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Cultural Deprivation - PowerPoint Presentation

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					   A Graphic Representation of
         Course Topic
• Competing Accounts (Claims) of
  Inequality
      Cultural                    Cultural
     Deprivation                Discontinuity

                       ?
                   Inequality
    Culture of
                                 Sociological
    Resistance
      Topic #4: Cultural Deprivation and
             School Performance
• I. Main Point: Differences in academic achievement between
groups are due to deficits, deficiencies in cognitive styles of
certain cultural groups (Blacks, Latinos) and presence of
characteristics, traits in culture of successful groups
(Whites, Asians)

•       Ethnic                 Cognitive       School
•       Groups                 Style           Performance
    – White, Asian             Abstract        Good
    – Black,Latino             Concrete        Poor
•       Native Americans
•       (low income)
         Representative Quote
• The language of ethnic minority and lower
  class children is "inadequate for expressing
  personal or original opinions, for analysis,
  careful reasoning or for dealing with anything
  very complex"
(Bereiter & Englemann, 1966: 32).
         II. Historical Context
• The Cultural Deprivation hypothesis
  developed in the 1960s.
• What events transpired during this
  time?
Oh, there been times that I thought I couldn’t last for long, but now
 I think I’m able to carry on. It’s been a long, a long time coming…
FREEDOM RIDERS –BUSES BURNED,
           HOSED




       It’s been too hard living…
              III. The Components
                 of the Argument
• A. Cognitive or Linguistic Style--characteristic way of
   engaging the world; making sense; solving problems
   (e. g., categorizing);
        see More’s article in the packet
•              1. abstract or symbolic (taxonomy)
•              2. concrete (functions/properties of
   objects)
• B. How Cognitive Styles are Measured
• 1. Maccoby & Modiano--categorization tests across
   cultures
• 2. Bereiter & Englemann--verbal expression tests—
   find
"restricted codes," "giant word syndrome"
                      Scoring Guide
                (from Maccoby & Modiano)
1. Personal Preference: ŅThey are the same because I like them bothÓ ŅThey are
the same because I say soÓ

2. Observable Attributes and Characteristics (color, shape, siz e)

3. Functional Arrange ments

      (can cook with them; can be cooked; mu st be eaten raw)

4. Hierarchic al and Taxonomic Arrangements

      (fruits , vegetables, natural foods,

      prepared foods, foods with preservatives)
            Verbal Expression Tests
          (from Bereiter & Englemann
• ―Giant Word Syndrome‖--words in sentences run
  together, making them indistinguishable:
      • ―that’s a red truck‖  ―dah re truh‖
      • ―He’s a big dog‖  ―he beh daw
   ―Reduced Grammar‖ ―restricted code‖ leaves out
     words
      • Linking verb: (copula) ―he [ ] goin‖ or: ―he be
        goin’‖
      • Possessive marker: ―John_ cousin‖
      • Plural Marker: ―I got five cent_‖
      • Verb Agreement: ―He live_ in New York‖
       IV. Educational Implications:
         (Bereiter & Englemann)
 Change (Improve) the Child: if Black and Latino lack an
   abstract cognitive style, then
•      (1) eradicate limited/restricted code
•      (2) replace (thru instruction) it with
elaborated/ symbolic cognitive styles
• --Pedagogy--extreme behaviorism; drill and practice
   (DISTAR) [see Mehan’s ―What Time is it Denise?‖]
• --Results in Students’ Diminished Identity
   (Valenzuela)
            The Recitation Script
• Sequential Organization
   – Everyday Conversations: 2-part
   – Classroom Interactions: 3-part--Initiation-Reply-Evaluation
• Co-Occurrence Relations: Types of Questions Asked
  Shape the Type of Answers Given
   – Yes/no
   – Simple Factual (names of things)
   – Process
       • Interpretations             Explanations
       • Reasons for answers given   Opinions
Orientations Lesson, First Grade, Goleta Ca
                 Orientations Lesson
         Teacher: Make a red flower under the tree. Make a red flower
           under the tree. Ok. Lets look at the red flower. Can you tell me
           where the red flower//
•   All:                             //right here, right here
•   Teacher:                                                        //is
•   Dora:         Under the tree
•   Teacher: Tell me in a sentence
•   Dora:         Its under the tree
•   Teacher: What’s under the tree? Dora, tell me, the flower . . .
•   Dora:         The flower, the flower is under the tree
        Orientations Lesson (con’t)
•   Teacher: Where is the red flower Richard?
•   Richard: Under the tree
•   Teacher: Can you tell me in a sentence
•   Richard: The flower is under the tree
•   Teacher: Cyndy, where is the red flower?
•   Cyndy: the flower is under
•   Richard                    // hey, that’s not red!
•   Cyndy:                                      // the tree
        V. Current Manifestations
• Ruby Payne-Framework for Understanding
  Poverty
  – Depiction of Life in Poverty
     • ―culture of poverty‖ --distinct values and beliefs--welfare
       cheats, not hard working, not religious; thus victims are
       responsible for their plight; ignores structures
  – Depiction of ―Hidden Rules Between Classes‖
     • Upper class is future oriented; lower class lives for the
       moment
  – Claims About Academic Abilities of Poor Kids
     • They have ―cognitive deficiencies‖--impared spatial and
       visual orientation, structures of the mind, future planning
VI. Educational Implications (Payne)

• Students in Poverty are ―broken,‖ so fix them
  –   Teach them middle class values and speech
  –   Teach them how to plan, predict
  –   Develop a future orientation
  –   Similar to B&E--but without extreme behaviorism
• Denigrates the richness of students and
  families living ―in poverty‖

				
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