90 minutes.
120 minutes.

32.Which neurotransmitter is most associated with REM sleep?

33.Which of the following statements are correct?
Night terrors occur during non-REM sleep, while nightmares occur during REM sleep.
Night terrors are more common than nightmares.
Night terrors do not involve physiological reactions, such as sweating and increased
heart rate, whereas nightmares do.
Both night terrors and nightmares increase in frequency up through middle-adulthood.

34.What theory of dreams states that dreams are the byproduct of neural activity in the lower
cognitive theory
activation-synthesis theory
parallel-processing theory
Freudian-interpretation theory

35 Which of the following statements is correct?
 Meditation is a state of altered consciousness.
 Meditation has health benefits.
 Brain waves among people in a meditative state are the same as people who are asleep.
 Meditation allows people to avoid their thoughts.

36.According to the University of Arizona's "Partners for Life" program,
Married college students who take special classes together have lower divorce rates
Married college students contemplating divorce stay married an average of 8 years
longer when a special counseling regiment with service dogs is provided
There are approximately 15,000 service dogs in the United States
Nursing home residents live longer if husbands and wives are allowed to stay together
with their pets
37.Any situation that involves learning
requires some relatively permanent change to occur
requires a great deal of effort
involves conscious determination
is relatively automatic

38. In classical conditioning situations, the _____ connection is innate, but the _____ connection
is learned.

39.You feel fine as you sit down in your usual seat in German class. However, when Dr. Kraus
announces that there will be a pop quiz over 100 of the most difficult vocabulary words covered
in the last few class sessions, your heart starts pounding and you get a queasy feeling in your
stomach. This reaction is most likely a(n)

40.Boris is trying to use classical conditioning to teach his goldfish to come to the top of the tank
to eat whenever he turns on the aquarium light. He drops food into the tank and then turns on the
light. After several such trials, the fish show no more inclination to come to the top of the tank
when the light is turned on than they did on the first trial. What would you suggest that Boris do
to improve his training technique?
He should turn on the light before he drops the food into the tank
He should keep the light on at all times
He should forget the whole idea because goldfish aren't good candidates for classical
conditioning training
He should turn the light on and then off before dropping the food into the tank

41.Watson and Raynor used _____ as a CS in order to condition fear in Little Albert.
a white rat
a loud noise
a scary mask
a rabbit

42.Carol gives her dog, Cutie Pie, a treat each time Cutie Pie sits on command. Carol is using a
_____ schedule to train her dog to sit on command.
continuous reinforcement
variable ratio
fixed interval
fixed ratio

43.Which of the following is NOT associated with Skinner?
The Skinner box
Operant conditioning
Schedules of reinforcement
Free will
44.Carol's dog, Cutie Pie, sits whenever she says, "Sit." Carol now wants to teach Cutie Pie a new
trick. She wants to teach him to bark each time she says, "Speak," but whenever Carol says,
"Speak," Cutie Pie sits. The dog's behavior is an example of
Contiguous occurrences
Contingent occurrences

45.After extensive training, Carol's dog, Cutie Pie, sits when Carol says "Speak," and barks when
Carol says "Sit." Initially, Cutie Pie sat down whenever Carol said either "speak" or "sit." Cutie
Pie is now demonstrating
Command confusion
Purposive learning

46.Dr. Meyer is known for his difficult pop quizzes. Immediately before he springs a pop quiz on
his students, he typically goes to the classroom door and closes it. Students soon learn to
anticipate a pop quiz whenever Dr. Meyer closes the classroom door. Closing the door has
become a(n)

47.Kelley is scolded each time she teases her little brother. Her mother notices that the frequency
of teasing has decreased. Scolding Kelley is an effective
negative reinforcer
negative punisher
positive punisher

48.Matt wants to train his dog, Buster, to sit on command. He gives Buster a doggie biscuit each
time Buster sits when commanded, but only for the first 10 trials. He then changes the rules.
Buster now has to sit on command three times before he gets a biscuit. Matt used _____
schedule first and then _____ schedule to train Buster.
a continuous reinforcement schedule; a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement; a continuous reinforcement schedule
a variable ratio schedule
a continuous reinforcement schedule; a fixed interval schedule

49.Four month old Baby Nimo quickly learns that he will be picked up if he cries. From a
behaviorist perspective, picking up Baby Nimo whenever he cries
Is a positive reinforcer for crying
Is a negative reinforcer for crying
Should be done only on a partial reinforcement schedule
Will have no effect on his crying behavior because Baby Nimo is too young to be
aware of associative contingencies

50.Larry is sent to his room each time he hits his little brother. After a few times of being sent to
his room, Larry's misbehavior towards his little brother decreases. Sending Larry to his room is
an example of
positive punishment
negative punishment
negative reinforcement
negative rewarding

51.Two year-old Sarah's parents are trying to get her to go to bed each night at 7:00. On the first 3
nights of this new regimen, Sarah cried for 3 hours before crying herself to sleep. On the fourth
night, Sarah's parents relented and let her stay up until she fell asleep on her own, around 10:00
p.m. According to the partial reinforcement effect, what will happen to Sarah's crying behavior
at bedtime now?
Sarah's crying behavior will be more difficult to control.
Sarah's crying behavior will be easier to control
Sarah's crying behavior will stop for a while, but then reoccur
Sarah's crying behavior won't start until 10:00 p.m

52.Fred's parents are very inconsistent with their childrearing rules. Most of the time Fred can climb
on the furniture but sometimes he can't. Fred is sometimes allowed to stay up until he falls asleep
on his own, but sometimes his parents will demand that he go to bed at an earlier time. Fred
frequently throws temper tantrums when he can't get his way and his parents typically give-in to
his demands, although sometimes they don't. Fred's parents can't understand why he isn't a better
behaved child. Fred's parents are reinforcing his negative behaviors on a
fixed ratio schedule
fixed interval schedule
partial reinforcement schedule
continuous reinforcement schedule

53. The behavioral approach ...
The behavioral approach to learning defines learning in terms of
thoughts and feelings
wishes and fantasies

54.Anticipating a scary event whenever eerie music is played in a movie is a function of
associative learning
observational learning
operant conditioning
stimulus experience

55.In _____ situations, organisms learn the association between two stimuli. In _____situations,
organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence.
classical conditioning; operant conditioning
operant conditioning; classical conditioning
classical conditioning; observational learning
observational learning; classical conditioning

56.According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, memory storage involves which of the
following three systems?
Sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory
Attentive memory, short term memory and long term memory
Sensory memory, selective memory and long term memory
Sensory memory, selective memory and exhaustive memory

57.You tell your friends about the great time you had at a famous vacation amusement park. Most
of the information that you have forgotten about this experience was most likely processed in
Sensory memory
Short term memory
Long term memory
Personal memory

58.You are engrossed in your favorite TV show in the living room. Your roommate yells for you to
quickly bring a flyswatter to the kitchen. Vaguely aware that a request is being made of you, you
ask your roommate to repeat herself. Before she can reply, however, the words, "bring a
flyswatter to the kitchen," play through your mind. This is an example of
Storic memory
Echoic memory
Iconic memory
Personal memory

59.The sensory memory for which of the following have been studied LEAST?

60.Imagine that you were a participant in Sperling's classic study on iconic memory. Why aren't
you able to identify all the letters presented on the screen?
They are presented too briefly for you to identify them
They weren't presented audibly
They weren't distinctive enough
The font size was too small

61.Short-term memory has a _____ capacity than sensory memory and a_____ duration.
More limited; longer
Less limited; longer
Larger; shorter
More limited; shorter

62.George Miller's classic paper on the "magical" seven plus or minus two phenomenon refers
to a person's
Memory span
Memory capacity
Memory recall
Memory lobe

63.Chunking involves
Immediately scanning information for relevant details
Elaborative encoding of information
Immediately forgetting relevant information
Using Miller's framework for memory retrieval

64.After hearing a friend's telephone number for the first time, you are able to recite back to her
all seven digits in perfect order. This feat is made possible by your
Digit rehearsal system
Performance increment capacity
Number recall capacity
Memory span

65When asked to memorize the 15 letters, C I A C B S A B C F B I I R S, Mary reorganizes them
into CIA, CBS, ABC, FBI and IRS. Mary used the tactic of
Mental structuring
Visual structuring

66.Which of the following would NOT be a defining property of an airplane?
It is used for transportation.
It has tires.
It is silver.
It has an engine.

67.Which of the following best describes the difference between the classical model of concepts
and the prototype model?
The classical model uses defining properties and the prototype model uses
The prototype model using defining properties and the classical model uses
The prototype model is more rigid than the classical model.
The prototype model is all or none regarding concept structure.

68.In everyday situations, finding and framing problems can be difficult because most real-life
Are vague and ill-defined.
Suggest obvious operations.
Provide clear definitions.
Are beyond the average person's ability to solve.

69.Problem solving in the real world often involves seeing and defining problems in situations
that most others
Don't see as a problem.
Don't understand.
Pretend not to notice.
Are afraid to tackle.
70.Your textbook describes....
Your textbook describes how Levi Hutchins, a young clockmaker, resolved to rise at 4 A.M.
every morning. This resolution to wake up before sunrise each morning motivated Hutchins to
invent the alarm clock. The most likely first step in solving the problem of waking up early was
for Hutchins to
Rethink and redefine the problem.
Find and frame the problem.
Evaluate the solutions.
Employ good problem-solving strategies.

71Jim needs a backyard shed....
Jim needs a backyard shed to house his motorcycle. Although he has never built a shed, he
decides to build one and buys a book of professionally drawn detailed shed plans. In this
situation, Jim is using a(n)

72.Sam manages a fast-food restaurant. He is frustrated because employees often call in sick at the
last minute before they are supposed to start their shift. Given that Sam recognizes this problem,
what should he do next?
Sam should call a meeting with all his employees and explain the problem to them in
language that they can understand.
Sam should threaten to fire anyone who calls in sick before they are supposed to start
their shift.
Sam should ignore the problem.
Sam should define the problem in detail.

73.Shantae is a sales representative and uses MapQuest to get driving directions to her clients'
offices. Shantae is using a(n) _____ to get to her destinations.

74.You have to study four chapters of information for your next test. If you decide to use the
problem solving strategy of subgoaling, you would do which of the following?
You would cram the night before the test.
You would break the topics to be studied into smaller areas and focus on each in an
organized sequence.
You would decide who should be your study partner.
You would study the learning objectives for each chapter instead of reading the

75.An effective way to strategize your organization of subgoals is to
Work forward in your planning, first creating a subgoal closest to the start and finally
creating a subgoal close to the final goal.
Not create more than two subgoals.
Not create less than ten subgoals.
Work backward in your planning; first creating a subgoal that is closest to the final goal
and then work backward to the subgoal that is closest to the beginning of the problemsolving

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