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cloning - PowerPoint

VIEWS: 135 PAGES: 20

									GENETIC MANIPULATION
and its ethical implications in modern science
                      THE AGENDA FOR TODAY

• Current practices

• Main arguments covered in the article

• The main issues in DNA manipulation

• Conclusion and summary

• Our take
     CURRENT EVENTS IN GENETIC MANIPULATION


•   Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded for gene research in 2007

•   Effects on the Olympic Games and other international professional
    sports competition
                      CURRENT PRACTICES IN GENETIC
                      MANIPULATION

•   PLANTS - genetic enhancement as continuous product improvement

•   ANIMALS - Dolly and similar genetic experimentation

•   HUMANS - The scientific community’s current focus and our focal
    point for the continued discussion
                        THE CASE AGAINST PERFECTION
                        Michael J Sandel




•   The FIRST couple - lesbian, deaf couple seeking genetic
    enhancement to increase similarity to themselves
•   “deafness is a cultural identity, not a disability to be cured”

•   The SECOND couple - Infertile aspiring parents placing an
    advertisement in Ivy League student newspaper
•   Specified the genes of the mother as “Tall, athletic, high SAT,
    absence of medical problems

•   The cloning of PETS - already a reality for cats and dogs allowing pet
    owners to reunite with their beloved departed
                       ARTICULATING THE UNEASE


What would the GENETIC KNOWLEDGE allow us to do…?

•   Holds the ability to manipulate nature

•   Enhancement of muscle tissue, memories and moods

•   Allows parents to choose sex, height and other genetic traits

•   Allows us to simply be “better than well”
                       ETHICAL DILEMMA


THE AUTONOMY STANCE

•   Genetic engineering violates the child's inherent right to autonomy,
    depriving her of an open and undetermined future
•   Designer children not fully free, even favorable genetic makeup
    violates the right to choose one's own plan of life

WHY IS IT NOT PERSUASIVE?

•   None of us have the ability to choose our own genetic inheritance
•   It does not explain our moral hesitation about individuals seeking
    enhancement procedures for themselves
                     GENETIC ENGINEERING


MUSCLES

- Researchers discovered synthetic gene allowing muscle growth in mice,
    not deteriorating with age
- Prospects of application in professional sports
- Unlike steroids, undetectable in current tests

DOES IT NOT SEEM FAIR?

- Enhanced genetic differences no worse than natural ones
- Enhancement could be made available to all
                         GENETIC ENGINEERING, part 2

MEMORY

- Scientists managed to manipulate memory-linked gene in fruit flies and
    mice
- Allowed for faster learning and better memory, active even in old age

Which are the APPLICATIONS?

-   Curing Alzheimer and Dementia
-   Resisting the natural deterioration of memory
-   Improved learning
-   Blunting the emotional effects of traumatic experiences
                          WHAT DOES IT MEAN?


Will it create two classes of humans?
- Subspecies; those with access and those who must make do with
   unaltered memory fading with age

The fundamental question is not how to assure equal access to
  enhancement but whether we should aspire to it
              FOUR STAGES OF GENETIC MANIPULATION



Therapeutic          Organ       Techno-    Human
  Cloning          Cultivation   Eugenics   Cloning
Therapeutic Cloning
Implantation of cloned cells into developed tissue to reverse
disease/effects of aging; or to enhance capabilities of humans.


                                        CON
PRO
                                        •   Inequality in terms of access
•   Possibility to treat a variety of
    diseases                            •   Difficulties in setting legal
                                            limitations
     – Alzheimer’s
                                        •   Goes against position of
     – Skin cancer
                                            sanctity of life
•   Treat psychological traumas
                                        •   Opens up to commercialization
•   A huge progress for medicine
    research
Organ Cultivation
Growth or mass production of human organs for transplant into a human,
whether by growing organs within an animal or in a laboratory without the
use of an animal.


PRO                                   CON
•   Solution to organ donation        •   Destruction of embryonic cells
    shortage                              in research
•   Replacing deteriorated organs     •   Development of technology
•   Possibilities for creating            requires a vast amount of
    enhancements                          resources
                                      •   Cost of producing organs
                                      •   May cause unforseen pandemic
Techno-Eugenics
The use of genetic engineering and cloned cells to modify the traits of
children, for example deafness or height.



PRO                                     CON
•   Parents enabled to design own       •   Allocation of medical research
    children                                funds
•   Getting rid of genetic flaws        •   Cost of longer life
•   Prevent transmission of             •   Intensifies prejudice
    genetic disease
                                        •   Parental responsibility
Human Cloning
Full-scale cloning of humans for reproductive purposes.



 PRO                                   CON
 •   Individual’s decision             •   Violate right to autonomy
 •   Share nature, not nurture         •   Potential to create a monster
 •   Great way to combat infertility   •   Creation of new human species
 •   IVF close to cloning, yet         •   Disposable people
     accepted
 •   Safety should not be long run
     concern
                  PERVADING ISSUES OF CLONING

•   Difference between genetic engineering to cure and genetic
    engineering to enhance

•   Limiting vs. furthering the science

•   Must confront age-old issues of philosophy and theology
WHERE WOULD WE DRAW A LINE?
…AND WHO GETS TO DRAW IT?
OUR TAKE
WE AGREE TO DISAGREE

								
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