Edible Soybeans or Edamame by pengxiuhui


									                      Edible Soybeans or Edamame
         I had my first taste of locally grown edamame last Thursday. I thought that would be an
interesting subject for my article this week. I grew up knowing about soybeans that were grown for
livestock feed and have come to know more about those beans being processed in many other
         The Edamame is an ancient Asian vegetable that is rapidly growing in popularity in the U.S. In
Japan, the pods are popped open and eaten out of hand similar to how we eat peanuts out of the shell.
Edamame translates as "beans on branches," for its growing habit of producing bunches of beans on
well-branches shrubby plants. Not like regular soybeans which dry on the plant, edamame pods are
picked green before they ripen. Each pod contains two or three delicious seeds (beans) with a sweet,
nutty flavor that appeals to children and adults.
         Edamame (Glycine max) is a specialty soybean. Records indicate that it was used in China
(known as mao dou) more than 5000 years ago. From China, it was introduced into Japan, where it
was consumed for centuries before it was documented. Soy bean pods were offerings in Buddhist
temples. A season crop, its peak harvest coincided with the full moons of September and October.
Edamame was originally grown in the berms between rice paddies but is now field-cultivated.
         According to the American Soybean Association the soybean came to the U.S. in 1804 on a
Yankee clipper ship. Sailors loaded the ship with soybeans as inexpensive ballast. When the ship
arrived in the U.S. they dumped the soybeans to make room for cargo.
         In 1829, U.S. farmers first grew soybeans. They raised a variety for soy sauce. During the Civil
War, soldiers used soybeans as "coffee berries" to brew "coffee" when real coffee was scarce. In the
late 1800s large numbers of farmers began growing soybeans as forage for cattle.
         In 1904, at the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama, George Washington Carver began
studying the soybean. His discoveries changes the way people thought about the soybean. It was no
longer just a forage crop but its beans provided valuable protein and oil. If you check back to my
February 29th article on George Washington Carver you will find that he invented the following products
from soybean: flours, coffee, cheese, sauce, bisque for ice cream, oil, chick food, soup mixtures, bran,
and stock food.
         Today soybeans can be found in a wide variety of products we use. New uses mean new
value. Here are some places you can look for soy technology. Ford included soy foam seating in every
2008 Mustang, F-150, Expedition and Navigator and will include it in the 2009 Escape. Soy plastic is
used in John Deere tractor hoods. Soy polyester resins could add up to 18 million bushels of soybean
demand in the next five years. Soy is in everyday items, including hair-care products and resin used in
For more information on products made from soybeans go to the following website
         Edible soybeans are used for making tofu, tempeh, soynut snacks, and other foods. Edible or
food-grade soybeans differs from field soybeans by being larger-seeded, milder-tasting, more tender,
and more digestible. They also contain a lower percentage of gas-producing starches. Otherwise, the
nutritional value of edible and field soybeans is comparable.
         Edamame production is similar to that of traditional grain soybeans, although planting
techniques and equipment need to accommodate the larger seed size of edamame. Market
gardeners may want to plant several varieties to extend the season and to always have fresh edamame
to market.
         Edamame and grain soybeans share the same range of disease and insect pests. however,
since edamame is harvested when green, growers can avoid many of the late season problems that
occur with grain soybeans.
         Edamame is harvested 99 to 120 days from planting or when the pods are still green, immature,
and tight with fully developed immature green seeds. Timing of the fresh edamame harvest is a critical
factor in determining consumer acceptability and marketability. The harvest window for edamame is
very short.
Edamame is marketed in three main ways.
   o Whole plants: Fresh beans are harvested by cutting the entire plant at about two inches and
     bunching stalks together in groups of four to six plants.
   o Pod only: Marketable pods are removed from the stalks and packed and marketed.
   o   Bean only: Beans are shelled and marketed fresh or frozen.
There are probably fewer than 100 acres farmed for fresh market sale of edamame in the U.S.
Producers need to consider which markets to target. Japanese consumers prefer edamame on the
stalk or in-pod, while fresh shelled beans are preferred by Chinese consumers.
Soybean Stats:
   o In 2007 the U.S. planted 63.6 million acres of soybeans.
   o Production in 2007 was 2.585 bushels
   o The U.S. exported 1.0 billion bushels of soybeans.
   o U.S. soybean and product exports were $12.9 billion in 2007
   o China was the largest customer for U.S. soybeans purchases exceeding $4.1 billion.
   o Mexico was the second largest buyer with purchases exceeding $1.1 Billion.
   o Domestically, soybeans provided 71 percent of the edible consumption of fats and oils in the
     U.S. (Above statistics are from the Soystats.com website)
Try some edamame when you find them at a Farmer's Market near you. You might find that you like
them for a snack and they are good for you.

1st Western Maryland Performance-Tested Buck and Invitational Doe Sale and Field Day
The 1st Western Maryland Performance-Tested Buck and Invitational Doe Sale and Field Day will be
held on Saturday, October 4, 2008, at the Washington County Agricultural Center near Boonsboro,
Maryland. The 20 top-performing bucks from the Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat
Performance Test will be auctioned off, along with doelings that are half-sibs to the bucks on test. Sale
animals will include full-blood and percentage Kikos and Boers, along with some Kiko x Boer
crossbreds. The 20 top-performing bucks will be chosen on the basis on growth performance, parasite
resistance and resilience, and minimum standards for structural correctness and reproductive
soundness. The goats on test consume a pasture-only diet, with no supplemental feed. The Field Day
will start at 10 a.m. It will feature Dr. Dan Waldron, Professor of Animal Science from Texas A&M
University. Dr. Waldron is an expert on the performance testing of small ruminants. Lunch will be
available for purchase. The sale will begin at 2 p.m. For more information about the sale and field day,
contact Susan Schoenian at (301) 432-2767 x343 or sschoen@umd.edu Superior Semen Works will be
on hand on Friday and Saturday, October 3 and 4 to collect semen from the bucks on test or bucks
brought to the facility. For more information, contact Jeanne Dietz-Band at (301) 432-7296 or
jdietzba@umd.edu Visit the meat goat test blot at http://mdgoattest.blogspot.com

2008 Forestry Workshop
A One day forestry workshop will be held on October 4, 2008 from 9 a.m.-3 p.m. at the Casto Family
Tree Farm in Largent, WV. Lunch will be provided by the Eastern Panhandle Conservation District at
the Casto's. The afternoon session will be broken out into different sessions where you can choose
what session you would like to attend. Topics being covered: Law Enforcement & Fire Safety, Deer
Management, Wildlife Management (Wildlife Food Plot, Wildlife Watering Hole, Ruffed Grouse, Turkey
Woodland Program), Woodland Management (Timber Stand Improvement, Clear cutting and
reinforcement, Road Management, Logging and Sediment and Erosion Control) Please join us for a full
day of learning and fun while gaining knowledge about woodland management. The workshop is
sponsored by the Eastern Panhandle Conservation District, WV Conservation Agency, WV Division of
Forestry, WVU Extension Service, WV Division of Natural Resources and Casto Family Tree Farm. For
more details and information please contact Barbara Elliott, WV Conservation Agency at 304-263-4376
ext. 117. Registration Deadline is September 19, 2008.
2008 Trout Culture Workshop Slated for October 6-7, 2008
Production of trout in flowing water systems for food and recreation is the dominant form of aquaculture
in West Virginia. The Aquaculture Food and Marketing Development Project will hold a Trout Culture
Workshop at Reymann Memorial Farm near Wardensville. The dates selected are Monday October 6
and Tuesday, October 7. We will utilize both classroom instruction and hands on activities to instruct
participants about trout production in flowing water systems. Attached is a brochure. Please, look it
over and determine if you would like to attend. We expect that the aquaculture project will cover travel,
lodging, and meals for county staff who participate in the workshop. Last year was the first time this
event was held and it went very well. Jerry Yates will confirm that even cowboys can enjoy this but
trout is the only meat on Monday night's dinner menu. It is a good opportunity for those with no
aquaculture exposure to gain useful experience. If there are questions, please contact Ken Semmens,
293-2631 x4211, ksemmens@wvu.edu or Rodney Kiser, 293-2631 x 4447, rkiser@wvu.edu
Virginia Cooperative Extension Equine Extension Programming
Virginia Cooperative Extension is offering an Equine Issues Series. Join them for updates on university,
industry and government research guiding decisions on hot topics in the equine industry!
Topics are: September 17, 2008 Horse Identification, September 24, 2008 Legislative Updates &
Engagement. Hosted by Historic Long Branch at 6pm each evening RSVP Required by September 5th
to Crystal.Smith@vt.edu For more information on these programs go to their website:
Open House Winston Gardens Nursery Specializing in Native Plants
Virginia (Provenzano) Winston Landscape Design & Gardens
Located at 1121 Hollida Lane, 1 mile off Swan Pond Road is holding an open house Sat. & Sun. Sept.
20 & 21, 10:00 AM to 3:00 PM. Light refreshments and door prize offered.
Available for purchase will be 30+ varieties of native trees & shrubs, potted up and ready for immediate
planting in your garden. "Fall is the best time to plant." Call 304-267-6924 for more information.
See website for plant list: www.winstongardens.com
Directions: From 45 East out of Martinsburg, go about 5 mi., turn left on Files Crossroads and go 1 mi.
to 'T' at Swan Pond Rd. Turn left, go 1/2 mi. and turn right onto Hollida Rd. Follow Hollida as it turns
sharply right at the mailboxes, becomes gravel, passes up hill and between a large white farmhouse
and barn, turns sharply left a little way beyond the barn, and goes down a long straightaway. Just as
the road turns sharply right again, follow our driveway up to the left (1121, light gray ranch house) and
park along the drive. PS. We will have our honey available for sale, yum!

Producers to Help Promote Agritourism
Producers, here is an opportunity to promote agritourism in the Tri-County area through and ongoing
group meeting of the Eastern Panhandle Entrepreneur's Forum. The topic for the October meeting of
the Eastern Panhandle Entrepreneur's Forum is Agritourism. The meetings are always the first
Thursday of the month. The general setup for the meetings is that small businesses setup booths to
advertise, promote and sell. Networking and refreshments are from 5:30pm-6:30pm and the program
portion is 6:30-8pm. The October meeting will be held at Town & Country Nursery in Jefferson County.
We would like to see as many Ag vendors setting up at the October meeting as possible. Producers
would need to be set up by 5:30pm and plan to tear down around 8pm. The concept would be to setup
just like at farmers markets but on a smaller scale, those of you who have agritourism type operations,
please promote those as well. Refreshments will be handled by Jane Tabb using local ingredients.
Please forward a list of raw ingredients you will have the first week in October to assist in planning the
menu. Please RSVP with your intentions to setup at the October meeting, no later than September
15th to Kellie S. Boles, Jefferson County Agriculture Development Officer, and telephone 304/728-3051
ext. 239, Fax: 304/728-3068 or email kboles@jctc.org For more information on this activity please
contact Kellie Boles.

Garden Tips
    o   Harvest early pumpkins
    o   Plant hardy evergreens
    o   Don't let weeds go to seed
    o   Control broadleaf weeds in lawn
    o   Plant garden mums
Until next time ... Happy Gardening, and Farming!

Mary Beth Bennett, Ph.D. is a WVU Extension agent and associate professor. She can be reached at 264-1936,
MBBennett@mail.wvu.edu or on the web at http://www.berkeleyextension.com
Mary Beth Bennett ~ 400 West Stephen Street, Suite 302 ~ Martinsburg, WV 25401

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