Artificial Intelligence a Driving force for Human Computer Interaction

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					Artificial Intelligence a Driving force for Human Computer Interaction
                            (HCI) in Education


Introduction
Computer games have made a tremendous contribution to entertainment industry in the
recent years. Production of computer games requires input of different stakeholders
including designers, artists, programmers, etc. Innovation and creativity are key aspects
in game formulation. The imaginative vision of an artist can be formulated into logical
design of a game which is eventually translated into computer game by a game designer
and programmer. When I was six years old in the first year at Elementary/primary school,
two of the subjects we had namely “Physical Education” and “Story Telling” were very
much liked by children in the class. “Story Telling” was more popular than “Physical
Education”. The stories were logically constructed and they developed the children’s
critical thinking ability. The stories were narrated using animals of different behaviors as
actors. For example, the rabbit represented the tricky creature, and tortoise represented a
creature that always acts in hiding. Today all the narrative stories can be translated into
computer games using the concept of virtual reality. These game programmes can greatly
enhance children in learning real life skills. Game creation should match the target
audience for the game. For example, games in which actors continuously act violence
against each other is not appropriate for little children as it instills violence in their mind-
set which becomes difficult to transform in the future.

Sesame street was born to educate children through entertainment. At that time in the late
‘60s, the entertainment media of choice was television.. In more recent years, Sesame
asked the same question regarding the potential for interactive entertainment media to be
used for educational purposes. The variety of entertainment media today might be
considered a, “vast wasteland”, because these media could have potential for education
children and adults. Unfortunately little has been achieved through utilizing them for
educational purpose. In the Sesame workshop model, the production of educational
media required the integration of expertise in the media production, educational content
(curriculum), and research with children. These varied expertises can achieve a common
goal, the educational package for content delivery to children. This particular approach to
interactive education used constructivist’s paradigm in which children learn through
heuristic approach. The interface development for educational content delivery should
suit the target group. For example, preschool children can not read text, their content
should include media such as sound, graphics, animation, and video. [8]

Motivation for Computer Games
Nowadays, computer games have become a dominating form of entertainment due to
their higher level of attractiveness to game players. [3].
Computer games in the twenty first century have gained more popularity over its
traditional counterpart games due to a number of reasons.
    - they attract people by creating the illusion of being immersed in an imaginative
        virtual world with computer graphics and sound [2].



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   -    the goals of computer games are typically more interactive than that of traditional
        games, which brings players a stronger desire to win the game.
    - computer games, usually designed with an optimal level of information
        complexity, can easily provoke players’ curiosity. Consequently, computer games
        intrinsically motivate players by bringing them more fantasy, challenge, and
        curiosity, which are the three main elements contributing the fun in games [9].
    - Computer games stimulate the players critical thinking to approach problem
        solving
Trying to understand entertainment is worthwhile for a number of reasons: [6]
    - Entertainment defines society’s culture. The shared enjoyment of music, stories,
        games, and other entertainment experiences help to bind people together.
    - Entertainment is a cornerstone of communication of communication. Much true
        understanding is achieved through storytelling.
    - Entertainment is a cornerstone of discovery. Play is how we examine, manipulate
        things and ideas. Composers play with melody lines, mathematicians play with
        equations, and architects play with designs.
    - We are most alive when entertained. Persons who are well and truly entertained
        are focused, alert, alive, and are enjoying themselves.
In addition to the above points given by Jesse we can also say that entertainment is a tool
for socializing people of different cultural background when there is a common value all
can get from it. Entertainment can be used by society to fight against harmful cultural
practices.
Many people in society do not see entertainment as a valuable discipline that needs to be
developed.


Human Computer Interaction

“Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is often misunderstood to represent Human
Computer Interface; there are those who imagine HCI is a science of building form-based
GUIs. This limiting (and generally inaccurate) perspective does not represent what HCI
can do and what it can not contribute. HCI researchers consider the point of how
technology can contribute to the human endeavor and how computing can integrate with
and expand human physical, intellectual and social abilities”. [7].
Interfaces involve the virtual, social domain (GUI) as well as the physical domain.[3].
Each of these interfaces can compliment the other depending on the game application.
The graphical user interface should be designed to reflect human centered interaction
style. Game boards when used with game objects retain social richness of traditional
desktop games where physical objects are covered using camera so that dynamic and
visual rich game boards can be realized with game objects on the display to blend GUI
with tangible interfaces.



Artificial Intelligence




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Most of electronic games seem to have artificial intelligence features for interacting with
human.[10]. The important characteristics of artificial intelligence in game are it’s
behaviors (which need to be similar to human’s behavior), and the intelligence (which
should not be too much that no human will beat the game). The game developers are
therefore called to incorporate the above behaviors when designing specific game
player’s requirements.

Most artificial intelligence problems that programmers face fall into three groups. At the
lowest level is the problem of physical movement – movement, making turns, walking,
etc. This characteristic is called locomotion or motor skills. Moving up one level is a
higher-level view of unit movement, where the unit has to decide how to get from point
A to point B, avoiding obstacles and/or other units. This group is called steering or task
generation. At the highest level of AI is the actual thinking. The third and the highest
stage is where the unit decides what to do and uses its ability to move around and plan
directions to carry out its wishes. [13]
A number of paradigms have emerged for interactive narratives. One of the approaches is
provided in the “Holodeck” [12], where the user is immersed in a virtual environment
while participating in a story that is initiated within his environment. Another approach is
in “interactive TV” in which the user is an active spectator having external influence on
the story to the unfolding plot. [4]
Another approach we can mention is “immersive mixed reality”, in which, a user is not
only immersed in the story but also features as a character it its visual presentation, which
allows the user to see himself or herself playing an active role in the interactive narrative.
In this approach, the user’s image is normally captured in real time and immersed into a
virtual environment populated by the autonomous virtual actors with which he or she
interacts in the story. [5] Interactive storytelling uses artificial intelligence (AI)
techniques to generate real time narratives featuring synthetic characters. Unlike the early
systems in which the users were interacting with virtual characters like IMPROV [11]
OR kidsroom [1], they are based on a long term narrative drive and maintain the overall
consistency of the plot while taking into account user interaction [4].




Neural Networks in Games



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Neural networks have made significant contribution in the field of artificial intelligence
by closely simulating intelligence in the physical sense. Researchers have discovered the
basic building blocks of the brain and have found that, at a biological level, it is just a real
dense graph.[13]. On the order of billions or trillions of nodes and each node is
connected to the thousands of others. The processing unit of a biological neuron is soma
which receives input from the dendrites and outputs to the axon. The digital version is
similar to the biological neuron with a network of nodes connected with edges.
Neural nets can be trained to know solution to each problem. This is important for them
to ensure that the correct answer is generated for whatever action they perform.




                                                         Axon
             Dendrites
                                     Soma




Rule-Based Artificial Intelligence
The physical world is governed by a set of rules. Without rules AI application would
have a lot of problems. However, the rule-based AI can lessen this problem. Rules can be
formulated to simulate real world or imaginary events. In life every person seeks
protection in case there is danger. Human beings are usually courageous in actions, but
courage can also be contradiction in terms as it can cost the life of the human. We can
define a set of rules that govern how a rate can successfully tie a bell at the neck of a cat.
In this situation, the rat has to analyze the set of rules of what to do. The rat can
successfully tie the bell when the cat is asleep and when the bell doesn’t hit the gong.
When either the cat notices the rat or the bell bits the gong, the rat should escape at the
highest possible speed to avoid attack and subsequent destruction by the cat. When
approaching the cat the rat should walk slowly so that the bell doesn’t hit the gong.

Rules for the above Cartoon Game

 IF [Cat == Asleep] AND [Gong_Hit_Bell == False]
    THEN [Bell_Game == Successful]
IF [Gong_Hit_Bell == True] OR [Cat == Awake]
   THEN [Rat_Walk == Very Fast] AND [Bell_Game == Unsuccessful]

Conclusion and Recommendation
Computer Entertainment has not been fully utilized to address real world problems.
Computer entertainment has been directed to activities such as playing game to refresh
one’s mind or get rid of boredom, entertaining children regardless of whether or not the



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entertainment offers room for critical thinking. For video games in mobile phones. All
the above contribute positively to society.
The researcher wants to point out that games offer a lot of educational values that have
not been envisioned. An open area of research can be developing multimedia based
computer entertainment platform for fight against HIV in developing countries. Millions
of the lives of people have been claimed in the world by the deadly virus which they
acquire mainly because of lack of information regarding its danger to humanity.
International communities (Donors) have spent multibillion dollars in fight against HIV
in countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Computer entertainment has high
potential of making contribution to public education of HIV awareness and dangers.
Computer entertainment can be used to enlighten the youth in high schools and
universities on the need to guard against HIV, using entertainment approach can be
effective because entertainment is center of attraction for young people. To develop such
would need input of a number of stakeholders including students from high schools and
universities, educationists, teachers, systems designers and programmers, artists, and
parents.


References

[1] A.F. Bobick et al, “The kidsroom: A perceptually-based interactive and immersive
story environment”, Technical Report 398, MIT Media Lab Perceptual Computer
Section, 1996.

[2] AMORY, A. NAICKER, K., VINCENT, J., AND ADAMS, C. 1999. The
use of
   computer games as an educational tool: Identification of appropriate
game types and
   elements. British J. of Educational Technology. 30, 4 ( 199 9), 3 1 1-3 2 1.

[3] Carsten et al, Pervasive Games: Bringing Computer Entertainment back to the Real
    World, ACM Computers in Entertainment, Vol. 3, No. 3, July 2005, Article 4A.

[4] Cavazza et al, “Character-based interactive storytelling”, IEEE Intelligent systems,
special issue on AI in interactive environment, 2002, p.p. 17-24.

[5] Charles et al, “Compelling experiences in mixed reality interactive storytelling”, ACE
   2004, June 3-5, 2004, Singapore

[6] Jesse Schell, Understanding Entertainment: Story and Gameplay are One, ACM
Computers in Entertainment, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2005, Article 6A

[7] Joshua B. Gross, Crossroads, The ACM Student Magazine Issue 12.2, Winter 2005.

[8] Glenda L. Revelle, “Education via Entertainment Media: The Sesame workshop
    approach”, ACM Computers in Entertainment, Vol. 1, No. 1, October 2003, Article



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     07.
[9] MALONE, T. W. 198 1. Toward a theory of intrinsically moti v ating
instruction.
   Cognitive Science 4, 13 ( 198 1),3 3 3-369 .

[10] Nitiwat, “Artificial Intelligence based on fuzzy behavior for game programming”,
    ACE’04, June 3-5, 2004, Singapore.

[11] Perlin K and Goldberg A, “Improv: A system for scripting interactive actors in
    virtual world”, Computer Graphics; Vol. 29 No. 3, 1996.
[12] Swartout et al, “Toward the Holodeck: Integrating graphics, sound, character and
    story”, in the proceedings of the autonomous agents 2001 conference, 2001.

[13] Walsh Peter, “Artificial Intelligence”, Advanced 3D game programming with
     DirectX 9.0, 2003




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