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Clickers - Personal Response Systems _PRS_ in University Classrooms


									Clickers - Personal Response
Systems (PRS) in University

      Using interactive technology
      to promote active
      engagement in the library
      research process

   Introduction
   Course objectives and the use of
    “clicker” technology
   Library Component
   Final Class Outcomes
   Key Lessons Learned
   What’s next ?

   Have you used clickers? (… please
    raise your hand if yes …)

   Some reasons we decided to give
    them a try …
         …
         …
         …
Course objectives and the use
of “clicker” technology

   Engage student learning
   Increase classroom participation
   Provoke deep thinking about
    contemporary issues facing managers
    and leaders
   Promote collaborative learning and
    knowledge sharing in the class and
    online …
Library Component

   Potential Pedagogical Benefits
   Goals
   Structure
   Questions
   Results
Library Component –
Pedagogical Benefits

   Encourages two-way communication
    in large enrolment classes
   Encourages greater student
   Fosters student engagement
   Streamlines assessment process
Library Component - Goals
   Promote not Teach
       We employed the technology not to transfer actual skills, but to
        advertise the existence of online library guides and promote the
        use of the library within the context of existing coursework.
       We used the PRS technology to quiz students on library use and
        research styles, and “market” library resources interactively.
   Provoke not Tell
       Sessions were quick, focused, and aimed at piquing the
        students’ interest in library research.
       The library sessions reflected the instructor’s teaching pedagogy
        and “modus opporandi” of provocation.
   Actual student research practices
       Quizzed students regarding library use mid-way through the term
        and at the end of the term to shed light on actual practices and
What do you think so far?

   Interesting – tell me more
   Boring – try and keep me awake
   I’m somewhat intrigued and willing to
   I wish I was walking my dog
Library Component - Structure

   Series of questions
       To explore current research practices
       To provoke thought about different
        avenues for research
       Used humour to engage
       Created tag - “dog,” as a reminder
Study and Sample Questions

   400 students (2 groups of 200 each) were
    asked a series of questions regarding
    research practices and library use
   Research and library related questions were
    asked three times during the 2006 Fall term
    – at the beginning, middle (wk 8), and end.
   Following are 3 sets of questions we asked
    in the first meeting.
How do you do research?

   I ask my friends questions.
   I go wander around the library.
   I talk to my dog.
   I ask a librarian for help.
How will you start the research for
your Business Plan Project?

   I will talk with friends about it.
   I will attend a library workshop.
   I will browse the library website.
   I will review course materials.
   I will consult with my dog.
Do you know how to use the
library effectively?

   Yes
   No
   I think so …
   My dog does
Do you like the questions that I
asked the students?

   They’re o.k.
   Great!
   Funny, but I can be funnier
   I’ll ask my dog and get back to you
Initial Results
   The majority of students do their research in the
    library (30-33%), or by consulting with friends (23-
   Students begin their research by reviewing course
    materials (33-44%) or by consulting with friends (28
    - 34%)
   While over half of the students have not used the
    business library, 39-46% believed they could do so
   After this introductory session 63-69% planned to
    use the library for their research and 56-59%
    wanted more information about how to do business
Mid-term results

   By the mid-term, close to half of the
    class had not started their research
    and 70-78% were NOT using library
   The vast majority were finding the
    research process either “very difficult”
    (27-33%) or “hard but not impossible”
What we did at this point

   At mid-term we provided a brief tutorial/in
    class instruction period for the students.
   Students were invited to ask the librarian
    their research questions and they were
    answered on the spot, including database
    searching examples.
   After the mid-term session the library had
    such a rush of students, the librarians called
    to ask us what was going on.
Emerging Patterns and Final
   The majority of the students did their
    research by asking questions of friends or
    asking a librarian
   The overwhelming majority of students did
    use the library
   Only half of the students actually asked a
    librarian for help finding information and 50-
    75% found this information useful
   After this experience a large majority of the
    students plan to use the library in the future
What do you think of the study

   Wow! Unexpected
   Interesting, but I’m not surprised
   Boring - same old, same old
   Some intriguing results - I would like to
    use the technology myself
Moving Forward
 Explore peer learning initiatives (tablets?)
 Involve additional librarians to provide online
   assistance via classroom software (moodle)
 Provide additional library instruction at mid-term
 Reiterated the importance of reminding students of
   the library and the help of librarians throughout the
   term, not just at the beginning of classes.
Final Class Outcomes

   Engaged student learning
   Increased classroom participation
   Provoked deep thinking about contemporary
    issues facing managers and leaders
   Promoted collaborative learning and
    knowledge sharing in the class and online
   Side benefits for Schulich … “participation”
    continues …
Key Lessons Learned

   Technology can be intrusive
   Understand the impact on teaching i.e. set
    up preparation; time for responses
   Prepare students for patterns of use
   Vary the types of questions
   Participation definitely increases – be ready

   It’s fun to work on collaborative research!

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