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The Challenges of Human Resource Management

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					       The Challenges of Human Resource
                 Management
There is an old joke that goes….. The organization of the future will be so
   technologically advanced that it will be run by just one person and a dog.
   The person will be there to feed the dog, and the dog will be there to make
   sure that the person doesn’t touch anything.
• In the past, observers feared that machines might one day eliminate the need
   for people at work. In reality, just the opposite has been occurring.
 Competitive advantage belongs to companies that know how to attract,
                    select, deploy, and develop talent.
Competitive Advantage Through People
While people have always been central to organization, today they have taken on
  an even more central role in building a firm’s competitive advantage.
• In knowledge-based industries such as software and information services,
  success increasingly depends on “people-embodied know-how.” This includes
  the knowledge, skills, and abilities imbedded in an organization’s members.



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 Competitive Advantage Through People
  A firm’s success is based on establishing a set of core competencies –integrated
              knowledge sets within an organization that distinguish it from its
                    competitor and deliver value to customers. Examples:
•      McDonald’s – management efficiency
•      Federal Express –package routing, delivery, and employee relations
•      Canon Corporation –precision mechanics, fine optics, and microelectronics
Organizations can achieve competitive advantage through people if they meet the
       following criteria:
1.     The Resources must be of value – Value is increased when employees
       find ways to decrease costs, provide something unique to customers, or
       some combination of the two. Empowerment programs, total quality
       initiative, and continuous improvement efforts.
2.     The Resource must be rare –people are a source of competitive advantage
       when their skills, knowledge, and abilities are not equally available to
       competitors. Microsoft and other firms hire and train the brightest
       employees in order to gain advantage over competitors.

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 Competitive Advantage Through People
 3.    The Resources must be difficult to imitate – when employee capabilities
                and contributions cannot be copied by others. (teamwork)
4.    The Resources must be organized –when employees talents can be
      combined and deployed to work on new assignments at a moment’s notice.
Nearly 80% of executives said the importance of HRM in their firms has grown
substantially over the past ten years, and two-thirds said that HR expenditures are
now viewed as a strategic investment rather than simply a cost to be minimized.
Competitive Challenges and Human Resources Management
•     Going Global
•     Embracing technology
•     Managing Change
•     Developing human capital
•     Responding to the market
•     Containing Costs


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 Competitive Challenges and Human Resources Management
Challenge 1 – Going Global
•      In order to grow and prosper, many companies are seeking business
       opportunities in global markets.
•      Exporting accounts for more than 956 billion a year. US trade deficit is now
       nearly 400B
Impact on Globalization
•      Globalization –trend toward opening up foreign markets to international
       trade and investment
•      Approximately 70% to 85% of the US economy today is affected by
       international competition.
•       Nearly 97% of all US exporters are small and medium-sized companies.
Efforts to lower international barriers:
NAFTA –facilitate commerce between Mexico, Canada, and the U.S.
FTAA –Will encompass the entire Western Hemisphere and extend from the tip of
       Alaska to the bottom of Argentina.

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  Efforts to lower international barriers:
EU –European Union focuses on the integration of European markets
APEC –Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation has helped establish freer trade
       among Pacific Rim Countries.
Effect on Globalization on HRM
Finding competent individuals that understand, geographies, cultures, laws, and
       business practice.
Challenge 2 –Embracing New Technology
•      The introduction of advanced technology tends to reduce the number of
       jobs that require little skill and to increase the number of jobs that require
       considerable skills.
•      This move is from touch labor to knowledge workers, where employees
       responsibilities expand to include a richer array of activities such as
       planning, decision making, and problem solving.


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  Challenge 2 –Embracing New Technology
•     Today, fully one-third of all courses are devoted to computer skills training
      (compared with 25% in 1996)
Influence of Technology in HRM
•     Today, many firms are using technology to manage their HRM called
      Human Resources Information System (HRIS)
•     HRIS –computerized system that provides current and accurate data for
      purposes of control and decision making.
Three major components
1.    The operational impact –automating routine activities, alleviating the
      administrative burden, reducing costs, and improving productivity internal
      to the HR function itself. (payroll processing, maintaining employee
      records, administering benefits programs)
2.    The Relational impact –it enhances service by providing line managers
      and employees with remote access to HR databases, supporting their HR
      related decisions, and increasing their ability to connect with other parts of
      the corporation. (scanning resumes, tracking application information)

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 Three major components
3.    The transformational impact –expanding the scope and function of the
      HR depart. (training, on-line performance evaluation, employees self-
      learning)
Challenge 3: Managing Change
Due to technology, the globalization of competition and markets, and workforce
demographics, CHANGE in today's business world is inevitable.
Types of Change
Programs that focused on total quality, continuous improvement, downsizing,
reengineering, outsourcing, and the like are all examples of the means
organizations are using to modify the way they operate in order to be more
successful. Two types of change:
1.    Reactive-change that occurs after external forces have already affected
      performance
2.    Proactive-change initiated to take advantage of targeted opportunities.


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 Managing Change Through HR
84% of executives polled said that they have at least one change initiative going
on in their organizations.
Unfortunately, successful change or change management rarely occurs naturally or
       easily. Here is why:
1.     Not establishing a sense or urgency
2.     Not creating a powerful coalition to guide the effort
3.     Lacking leaders who have a vision
4.     Lacking leaders who communicate the vision
5.     Not removing obstacles to the new vision
6.     Not systematically planning for and creating short-term “wins”
7.     Declaring victory too soon
8.     Not anchoring changes in the corporate culture
Responsibilities change, job assignments change, work processes change. And
       this is a continuous change- a part of the job –rather than temporary.


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  Challenge 4: Developing Human Capital
The idea that organizations “compete through people” highlights the fact that
success increasingly depends on an organization’s ability to manage Human
capital.
Human capital –the economic value of knowledge, skills, and capabilities.
Human Capital and HRM
•      Human capital is intangible and elusive and cannot be managed the way
       organizations manage jobs, products, and technologies.
    –      One of the reasons for this is that employees, not the organization, own their
           human capital.
•       If valued employees leave a company, they take their human capital with
        them, and any investment the company has made in training and developing
        those people is lost.
•       To build human capital in organizations, managers must continue to
        develop superior knowledge, skills, and experience within the workforce.

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  Human Capital and HRM
•     Staffing programs focus on identifying, recruiting, and hiring the best and
      the brightest talent available.
•     Training programs complement these staffing practices to provide skill
      enhancement, particularly in areas that cannot be transferred to another
      company if an employee should leave. (What is transferable skills?)
Challenge 5: Responding to the Market
Meeting customers expectations is essential for any organization.
•     Focusing on internal management issues, managers must also meet
      customer requirements of quality, innovation, variety, and responsiveness.
These standards separate the successful and unsuccessful companies:
1.    Who well does a company understand its customers’ needs?
2.    How fast can it develop and get a new product to market?
3.    How effectively has it responded to special concerns?
4.    Faster, better, cheaper……..


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   Challenge 5: Responding to the Market
Organizations use several approaches to address this very crucial issues:
1.     Total Quality Management (TQ M)
2.     Six Sigma
3.     Reengineering
TQM, Six Sigma, Reengineering, and HRM
TQM –is a set of principles and practices whose core ideas include understanding
       customer needs, doing things right the first time, and striving for continuous
       improvement.
Six Sigma –a statistical method of translating a customer’s needs into separate
       tasks and defining the best way to perform each task in concert with the
       others.
Reengineering –has been described as “the fundamental rethinking and radical
       redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost,
       quality, service and speed. (ISO 9000+)

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  Challenge 6: Containing Costs
Investments in reengineering, TQM, human capital, technology, globalization,
and the like are all very important for organizational competitiveness.
    –     Yet, at the same time, there are increasing pressures on companies to lower costs
          and improve productivity to maximize efficiency.
      Labor costs are one of the largest expenditures of any organization
Organizations have tried a number of approaches to lower costs:
Downsizing, outsourcing and employee leasing, and productivity enhancement.
1) Downsizing –the planned elimination of jobs.
Other ways of downsizing besides direct layoffs:
•     Early retirements
•     “Sweetened” voluntary separation program
•     Sabbaticals
•     Severance packages

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   Challenge 6: Containing Costs
2) Outsourcing – contracting outside the organization to have work done that
formerly was done by internal employees.
Some of the most common outsourcing are:
•     Services of accounting firms
•     Advertising firms
•     Law firms
•     Maintenance such as, security, catering, and payroll
Employee Leasing – Process of dismissing employees who are then hired by a
      leasing company (which handles all HR related activities) and contracting
      with that company to lease back the employees.
Impact on HR: 93% of all HR depts. reported outsourcing some of their work
•     Increasing morale – especially if you know your work is only temporarily
•     Increasing productivity level
•     Managing contracting companies
•     Legal issues with temporary workers
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   Challenge 6: Containing Costs
3) Productivity Enhancement – Productivity can be defined as the “output
gained from a fixed amount of inputs,” organizations can increase productivity
either by reducing the imports (the cost approach) or by increasing the amount that
employees produce.
Two view points:
View Point #1 – managers may cut costs only to find that productivity falls at even
at ore rapid rate – WHY?????????
View Point #2 -Mangers may find that increasing investment in employees
(raising labor costs) may lead to even greater returns in enhanced productivity. ?
Fact: The US is the world’s most productive nation. However, other can catch-up
How to Increase Productivity?
•       Employee productivity is the result of a combination of employee abilities,
        motivation, and work environment. Figure 1.3
•       When productivity falls off – or more positively, when productivity
        improves –the changes is usually traceable to enhanced skill, motivation,
        or a work environment conducive to high performance.
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   Challenge 6: Containing Costs
 How to Increase Productivity?
•      Employee productivity is the result of a combination of employee abilities,
       motivation, and work environment. Figure 1.3
•      When productivity falls off – or more positively, when productivity
       improves –the changes is usually traceable to enhanced skill, motivation,
       or a work environment conducive to high performance.
Demographics and Employee Concerns
Demographic Changes – among the most significant challenges to managers are
       the demographic changes occurring the the US.
The Diversity Challenges –figure 1.4
In the year 2010 minorities will make up an even larges share of the US labor
force than they do today.
•      Blacks will increase their share from 10 to 12 percent
•      Hispanics from 7 to 12 percent
•      Asian American from 3 to 6 percent
These groups are expected to account for about 70 percent of labor force.
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Demographics and Employee Concerns
Age Distribution of Employees
•     The # of older workers is beginning to rise as baby boomers approach
      retirement age and is projected to reach 15.2% by 2010.
•     Companies are finding that large portions of their workforces are nearing
      retirement.
•     Managers are concerned that the expertise of these employees is likely to be
      drained too rapidly from companies.
What are companies dealing with this issue:
•     Attracting older workers to work for them
•     Innovative ways of training – Old version “You can’t teach an old dog new
      tricks” New version “You can’t teach an old dog the same way you teach a
      puppy”
Gender Distributions of the Workforce (figure 1.5)
•     Bureau of Labor suggest that women will continue to join the US labor
      force and are expected to account for about 48% by 2010.
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Demographics and Employee Concerns
 Gender Distributions of the Workforce (figure 1.5)
HR Issues with the upcoming Gender
•     Employers are under constant pressure to ensure equality for women with
      respect of employment, advancement opportunities, and compensation.
•     Need to accommodate working mothers and father through parental leaves,
      part-time employment, flexible work schedules, job sharing,
      telecommuting, and more sensitive to the growing need for policies and
      procedure to eliminate sexual harassment in the workplace.
Rising Levels of Education (figure 1.5)
•     The most Secure and fastest-growing sectors of employment over the past
      few decades have been in areas requiring higher levels of education.
•     However, this brings yet another challenge and that is that the there is a
      widening gap between the educated and the noneducated.
•     Recent study suggests that less than half of all high school seniors are able
      to handle mathematics problems involving fractions, decimals, percents,
      elementary geometry, and simple algebra.

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Demographics and Employee Concerns
Cultural Changes
The attitudes, beliefs, values, and customs of people in a society are an integral
       part of their culture.
Employee Rights
Over the past few decades, federal legislation has radically changed the rules for
       management of employees by granting them many specific rights. Among
       these are:
1.     Equal Employment Opportunity (chapter 2)
2.     Union Representation, if desired (chapter 14)
3.     Safe and Healthful Work environment (chapter 12)
4.     Pension plan that is fiscally sound (chapter 11)
5.     Equal Pay for men and women performing the same job (chapter 9)
6.     Employment at will doctrine (chapter 13)


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Demographics and Employee Concerns
 Changing Attitudes Towards Work
•    Employees today are less likely to define their personal success only in
     terms of financial gains.
•    This trend has been evolving for some time, but observes have noted that it
     has peaked since the terrorist attacks of 9/11.
•    Personal fulfillment and self-expression – as well as a balance between
     work and family – are key factors in a complex array of job attitudes.
Employees are looking for:
1.   Interesting work
2.   Balancing the challenges and rewards of work with those in their personal
     lives
3.   Ways of living that are less complicated but more meaningful
•    HRM has become more complex than it was when employees were
     concerned primarily with economic survival.

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Responsibilities of the Human Resource Manager
1.   Advise and Counsel
2.   Service
3.   Policy formulation and implementation
4.   Employee advocacy
Competencies of the Human Resources Manager (figure 1.9)
1.   Business mastery
2.   HR Mastery
3.   Change Mastery
4.   Personal credibility




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