Electronic Photonic and Magnetic Properties of Materials by rar99983

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									        MIT Course 3.23
“Electronic Photonic and Magnetic
     Properties of Materials”




           Yoel Fink
       Franceso Stellacci
       Leonidas Pantelidis
                               MIT Course 3.23

                              Organization


Lectures:       TR 11:00 – 12:30, room 56-114
Recitation:     W12 (1-273) or F1 (2-136) or W3 (2-131)
Exams:          Three (tentative dates: 3-8, 4-12, 5-10) no final

Problem Sets:   Due at Tuesday lecture

Grading:        Problem sets 10%, exams 90% Grader: Andrew Sparks awsparks@mit.edu

Instructors:    (L) Yoel Fink, 13-5013, x8-6113, yoel@mit.edu
                (R) Franceso Stellacci frstella@mit.edu
                (R) Leonidas Pantelidis leon@mit.edu

Office hours:   Yoel: 4:30-6PM (13-5101), Francesco W1:30-3:00 (13-5049)
Website URL:    http://web.mit.edu/3.23/www
                           MIT Course 3.23

           Helpful Texts and References


Including but not limited to…


          Solid State Physics, Ashcroft and Mermin
          Electronic Properties of Engineering Materials, Livingston
          Quantum Physics, Eisberg and Resnick
          Elementary Solid State Physics, Omar
          Electrical Properties of Materials, L. Solymar & D. Walsh
          Quantum Mechanics, Cohen-Tannoudji
          Quantum Chemistry, Lowe
          Introduction to Solid State Physics, Kittel
          Principles of the Theory of Solids, Ziman
          Photonic Crystals, Joannopoulos
                    MIT Course 3.23

 Topics we will cover (uncover?)

1.    Introduction to quantum mechanical formalism
2.    Electronic structure of single atoms – periodic table
3.    Molecules: variation principle model
4.    Electrons in periodic potentials Bloch theorem
5.    Modern ab-initio calculations
6.    Classification of structure, diffraction, Fourier transforms
7.    Band structures and their connection to crystal structure
8.    Electronic transport in materials
9.    Excitations
10.   Electrical properties of solids, metals, semiconductors and insulators
11.   Semiconductors
12.   Optical properties of solids
13.   Photonic crystals
14.   Magnetic properties of solids
                 MIT Course 3.23

                Course layers


To be                Devices
covered
primarily in       Predicting
HW             materials properties
                (approximations)

               Fundamental (exact)
                physical theories

               Mathematical tools
                MIT Course 3.23

Mathematical and computational
             tools


•   Calculus
•   Operators algebra and eigenvalue problems
•   Group theory and symmetry
•   Linear algebra
•   Complex variables
•   Differential equations
•   Mathematica, Matlab software packages
    MIT Course 3.23

Physical theories



•   Classical mechanics
•   Quantum mechanics
•   Statistical mechanics
•   Electromagnetics
                                MIT Course 3.23

               Modeling materials properties
                     (approximations)

•   Variational method – approximating the eigenfunctions in complicated potentials
•   Molecular orbitals as LCAO – origin of band gaps
•   Origin of bands and conductivity in conjugated polymers
•   Independent electron approximation
•   Many electron systems - occupying bands with electrons
•   The physical interpretation of the bands – electron velocity, effective mass
•   Parabolic models for band edges
•   Electronic properties of metals – free electron approximation (Born Von-Karman BC)
•   Electronic properties of semiconductors
•   Density of occupied states MB approximation to the FD distribution
•   Optical properties of semiconductors and their relation to the band structure
•   The role of impurities in the determining and engineering the properties of SC
•   Simple model for the dielectric function: index of refraction frequency dependence
         Materials Breakthroughs Facilitating
             Technological Revolutions


Silicon chip computing manipulating information
AlNiCo data storage
Polymers packaging, structure
Silica fibers communications
Aluminum air transportation
Steel large structures, powerful engines automotive
Cement large structures
            MIT Course 3.23

            Case studies
•   Junction transistor
•   Field Effect Transistors (FET)
•   Single electron transistors
•   Thin film transistors (TFT’s)
•   Amorphous semiconductors
•   Holographic memory
•   Conducting polymers PPV
•   Liquid Crystal Display
•   Distributed Bragg Reflector Laser (DBR)
•   Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM)
•   Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA)
•   Raman amplifiers
•   Multi Quantum Well (MQW) laser
•   Fabry Perot lasers
•   Blue Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
•   Distributed Feedback Laser (DFB) lasers
•   Thermoelectric cooler
•   Lithium Niobate modulators
•   Silica fiber
•   HgCdTe detectors
•   Charge Coupled Device (CCD)
•   CdSe quantum dots
•   Compact Disc-Rewritable Memory(CD-RW)
•   Magnetic recording media
    Response of material to applied potential

                                                       I
                      I                 V=f(I)
                                                           Linear,
                               Rectification,
                                                           Ohmic
                               Non-linear, Non-Ohmic
V                    R
                                                                     V
                          e-


                                     V=IR

       Metals show Ohmic behavior
              Microscopic origin?
Origin of Conduction
Range of Resistivity
                       energy

      Why?



                       energy




                       energy
Size dependent absorption
     and emission of CdSe
     nanocrsytals
     (quantum dots)
CdSe is a tetrahedral
     semiconductor with a
     Wurtzite structure
     absorption edge at
     1.741eV (@295K):
1.   How does it become
     transparent?
2.   Why does it emit light
     upon excitation?
3.   Why does the wavelength
     of emission depend on the
     size?



                                 Bawendi Lab MIT Chemistry Department

								
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