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					            Jurnal KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN, Vol. 20, No.3 Desember 2006

                                       Invited Paper

                    OPTIMALISASI DIVERSIFIKASI PANGAN
                  Suatu Pendekatan menuju Ketahanan Pangan Nasional

                                   Budi I. Setiawan
                             Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian
                          Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
                     budindra@ipb.ac.id, http://ipb.ac.id/~budindra

                                         Abstrak

Makalah ini mengetengahkan suatu pendekatan untuk menganalisis kebutuhan pangan
berdasarkan pada pemenuhan kecukupan gizi yang seimbang. Angka Kecukupan Gizi (AKG
2004) menjadi pegangan dalam menghitung kebutuhan asupan energi harian per kapita yang
bersumber dari Gizi Mikro, yaitu Karbohidrat, Lemak dan Protein. Komposisi ketiga Gizi
Mikro yang seimbang merupakan kendala yang harus dipenuhi dalam optimalisasi ini.
Demikian pula, ketersediaan bahan pangan diperhitungkan sebagai kendala penting lainnya.
Di sini, bahan pangan dikelompokkan atas Beras, Jagung, Umbi-umbian, Biji-bijian, Daging,
Telur, Susu, Ikan, Sayuran, Buah-buahan dan Minyak. Dalam optimalisasi digunakan Metode
Pemograman Linier. Hasil optimalisasi menunjukkan bahwa ketersediaan bahan pangan
sampai saat ini masih jauh untuk memenuhi kebutuhan gizi yang seimbang walaupun
produksi beberapa bahan pangan sudah melebihi kebutuhan. Hasil optimalisasi ini juga
memberikan gambaran bahwa produksi Beras, Jagung, Umbi-umbian, Ikan dan Sayuran pada
tahun 2005 sudah mencukupi bahkan sampai tahun 2015. Sebaliknya, produksi bahan pangan
yang lainnya untuk tahun 2005 saja masih kurang mencukupi. Oleh karena itu, disarankan
agar upaya peningkatan produksi pertanian lebih difokuskan pada Biji-bijian, Daging, Telur,
Susu, Buah-buahan dan Minyak. Optimalisasi dapat dipakai sebagai alat bantu dalam
perencanaan dan implementasi pengembangan pertanian baik dalam skala nasional maupun
daerah.


Kata kunci : Ketahanan pangan, kecukupan dan keseimbangan gizi, diversifikasi pangan,
             optimalisasi
             Jurnal KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN, Vol. 20, No.3 Desember 2006


                                             Review

   PERKEMBANGAN PROSES PEMBUATAN BIODIESELSEBAGAI BAHAN
                    BAKAR NABATI (BBN)
              (Development of Biodiesel Production Process as a Biofuel)

                                         Joelianingsih
                Mahasiswa S3 jalur – Research di PS Ilmu Keteknikan Pertanian,
    Institut Pertanian Bogor. Dosen Jurusan Teknik Kimia , Institut Teknologi Indonesia,
       Jl Raya Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15320, Email : joelianingsih@yahoo.com.
                              Armansyah H. Tambunan
            Dosen pada Departemen Teknik Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor.
                                       Hiroshi NABETANI
           National Food Research Institute 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
                                   Yasuyuki Sagara
                  Dosen pada Department of Global Agricultural Sciences,
                             The University of Tokyo, Japan.
                                Kamaruddin Abdullah
            Dosen pada Departemen Teknik Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor.



                                           Abstract

As energy demands increase and fossil fuel reserves are limited, research is directed towards
alternative renewable fuels. A potential diesel fuel substitute is biodiesel, obtained from fatty
acids methyl esters (FAME) and produced by the transesterification reaction of triglyceride or
esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohols, mainly
methanol. Most of the currently known methods for biodiesel production use an alkaline or
acid catalyst and excess of alcohol. Although the removal of the excess alcohol can be easily
achieved by distillation, however the removal of catalyst and the by-product formed from its
reaction with the reactants is complicated while several methods for glycerol purification have
been reported. The disadvantages resulting from the use of a catalyst and its removal from
the products can be eliminated if a non-catalytic reaction of the vegetable oils with alcohol
can be realized and a simpler and cheaper process can be developed. Indonesia has the
opportunity to expand oil palm and other plantations such as jatropha curcas (jarak pagar) in
order to provide sufficient amount of crude oil for development of biodiesel industry.

Keywords : Biodiesel, vegetable oil, renewable source of energy, catalyst, non-catalytic,
           transesterification.
            Jurnal KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN, Vol. 20, No.3 Desember 2006


                                       Technical Paper

  EVALUASI ALIRAN PERMUKAAN, EROSI DAN SEDIMENTASI DI SUB
    DAS CISADANE HULU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MODEL AGNPS
     (AGRICULTURAL NON POINT SOURCE POLLUTION MODEL)

 Evaluation Of Runoff, Erosion And Sedimentation For Upper Cisadane Watershed
      Using AGNPS Model ( Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution Model)


                                Sukandi Sukartaatmadja
              Departemen Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian IPB
                          Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16002.


                                           Abstract

Composition of a good watershed management planning needs accurate information about
erosion, runoff and its quality, so that its model for short term, middle term and long term
goal can be projected. The model had been used is AGNPS (agricultural non point source
pollution model) is developed by Robert A. Young, Charles A. Onstad, David D. Bosch, and
Wayne P. Anderson in 1987. The objective of this research is to predicted the hydrology’s
response of Upper Cisadane Watershed at the present including runoff volume, runoff peak
rate, annual erosion and sediment weight and to looked for the effects of soil conservation
had been done with rehabilitation activities plan to watershed condition using AGNPS model
which is divided into two plans.
The effects of soil conservation activities by a better plan which is suited with Upper
Cisadane Watershed could decreased runoff volume, runoff peak rate, annual erosion and
sediment weight into 20 % so that it could repaired the condition of Upper Cisadane
Watershed which is dangerous before.

Keywords : Agnps, runoff, erosion, sediment, soil conservation, plan
             Jurnal KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN, Vol. 20, No.3 Desember 2006


                                        Technical Paper

  PENGARUH LINTASAN TRAKTOR DAN PEMBERIAN BAHAN ORGANIK
  TERHADAP PEMADATAN TANAH DAN KERAGAAN TANAMAN KACANG
                         TANAH

     The Effects of Tractor Traffic and Organic Matter On Soil Compaction And
                            Performance of Peanut Crop

        Iqbal, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Hasanuddin, Kampus UNHAS Tamalanrea
                Makassar Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan km 10. iqbaliqma@yahoo.com

            Tineke Mandang, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor,
                            Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680.

    E. Namaken Sembiring, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus
                                IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680.



                                             Abstract

The amendment of organic matter into soil can improve the soil condition and prevent soil
compaction caused by tractor traffic. The aims of this research are to know the influence of
tractor traffic and organic matter on nature of physical mechanic of soil, analyze the influence
of tractor traffic and organic matter on performance of soil tillage and to know the influence
of soil compaction on performance of peanut crop. This research was conducted in
Leuwikopo farm (dry land) and in the laboratory for soil analyzes. The result shows that
tractor traffic and organic matter treatment have effect to soil compaction and performance
peanut crop. The highest value of bulk density is 1.2 g / cm3 at 6 traffic with the organic
matter doses 4 ton / ha treatment and lowest is 0.93 g / cm3 at without traffic with the
organic matter 4 ton / ha treatment. The biggest number of pods is 25 pod / tree there is at 2
traffic with the organic matter doses 6 ton / ha treatment and the smallest number pods is 8.6
pod / tree at 6 traffic without organic matter treatment.

Keywords : Tractor traffic, organic matter, soil compaction
             Jurnal KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN, Vol. 20, No.3 Desember 2006


                                        Technical Paper

 ANALISIS EKSERGI PENYIMPANAN PANAS UNTUK SISTEM PENGERING
                       BERENERGI SURYA

        Exergy Analysis on the Sensible Heat Storage for Solar Drying System

           Armansyah H. Tambunan1), Kamaruddin Abdullah2), Binsar Nababan 3)
                     1) & 2) Bagian Energi and Elektrifikasi Pertanian

                 Departemen Teknik Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor
                           3) Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, IPB Bogor




                                          Abstract

This paper is devoted to discuss the exergy analysis on the utilization of heat storage for a
solar drying system. The heat was stored in the form of sensible heat using pebble bed as the
medium. For the analysis, an exergy balance model was developed from the system’s heat
balance.
The results show that the minimum value of exergy destruction ratio was obtained within two
hours after the process was started. The minimum ratio expresses the most effective
operation of the storage system. Upon performing the simulation study, it was found that the
number of transfer unit (NTU) influen the change in exergy destruction ratio, with an optimal
value could be in the range of 0,5 to 0,8. Within the NTU range, the ratio of exergy
destruction was found to be 0,85. It means that only 15% of the exergy gained from the solar
collector can be transferred to the heat storage medium. The other part of the exergy could
be transferred to the drying room or destructed during the process. In order to obtain a
more comprehensive understanding on the exergy flow of the system, there necessary an
exergy analysis on the drying system.

Keywords : Sensible heat storage, exergy destruction ratio, number of transfer unit,
           pebble bed
            Jurnal KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN, Vol. 20, No.3 Desember 2006


                                       Technical Paper

EVALUASI MUTU BUNGA POTONG KRISAN YELLOW FIJI MENGGUNAKAN
                    PENGOLAHAN CITRA

     Quality Evaluation of Yellow Fjij Chrysanthemum Cut-Flower Using Image
                                     Processing



 Usman Ahmad, Departemen Teknik Pertanian, Fateta-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga              PO
                     Box 220 Bogor, usmanahmad@ipb.ac.id

   Enrico Syaefullah, Mahasiswa Program S2 TPP Sekolah Pascasarjana IPB, Fateta-IPB,
                        Kampus IPB Darmaga PO Box 220 Bogor

 Hadi K. Purwadaria, Departemen Teknik Pertanian, Fateta-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga PO
                         Box 220 Bogor, purwadaria@ipb.ac.id



                                         Abstract

The domestic and export market of chrysanthemum cut-flower require a prime and
consistent quality. However, manual grading system based on human vision resulting in
quality inconsistentcy. The objective of this study was to develop computer program for
quality evaluation of Yellow Fiji chrysanthemum cut-flower using image processing. The cut-
flowers were classified into different quality standards (AA, A, B, and C) based on the stem
length and straightness, and flower diameter. The results indicated a strong relationship
between quality parameters extracted from the image and those obtained from direct
measurement for grade AA, A, B, and C with R2= 0.98, R2=0.97, R2=0.97, and R2=0.98
respectively for length of stem, also with R2=0.90, R2=0.87, R2=88, and R2=88 respectively
for diameter of flower. The validation of the computer program for the quality evaluation of
Yellow Fiji chrysanthemum cut-flower performed a high accuracy of 100% for AA grade,
90% for A grade, 85% for B grade, and 100% for C grade.

Keywords : Chrysanthemum, image processing, quality evaluation
            Jurnal KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN, Vol. 20, No.3 Desember 2006


                                        Technical Paper

   PEMUTUAN EDAMAME MENGGUNAKAN PENGOLAHAN CITRA DAN
                 JARINGAN SYARAF TIRUAN

      Edamame Grading Using Image Processing and Artificial Neural Network

Dedy Wirawan Soedibyo, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Jember, Jl. Kalimantan I
                        Jember, dedy_soedibyo@yahoo.com.

I Dewa Made Subrata, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB
                                  Darmaga Bogor.

   Suroso, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga
                                          Bogor.

    Usman Ahmad, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB
                                  Darmaga Bogor.

                                          Abstract

The objective of this research was to develop a computer program of image processing and
artificial neural network to identify the quality of fresh soybean (edamame) into four classes
namely SQ (standart quality), SG (second grade), TG (third grade), and RJ (reject) using
image processing and artificial neural network. The total samples were 2500 fresh soybean
produced by PT. Mitra Tani Dua Tujuh Jember. Soybean image was analyzed to get six
quality parameters whose match with soybean quality criteria namely pod length, pod area,
perimeter, defect area, index of red color, and index of green color. Those six quality
parameters will be used as inputs of the artificial neural network (ANN). Six variations of
ANN were developed for ANN training purposes (2000 data). The weights of the selected
ANN architecture was used to identify the quality class of testing data (500 data), then
integrated with image processing program so the program could identify soybean quality class
automatically. The quality parameter used in this research has relevancy with soybean quality
criteria. The selected architecture of the ANN was the one with 20 nodes hidden layer in
which normalization input data representation with zero mean and standard deviation equals
one. The accuracy of image processing program observed 81, 4 percent based on the 500
testing data.

Keywords : Grading, Edamame, Image processing, Artificial neural network
            Jurnal KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN, Vol. 20, No.3 Desember 2006

                                       Technical Paper

PEMERIKSAAN MUTU KARET RSS MENGGUNAKAN PENGOLAHAN CITRA

             Evaluation Method for RSS Rubber Using Image Processing

 Usman Ahmad, Departemen Teknik Pertanian, Fateta-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga              PO
                     Box 220 Bogor, usmanahmad@ipb.ac.id

  Fahmi Riadi, Mahasiswa Program S2 TPP Sekolah Pascasarjana IPB, Fateta-IPB, Kampus
                           IPB Darmaga PO Box 220 Bogor, -

I Dewa Made Subrata, Departemen Teknik Pertanian, Fateta-IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga PO
                          Box 220 Bogor, subrata@ipb.ac.id



                                           Abstract

Evaluation of ribbed smoked sheet (RSS) quality is commonly done manually through an
assessment of rubber sheet surface appearance based on its uniformity and brightness of
color, and also existence of physical defect like air bulb, white spot and spotted by fungus
prior to classification into RSS-1, RSS-2 and of RSS-3. This research aimed to develop a
method to evaluate RSS quality using image processing. Each 40 sheets of sample in a size of
30x25 cm was captured using a CCD camera from 40 cm distance with a resolution 341x256
pixels. The characteristics observed were RGB index, HSI color components, and textural
features. Three groups of sample could be discriminated using blue color index with 80.0%,
82.5% for RSS-1, 60.0% for RSS-2 and 97.5% for RSS-3. Grading based on HSI color model
gave better result with 86%, 77.5%, 85.0% and 95.0% accuracy for the RSS-1, RSS-2 and
RSS-3, respectively. The computer-based grading indicated that the classification by
computer using HSI component was more reliable than manually grading. In conclusions, the
developed algorithm was able to classify 120 samples and corrected some of miss-
classification by manual grading.


Keyword : Image processing, ribbed smoked sheet, grading
            Jurnal KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN, Vol. 20, No.3 Desember 2006


                                      Technical Paper


  RANCANG BANGUN SISTEM PEMANTAUAN DAN PERINGATAN DINI
PARAMETER LINGKUNGAN MIKRO BUDIDAYA TANAMAN PADA RUMAH
         KACA BERBASIS SMS (SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE)

  Development of SMS (Short Message Service) Based Technology for Greenhouse
                  Micro Climate Monitoring and Alert System

 Mohamad Solahudin, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB
                       Darmaga Bogor 16680, msoul@ipb.ac.id

    Yudi Chadirin, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB
                                 Darmaga Bogor 16680.

Gumilang Agus Gozali, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB
                                Darmaga Bogor 16680.

                                         Abstract

SMS (Short Message Service) is one of technology can be use as alternative to develop
greenhouse micro climate monitoring and alert system. This technology selected because of
simplicity in information access and widely spread use as communication tools.The purpose
of this research is to develop greenhouse Micro Climate Monitoring and Alert System by
combining SMS technology , Portable Weather Station and Mobile FBUS v 1.5. The results
shows that this system can be applied as monitoring and alert system technology. The
performance test shows that the average of time service from all communication providers is
24.45 second, with 2.65 lag time.

Keywords : Greenhouse, Micro climate, SMS.
            Jurnal KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN, Vol. 20, No.3 Desember 2006


                                     Research Methodology

       ALGORITMA FILTER KALMAN UNTUK MENGHALUSKAN DATA
                          PENGUKURAN

            (Algorithm of Kalman Filter for Smoothing Measurement Data)
                              (Research Methodology)

                   Rudiyanto, Budi I. Setiawan dan Satyanto K. Saptomo

                         Program Studi Ilmu Keteknikan Pertanian
                       Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor
                               Email: lupusae@yahoo.com


                                          Abstract

The objective of this paper is to develop a simple algorithm of Kalman Filter, which is known
as noise data filtering. The computer program was written in Macro Visual Basic in MS Excel.
Testings were carried out on available temperature, water level and force data and then were
compared with the moving average method. The result shows that the algorithm performed
better and lesser deviation than the moving average.

Key words : Kalman Filter, measurement data, computer program

				
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