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									       CHAPTER 4
File Management, Virus Protection,
          and Backup
  4 Chapter Contents
     Section A: File Basics
     Section B: File Management
     Section C: Computer Viruses
     Section D: Data Backup




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   2
  4                                                        SECTION   A
           Section A: File Basics
     File Names, Extensions, and Formats
     File Locations, Folders, and Paths
     File Sizes and Dates




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup             3
  4 File Names, Extensions, and Formats
     You must adhere to file-naming conventions
      when saving files
            – Maximum length
            – Prohibited characters
            – No reserved words
            – Case sensitivity
     File extensions are usually
      related to the file format
            – Native file format

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   4
  4 File Names, Extensions, and Formats
                                                           The next time you use software,
                                                           take note of the file extensions that
                                                           appear when you look at the list of
                                                           files in the Open dialog box. If you
                                                           don’t see any file extensions, you’ve
                                                           discovered the results of a Windows
                                                           setting that can hide (but not erase)
                                                           file extensions.
                                                           If Windows is set to hide file
                                                           extensions, you can view them by
                                                           opening Windows Explorer, selecting
                                                           the Tools menu, selecting Folder
                                                           Options, then changing the “Hide file
                                                           extensions” option.

                                                           CLICK TO START

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup                                           5
  4 File Locations, Folders, and Paths
     An operating system maintains a directory for
      each disk, tape, CD, or DVD
            – Root directory
            – Subdirectory
                   • Depicted as folders
     A computer’s file location is defined by a file
       specification, or path
     C:\My Music\Reggae\Marley One Love.mp3
     (see bottom of page 186)
Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   6
  4 File Sizes and Dates
     A file contains data, stored as a group of bits
            – File size is usually measured in bytes, kilobytes,
              or megabytes
     The file date indicates the date that a file was
      created or last modified




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup           7
  4                                                        SECTION   B
           Section B: File Management
     Application-based File Management
     File Management Utilities
     File Management Metaphors
     Windows Explorer
     File Management Tips
     Physical File Storage

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup             8
  4 Application-based File Management
     Applications typically provide a way to open
      files and save them in a specific folder on a
      storage device




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   9
  4 Application-based File Management

                                                           The Save As dialog box
                                                           not only helps you name
                                                           a file and designate its
                                                           destination drive, but
                                                           also allows you to
                                                           rename files, delete
                                                           files, create folders, and
                                                           rename folders.

                                                           CLICK TO START




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup                                10
  4 File Management Utilities
     File management utilities (comes with most
      operating systems) show you the files stored
      on your disks and help you work with them




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   11
  4 File Management Metaphors
     Storage metaphors help you visualize and
      mentally organize the files on your disks
            – Logical storage models




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   12
  4 Windows Explorer


                                                           Windows Explorer
                                                           makes it easy to drill
                                                           down through the
                                                           levels of the directory
                                                           hierarchy to locate a
                                                           folder or file. Clicking
                                                           the name or the plus
                                                           sign will expand the
                                                           device or folder.

                                                           CLICK TO START



Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup                              13
  4 Windows Explorer
     Windows Explorer allows you to manipulate
      files and folders in the following ways:
            – Rename
            – Copy
            – Move
                   • Erases
                   file from
                   original
                   location
            – Delete

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   14
  4 File Management Tips
     Use descriptive names
     Maintain file extensions
     Group similar files
     Organize your folders from the top down
     Consider using the My Documents default
      directory
     Do not mix data files and program files


Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   15
  4 File Management Tips
     Don’t store files in the root directory
     Access files from the hard disk
     Follow copyright rules
     Delete or archive files you no longer need
     Be aware of storage locations
     Back up



Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   16
  4 Physical File Storage
      The physical storage model describes what happens on the
       disks and in the circuits when files are stored. On CDs and
       DVDs, tracks spiral out from the center
        – Storage media must be formatted before it can store files
           • Formatting utilities divide the disk into tracks and
             sectors




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup          17
  4 Physical File Storage

                                                           Windows includes a floppy
                                                           disk formatting utility, which
                                                           can be accessed from the
                                                           A: (Floppy disk) icon in the
                                                           My Computer window or
                                                           Windows Explorer. Most
                                                           floppies and ZIP disks
                                                           come preformatted.

                                                           CLICK TO START




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup                                    18
  4 Physical File Storage
     The file system keeps
      track of the names and
      locations of files
            – NTFS (Windows NT,
              2000, and XP)
                   • Master File Table (MFT)
            – FAT32 (Windows 95, 98,
              and ME)
                   • File Allocation Table (FAT)




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   19
  4 Physical File Storage
     Deleting a file changes the status of that file’s
      clusters to empty and removes the file name
      from the index file
            – The file’s data is still there
            – File shredder software overwrites “empty” sectors
              with random 1s and 0s
     Files in the Windows Recycle Bin can be
      undeleted

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup      20
  4 Physical File Storage
     Fragmented files are stored in noncontiguous
      clusters and decrease performance
     Defragmentation utilities rearrange files so
      that they are stored in contiguous clusters




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   21
  4                                                        SECTION   C
           Section C: Computer Viruses
     Viruses
     Trojan Horses
     Worms
     Bots
     Combating Malicious Code
     Virus Hoaxes

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup             22
  4 Viruses
     Malicious code enters a computer and disrupts
      normal operation
     Computer viruses attach themselves to a file,
      reproduce, and spread to other files and people
            – File virus
            – Boot sector virus
            – Macro virus
     Viruses might deliver a payload, which could either
      be annoying or devastating
     Trigger events can unleash some viruses

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup    23
  4 Trojan Horses
     Seems to perform one
      function while doing
      another
            – Keyloggers record your
              keystrokes
            – Backdoors allow
              unauthorized access to
              computers
            – Blended threats contain
              more than one type of
              malicious program

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   24
  4 Worms
     Designed to spread from computer to
      computer
     Mass-mailing worms spread to addresses in
      the address book on the infected computer
            – Examples include Klez, Netsky, Sasser
            – Messages sometimes contain a spoofed address




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   25
  4 Worms




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   26
  4 Bots
     A bot is software that
      can automate a task or
      autonomously execute
      a task
            – Botnets are linked bot-
              infested computers
                   • Denial of Service attacks
            – Use the same delivery
              methods as worms



Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   27
  4 Bots
     Malicious code can perform the following activities:
            –   Network traffic jam
            –   Denial of Service (flood networks with useless traffic)
            –   Browser reconfiguration
            –   Delete and modify files
            –   Access confidential information
            –   Performance degradation
            –   Disable antivirus and firewall software
                   • Retro viruses



Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup                  28
  4 Combating Malicious Code
     Use antivirus software on
      every computing device you
      own
            – Checksum
            – Virus signature
            – Not 100% reliable, but close
     Keep software patches and
      operating system service
      packs up to date
     Do not open suspicious
      e-mail attachments
Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   29
  4 Virus Hoaxes
     Virus does not really exist
     E-mail message containing dire warnings about a
      supposedly new virus on the loose
     Check antivirus Web sites to identify virus hoaxes




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   30
  4                                                        SECTION   D
           Section D: Data Backup
     Backup and Restore Procedures
     Backup Devices
     Network and Internet Backup
     Backup Software
     Boot and Recovery Disks



Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup             31
  4 Backup and Restore Procedures



                                                           A backup is usually stored
                                                           on a different storage
                                                           medium from the original
                                                           files.

                                                           These are the steps in a
                                                           typical backup session.

                                                           CLICK TO START



Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup                                32
  4 Backup and Restore Procedures
     Restore data by copying files from a backup to the
      original storage medium or its replacement
     Various backup plans
            – Full-system backup (every program, data, and system file
              on a computer)
            – Selective backup (contains only selected, most important
              files)
     Consider backing up Internet connection
      information, e-mail folders, e-mail address books,
      favorite URLs, and downloads

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup             33
  4 Backup and Restore Procedures
     Use caution when backing up the Windows
      Registry
            – Some software cannot copy open files
     Run an up-to-date virus check as the first
      step in your backup routine
     Backup schedule should depend on how
      much data you can afford to lose
     Store your backups in a safe place

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   34
  4 Backup Devices




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   35
  4 Network and Internet Backup
     You might be able to use a network server as
      a backup device
            – Check with the network administrator
     Several Web sites offer fee-based backup
      storage space
            – Space limitations
            – Download times



Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   36
  4 Backup Software
     Set of utility programs designed to backup
      and restore files
     Supplied with most backup devices
     Provides tools for scheduling backup dates
      and selecting the files you want to back up
            – Full backup
            – Differential backup
            – Incremental backup

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   37
  4 Backup Software


                                                           Full, incremental, and
                                                           differential backups each take
                                                           a slightly different approach to
                                                           backing up files.

                                                           CLICK TO START




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup                                      38
  4 Backup Software
     Keep more than one set of backups
            – Rotating three backup disks or tapes is
              recommended for rewritable media
     Enable the “read after write” or “compare”
      option to ensure your backups work




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   39
  4 Boot and Recovery Disks
     A boot disk is a floppy disk or CD containing
      the operating system files needed to boot
      your computer without accessing the hard
      disk
            – Boots DOS




Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   40
  4 Boot and Recovery Disks
     A recovery CD loads
      hardware drivers and
      user settings as well as
      the operating system
            – Sometimes included
              with new computer
              systems
            – The Windows XP
              Backup utility creates a
              set of Automated
              System Recovery disks

Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup   41
CHAPTER 4 COMPLETE
File Management, Virus Protection,
          and Backup

								
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