Human-Computer Interaction HumanComputer Interaction by rtu18834

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									                                11/30/2009




Human Computer
Human-Computer Interaction
   CSG 170 – Round 11

       Prof. Timothy Bickmore




Quiz
       Open book / Open notes
             15 minutes




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Heuristic Eval Homework




Project Status – T7
   You have one week to revise your prototype
    in response to the heuristic evaluations.
   Brainstorm possible solutions for each
    problem.
   Modify your system to correct as many of the
                                            order)
    problems found as possible (in priority order),
    documenting how you do this.
   Writeup due in one week.




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      Touch Screen Tablet
   You can borrow for testing at Garvey – or you can
    bring your own (let me know).
   Use fingernail or stylus (not fingertip, not pen)
   Hold stylus down = right-click
   Use USB ports for IO
   Use power cord




     CSCW




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    Computer-Supported
    Cooperative Work (CSCW)
       Def : “the study of how people work
        Def.: the
        together using computer technology”
       Examples of systems:
           email
           shared databases/hypertext
           video conferencing
           chat systems
           real-time shared applications
                collaborative writing, drawing, games




    Groupware
   Groupware denotes the technology that
    people use to work together
       “systems that support groups of people
        engaged in a common task (or goal) and that
        provide an interface to a shared environment.”
   CSCW studies the use of groupware
       “CSCW is the study of the tools and
        techniques of groupware as well as their
        psychological, social, and organizational
        effects.”




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                                                   CSCW apps
                                       aka Groupware
                       same place                  different place
                                               •   SMS, IM
synchronous            • smart meeting
                                               •   MUDs
                         rooms
communication                                  •   Shared work surfaces
                       • shared PCs/editors
                                               •   Shared PCs/editors
                                               •   Shared calendar

                       • argumentation         • email
asynchronous           • co-authoring (word)   • bulletin board,
communication          • PARC Tab                USENET




      Types of Cooperation
     Focused partnerships
         users who need each other to complete a task
              often a document or image to work on
              e.g., joint authors of a paper
     Lecture or demo
         person shares info. with users at remote sites
              questions may be asked
              may wish to keep history and be able to replay




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    Types of Cooperation (cont.)
       Conference
            group participation distributed in space
                 at same time or spread out over time
       Structured work process
            a set of people w/ distinct roles solve task
                 e.g.,                            applications
                  e g hiring committee accepts applications,
                  reviews, invites top for interviews, chooses,
                  informs
            aka “work flow” or “task flow”




    Types of Cooperation (cont.)
   Meeting and decision support
       meeting w/ each user working at a computer
            e.g., PDA Brainstorming tool




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    Key Issues
   Group awareness
   Multi-user interfaces
   Concurrency control
           consistency and reconciliation
   Communication & coordination
           make up for lack of nonverbal cues
           can t                 >
            can’t see each other -> lose visual cues
           floor control
   Latency
           e.g., user points at an object and talk
   Security and privacy




    Asynchronous Implementation
    Issues
                 y             py
     Each user may have own copy of data
    Must integrate changes at some point
            example: programmers working on source
    Problems when conflicts between changes
            lock portions of work
                 keeps state well defined, although doesn’t stop semantically
                  incompatible changes
            resolve conflicts via integration mechanism
    E.g., Subversion, CVS




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    Synchronous Implementation
    Issues
   >=Two users working on same data at
    > Two                          data,
    the same time, in cooperation
   Extend Model View Controller (MVC)
       views & copies of the model are distributed
      p g                  y
    Propagate command history
       must resolve conflicts among N histories
   E.g. Second Life




    Second Life
                                 Launched 2003
                                 Linden Lab
                                 16.2M users
                                 24 terabytes of
                                  server data




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Second Life
Interaction
   Text-based communication
       Local chat for public localized
        conversations between two or more
        avatars
            talk 20 m, shout 96 m
              p                    ,
        IM for private conversations, either
        between two avatars, or between the
        members of a group.
   Voice chat
       Rudimentary lip sync & gesture




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         Social Networking Sites
             Facebook
                 Launched 2004
                 120 million active users


             MySpace
                 Launched 2003
                 106 million accounts (Sept 2006)




         Social Issues
                                  human
    Can these technologies replace human-
    human interaction?
       can you send a “handshake” or a “hug”
       how does intimacy survive?
   Are too many social cues lost?
      facial expressions and body
      language for enthusiasm,
      disinterest, anger
     will new cues develop? e.g., :)




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         Trust in CMC (Olsens, UMich)
   Outcome:
       social dilemma game
   Study 1
       F2F best
       VMC = f2f, but took
        longer
       Text Chat never trust
   Study 2
       CMC getting acquainted leads to higher trust




         Exertion Interfaces (Mueller)




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Exertion Interfaces (Mueller)




                  Qualitative self-report
                  measures of social bonding –
                  greater for exertion interface
                  compared to desktop keyboard
                  interface.




Groupware Success & Failures

           Why?




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Groupware Successes /
Failures?
   Email
       ubiquitous (your grandparents have it?)
   Newsgroups and mailing lists
   Videoconferencing
       growing slowly but steadily
   IM/SMS




Groupware Successes (cont.)
   Lotus Notes
       integrates email, newsgroups, call tracking,
        status, DB searching, document sharing, &
        scheduling
       very successful in corporations




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    Groupware Failures
   Why does groupware fail? (Grudin)
       disparity between workers & beneficiaries
       threats to existing power structures
       insufficient critical mass
       violation of social taboos
       rigidity that counters common practice or
        exceptions




    Success/Failure of Groupware
   Depends on competing alternatives
       collaborators down the hall or across country?
   If users are committed to system, etiquette &
    conventions will evolve
      tend to arise from cultural & task background
       use s o d e e t o gs o cu tu a contexts ay
      users from different orgs or cultural co te ts may

       clash
   Synchronous systems that work well for 2 users may be
    less effective w/ more users




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    CSCW Exercise (15 min)
       Form project teams
       Brainstorm on a groupware application
        for GAP patients (5 mins)
       Classify it according to Dix Ch 9
       Identify any implementation issues
       How would you perform a summative
        evaluation?




    To do
   Read
       Usability testing (Nielsen Ch 6).
       Other assessment methods (Nielsen Ch 7)
       Motivation for usability (Nielsen Ch 1)
       Olympic Message System (Gould paper)


   Project:
       Revise interface in response to heuristic evaluation
        comments
       Report on revisions
       Ready for usability testing




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    Paper presentations: CSCW

   Influencing group participation with a shared
    display - CSCW'04 [Chinmay]
   Designing and deploying an information
    awareness interface – CSCW’02 [Roderic]
                            Real Time
    JamSpace: A Networked Real-Time
    Collaborative Music Environment – CHI’06
    [Ajinkya]
   Dealing with System Response Times in
    Interactive Speech Applications CHI'05 [Na]




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