Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                                             Indicators

                                          By the end of the K-2 program,
                                          students will…

Communications: Oral and Visual           A. Use active listening strategies to        1. Use active listening skills, such as
Standard                                  identify the main idea and to gain           making eye contact or asking questions.
Students learn to communicate             information from oral presentations.         2. Compare what is heard with prior
effectively through exposure to good      B. Connect prior experiences, insights       knowledge and experience.
models and opportunities for practice.    and ideas to those of a speaker.             3. Follow simple oral directions.
By speaking, listening and providing      C. Follow multi-step directions.             4. Speak clearly and understandably.
and interpreting visual images, they      D. Speak clearly and at an appropriate       5. Deliver brief informational
learn to apply their communication        pace and volume.                             presentations that:
skills in increasingly sophisticated      E. Deliver a variety of presentations        a. demonstrate an understanding of the
ways. Students learn to deliver           that include relevant information and a      topic;
presentations that effectively convey     clear sense of purpose.                      b. include and sort relevant information
information and persuade or entertain                                                  and details to develop topic;
audiences. Proficient speakers control                                                 c. organize information with a clear
language and deliberately choose                                                       beginning and ending; and
vocabulary to clarify points and adjust                                                d. express opinions.
presentations according to audience and                                                6. Deliver brief informal descriptive
purpose.                                                                               presentations recalling an event or
                                                                                       personal experience that convey
Communication is used in all content                                                   relevant information and descriptive
areas and should be incorporated                                                       details.
within the instruction and assessment                                                  7. Deliver simple dramatic
of the content-specific standards and                                                  presentations (e.g., recite poems,
benchmarks.                                                                            rhymes, songs and stories).
                                                                                       8. Listen attentively to speakers,
                                                                                       stories, poems and songs.

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                                            Indicators

                                          By the end of the K – 3 program,
                                          students will . . .

Phonemic Awareness, Word                  A. Use letter-sound correspondence          1. Identify and distinguish between
Recognition and Fluency Standard          knowledge and structural analysis to        letters words and sentences.
Students in the primary grades learn to   decode words.                               2. Identify and say the beginning and
recognize and decode printed words,       B. Demonstrate fluent oral reading,         ending sounds in words.
developing the skills that are the        using sight words and decoding skills,      3. Demonstrate an understanding of
foundations for independent reading.      varying intonation and timing as            letter-sound correspondence by saying
They discover the alphabetic principle    appropriate for text.                       the sounds from all letters and from a
(sound-symbol match) and learn to use                                                 variety of letter patterns, such as
it in figuring out new words. They                                                    consonant blends and long- and short-
build a stock of sight words that helps                                               vowel patters, and by matching sounds
them to read quickly and accurately                                                   to the corresponding letters.
with comprehension. By the end of the                                                 4. Decode by using letter-sound
third grade, they demonstrate fluent                                                  matches.
oral reading, varying their intonation                                                5. Use knowledge of common word
and timing as appropriate for the text.                                               families (e.g., -ite or –ate) to sound out
                                                                                      unfamiliar words.
                                                                                      6. Blend two to four phonemes
                                                                                      (sounds) into words.
                                                                                      7. Add, delete or change sounds in a
                                                                                      given word to create new or rhyming
                                                                                      8. Demonstrate a growing bank of sight
                                                                                      9. Read text using fluid and automatic
                                                                                      decoding skills, including knowledge
                                                                                      of patterns, onsets and rimes.
                                                                                      10. Read aloud with changes in
                                                                                      emphasis, voice, timing, and expression
                                                                                      that show a recognition of punctuation
                                                                                      and an understanding of meaning

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                                              Indicators

                                           By the end of the K – 3 program,
                                           students will . . .

Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard         A. Use context clues to determine the        1. Use knowledge of word order and in-
Students acquire vocabulary through        meaning of new vocabulary.                   sentence context clues to support word
exposure to language-rich situations,      B. Read accurately high-frequency            identification and to define unknown
such as reading books and other texts      sight words.                                 words while reading.
and conversing with adults and peers.      C. Apply structural analysis skills to       2. Identify words that have similar
They use context clues, as well as         build and extend vocabulary and to           meanings (synonyms) and words that
direct explanations provided by others     determine word meaning.                      have opposite meanings (antonyms).
to gain new words. They learn to apply     D. Know the meaning of specialized           3. Classify words into categories (e.g.,
word analysis skill to build and extend    vocabulary by applying knowledge of          colors, fruits, vegetables).
their own vocabulary. As students          word parts, relationships and meanings.      4. Recognize common sight words.
progress through the grades, they          E. Use resources to determine the            5. Recognize that words can sound
become more proficient in applying         meanings and pronunciations of               alike but have different meanings (e.g.,
their knowledge of words (origins,         unknown words.                               homophones such as hair and hare.)
parts, relationships, meanings) to                                                      6. Predict the meaning of compound
acquire specialized vocabulary that aids                                                words using knowledge of individual
comprehension.                                                                          words (e.g., daydream, raindrop).
                                                                                        7. Recognize contractions (e.g., isn’t,
                                                                                        aren’t, can’t, won’t) and common
                                                                                        abbreviations (e.g., Jan., Feb.).
                                                                                        8. Read root words and their
                                                                                        inflectional endings (e.g., walk,
                                                                                        walked, walking).
                                                                                        9. Determine the meaning of unknown
                                                                                        words using a beginner’s dictionary.
                                                                                        10. Recognize plurals.
                                                                                        11. Recognize possessives.

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                                              Indicators

                                           By the end of the K – 3 program,
                                           students will . . .

Reading Process: Concepts of Print,        A. Establish a purpose for reading and       1. Describe the role of authors and
Comprehension Strategies and Self-         use a range of reading comprehension         illustrators.
Monitoring Strategies Standard             strategies to understand literary            2. Establish a purpose for reading (e.g.,
Students develop and learn to apply        passages and text.                           to be informed, to follow directions or
strategies that help them to comprehend    B. Make predictions from text clues          to be entertained).
and interpret informational and literary   and cite specific examples to support        3. Visualize the information in texts
texts. Reading and learning to read are    predictions.                                 and demonstrate this by drawing
problem solving processes that require     C. Draw conclusions from information         pictures, discussing images in texts or
strategies for the reader to make sense    in text.                                     writing simple descriptions.
of written language and remain             D. Apply reading skills and strategies       4. Make predictions while reading and
engaged with texts. Beginners develop      to summarize and compare and contrast        support predictions with information
basic concepts about print (e.g., that     information in text, between text and        from the text or prior experience.
print holds meaning) and how books         across subject areas.                        5. Compare information (e.g.,
work (e.g., text organization). As         E. Demonstrate comprehension by              recognize similarities) in texts with
strategic readers, students learn to       responding to questions (e.g., literal,      prior knowledge and experience.
analyze and evaluate texts to              informational and evaluative).               6. Recall the important ideas in
demonstrate their understanding of text.   F. Apply and adjust self-monitoring          fictional and non-fictional texts.
Additionally, students learn to self-      strategies to assess understanding of        7. Create and use graphic organizers
monitor their own comprehension by         text.                                        such as Venn diagrams or webs, with
asking and answering questions about                                                    teacher assistance, to demonstrate
the text, self-correcting errors and                                                    comprehension.
assessing their own understanding.                                                      8. Answer literal, simple inferential and
They apply these strategies effectively                                                 evaluative questions to demonstrate
to assigned and self-selected texts read                                                comprehension of grade-appropriate
in and out of the classroom.                                                            print texts and electronic and visual

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                          Indicators

                                By the end of the K-3 program,
                                students will . . .

                                                                    9. Monitor comprehension of
                                                                    independently- or group—read texts by
                                                                    asking and answering questions.
                                                                    10. Use criteria to choose independent
                                                                    reading materials (e.g., personal
                                                                    interest, knowledge of authors and
                                                                    genres or recommendations from
                                                                    11. Independently read books for
                                                                    various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment,
                                                                    for literary experience, to gain
                                                                    information or to perform a task).

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                                               Indicators

                                             By the end of the K-3 program,
                                             students will…

Reading Applications:                           A. Use text features and structures                1. Use title page,
Informational, Technical and                    to organize content, draw                          photographs, captions and
Persuasive Text Standard                        conclusions and build text                         illustrations (text features)
Students gain information from reading          knowledge.                                         to develop comprehension
for purposes of learning about a                B. Ask clarifying questions                        of informational texts.
subject, doing a job, making decisions          concerning essential elements of                   2. Identify the sequence of
and accomplishing a task. Students              informational text.                                events in informational text.
need to apply the reading process to            C. Identify the central ideas and                  3. Ask questions concerning
various types of informational texts,           supporting details of informational                essential elements of
including essays, magazines,                    text.                                              informational text (e.g.,
newspapers, textbooks, instruction              D. Use visual aids as sources to                   why, who, where, what,
manuals, consumer and workplace                 gain additional information from                   when and how).
documents, reference materials,                 text.                                              4. Identify central ideas and
multimedia and electronic resources.            E. Evaluate two- and three- step                   supporting details of
They learn to attend to text features,          directions for proper sequencing                   informational text with
such as titles, subtitles and visual aids,      and completeness.                                  teacher assistance.
to make predictions and build text                                                                 5. Identify and discuss
knowledge. They learn to read                                                                      simple diagrams, charts,
diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and                                                                 graphs and maps as
displays in text as sources of additional                                                          characteristics of nonfiction.
information. Students use their                                                                    6. Follow multiple-step
knowledge of text structure to organize                                                            directions.
content information, analyze it and
draw inferences from it. Strategic
readers learn to recognize arguments,
bias, stereotyping and propaganda in
informational text sources.

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                                                 Indicators

                                             By the end of the K-3 program,
                                             students will

Reading Applications: Literary Text             A. Compare and contrast plot                         1. Provide own
Standard                                        across literary works.                               interpretation of story, using
Students enhance their understanding            B. Use supporting details to identify                information from the text.
of the human story by reading literary          and describe main ideas, characters                  2. Identify characters,
texts that represent a variety of authors,      and setting.                                         setting and events in a story.
cultures and eras. They learn to apply          C. Recognize the defining                            3. Retell the beginning,
the reading process to the various              characteristics and features of                      middle and ending of a
genres of literature, including fables,         different types of literary forms and                story, including its
tales, short stories, novels, poetry and        genres.                                              important events.
drama. They demonstrate their                   D. Explain how an author’s word                      4. Identify differences
comprehension by describing and                 choice and use of methods                            between stories, poems and
discussing the elements of literature           influences the reader.                               plays.
(e.g., setting, character and plot),            E. Identify the theme of a literary                  5. Recognize predictable
analyzing the author’s use of language          text.                                                patterns in stories and
(e.g., word choice and figurative                                                                    poems.
language), comparing and contrasting
texts, inferring theme and meaning and
responding to text in critical and
creative ways. Strategic readers learn
to explain, analyze and critique literary
text to achieve deep understanding.

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                                              Indicators

                                            By the end of the K-2 program,
                                            students will…                                        1. Generate writing ideas
Writing Process Standard                                                                          through discussions with
Students’ writing develops when they           A. Generate ideas for written                      others.
regularly engage in the major phases of        compositions.                                      2. Develop a main idea for
the writing process. The writing               B. Develop audience and purpose                    writing.
process includes the phases of                 for self-selected and assigned                     3. Determine purpose and
prewriting, drafting, revising and             writing tasks.                                     audience.
editing and publishing. They learn to          C. Use organizers to clarify ideas                 4. Use organizational
plan their writing for different purposes      for writing assignments.                           strategies (e.g.,
and audiences. They learn to apply             D. Use revision strategies and                     brainstorming, lists, webs
their writing skills in increasingly           resources to improve ideas and                     and Venn diagrams) to plan
sophisticated ways to create and               content, organization, word choice                 writing.
produce compositions that reflect              and detail.                                        5. Organize writing to
effective word and grammatical                 E. Edit to improve sentence                        include a beginning, middle
choices. Students develop revision             fluency, grammar and usage.                        and end.
strategies to improve the content,             F. Apply tools to judge the quality                6. Construct complete
organization and language of their             of writing.                                        sentences with subjects and
writing. Students also develop editing         G. Publish writing samples for                     verbs.
skills to improve writing conventions.         display or sharing with others,                    7. Mimic language from
                                               using techniques such as electronic                literature when appropriate.
                                               resources and graphics.                            8. Use available technology
                                                                                                  to compose text.
                                                                                                  9. Reread own writing for
                                                                                                  10. Add descriptive words
                                                                                                  and details.

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                          Indicators

                                By the end of the K-2 program,
                                students will…

                                                                    11. Use resources (e.g., a word wall,
                                                                    beginner’s dictionary, word bank)to
                                                                    select effective vocabulary.
                                                                    12. Proofread writing to improve
                                                                    conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling,
                                                                    punctuation and capitalization).
                                                                    13. Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist,
                                                                    feedback) to judge the quality of
                                                                    14. Rewrite and illustrate writing
                                                                    samples for display and for sharing
                                                                    with others.

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                                                Indicators

                                           By the end of the K-2 program,
                                           students will…

Writing Applications Standard              A. Compose writings that convey a              1. Write simple stories with a
Students need to understand that           clear message and include well-chosen          beginning, middle and end that include
various types of writing require           details.                                       descriptive words and details.
different language, formatting and         B. Write responses to literature that          2. Write responses to stories that
special vocabulary. Writing serves         demonstrate an understanding of a              include simple judgments about the
many purposes across the curriculum        literary work.                                 text.
and takes various forms. Beginning         C. Write friendly letters and invitations      3. Write friendly letters or invitations
writers learn about the various purposes   complete with date, salutation, body,          that follow a simple letter format.
of writing; they attempt and use a small   closing and signature.                         4. Produce informal writings (e.g.,
range of familiar forms (e.g., letters).                                                  messages, journals, notes and poems)
Developing writers are able to select                                                     for various purposes.
text forms to suit purpose and audience.
They can explain why some text forms
are more suited to a purpose than others
and begin to use content-specific
vocabulary to achieve their
communication goals. Proficient
writers control effectively the language
and structural features of a large
repertoire of text forms. They
deliberately choose vocabulary to
enhance text and structure their writing
according to audience and purpose.

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                                            Indicators

                                           By the end of the K-2 program,
                                           students will…

Writing Conventions Standard               A. Print legibly using appropriate         1. Print legibly and space letters,
Students learn to master writing           spacing.                                   words, and sentences appropriately.
conventions through exposure to good       B. Spell grade-appropriate words           2. Spell words correctly with regular
models and opportunities for practice.     correctly.                                 short vowel patterns and most common
Writing conventions include spelling,      C. Use conventions of punctuation and      long vowel words (e.g., time, name).
punctuation, grammar and other             capitalization in written work.            3. Spell high-frequency words
conventions associated with forms of       D. Use grammatical structures in           correctly.
written text. They learn the purpose of    written work.                              4. Create phonetically-spelled written
punctuation: to clarify sentence                                                      work that can usually be read by the
meaning and help readers know how                                                     writer and others.
writing might sound aloud. They                                                       5. Spell unfamiliar words using
develop and extend their understanding                                                strategies such as segmenting, sounding
of the spelling system, using a range of                                              out and matching familiar words and
strategies for spelling words correctly                                               word parts.
and using newly learned vocabulary in                                                 6. Use end punctuation correctly,
their writing. They grow more skillful                                                including question marks, exclamation
at using the grammatical structures of                                                points and periods.
English to effectively communicate                                                    7. Use correct capitalization (e.g., the
ideas in writing and to express                                                       first word in a sentence, names and the
themselves.                                                                           pronoun I).
                                                                                      8. Use nouns, verbs and adjectives
                                                                                      (descriptive words).

Grade – First
Standard                      Benchmark                                             Indicators

                                          By the end of the K-2 program,
                                          students will…

Research Standard                         A. Generate questions for investigation      1. Discuss ideas for investigation about
Students define and investigate self-     and gather information from a variety        a topic or area of personal interest.
selected or assigned issues, topics and   of sources.                                  2. Utilize appropriate searching
problems. They locate, select and         B. Retell important details and              techniques to gather information, with
make use of relevant information from     findings.                                    teacher assistance, from a variety of
a variety of media, reference and                                                      locations (e.g., classroom, school
technological sources. Students use an                                                 library, and public library or
appropriate form to communicate their                                                  community resources).
findings.                                                                              3. Use books or observations to gather
                                                                                       information to explain a topic or unit of
Research is used in all content areas                                                  study with teacher assistance.
and should be incorporated within the                                                  4. Recall important information about
instruction and assessment of the                                                      a topic with teacher assistance.
content-specific standards and                                                         5. Report information to others.


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