The Cappuccino Conquests by pengxiuhui

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									The Cappuccino Conquests
   The Transnational History of Italian Coffee




   Exhibition Catalogue
01 The Espresso Process



Today the whole world seems to be drinking Italian style coffees, though often in very
different ways from the Italians themselves. This exhibition illustrates the phenomena
of the ‘cappuccino conquests’ – and sets out to explain how and why this has occurred.


Italians overwhelmingly drink espresso coffee. Espresso is the product of a preparation
process in which hot water is forced through a finely ground cake of coffee under around
9 atmospheres of pressure. A typical espresso serving contains half the caffeine of a cup
of filter coffee. The Italian Espresso National Institute (INEI) has defined the parameters
under which a genuine espresso can be produced.



  The Certified Italian Espresso: What you need

  Amount of ground coffee required           7 g ± 0,5
  Temperature of water leaving the unit      88°C ± 2°C
  Temperature of the drink in cup            67°C ± 3°C
  Water insertion pressure                   9 bar ±1
  Water hardness                             9 °F
  Percolation time                           25’’± 2,5’’
  Millilitres in cup (cream included)        25 ml ± 2,5
02 The Italian Coffee Menu




In many foreign markets, particularly the English speaking world, it is the other styles of Italian
coffee such as cappuccino and caffè latte that have become popular.These are all made with
an espresso base, usually combined with steamed or frothed milk. Recipes for these beverages
vary subtly – here are those suggested by Lavazza, the largest Italian coffee roaster.
03 Coffee Roasting in Italy




Coffee is not grown in Italy, but is imported from Latin America (principally Brazil),
Asia and Africa to be processed, roasted and blended within the country. A typical
espresso blend contains beans from about 5 to 10 different sources, including both
Arabica and Robusta varieties. The coffee is usually slow roasted (c20 mins) at a
relatively low temperature in a drum machine.


Tastes vary considerably within Italy - in general, the further south one travels, the
higher the robusta content and the darker the roast. Most coffee roasters are small
businesses selling to the local market. They identifiy themselves closely with their
city or region, often using local images in their advertising, or sponsoring a sports
side. Providing branded items such as cups to the bars they supply enables the
roasters to raise their profile in the domestic market.




Photos Left: Drum Coffee Roaster - Jonathan Morris   Right: Jolly Caffè Advert - C. Baldoli
04 The Birth of Espresso




Coffee arrived in Italy in the 17th century. It was made in the Turkish manner and
consumed in elite coffee houses such as Florian in Venice. Cappuccino was made
by adding the froth from warm milk to the coffee. However it was only in 1905
that the first espresso machine entered into production. This was the Ideale made
by La Pavoni of Milan, whose vertical boiler generated the steam necessary to
drive hot water through the ground coffee at around 1.5 atmospheres.


Pavoni machines dominated the inter-war market along with those of Victoria
Arduino of Turin whose Futurist style posters combined the elements of steam,
speed and modernity with a play on the various meanings of espresso – express,
expressed, and expressly prepared for the customer. Under Fascism, however,
coffee was regarded with suspicion due to its connotations of imported luxury.




Photos Left: Patent for the first espresso machine - Maltoni Collection
         Right: Victoria Arduino Poster, 1922 - Maltoni Collection
05 The Crema Revolution




In 1948 the Gaggia Classica machine literally revolutionised the nature of espresso
by using a spring piston, operated by a manual lever, to extract hot water from the
boiler and force it through the coffee under 9 atmospheres of pressure. The result
was a denser drink topped by a mousse. This became known as crema and the
beverage as crema caffè – ‘cream coffee’. Other Milanese machine makers swiftly
adopted this method and began to refine it.


During the 1950s Italy was transformed from an agrarian society to an industrial one
with migrants flooding into the cities. Bars catering to these new workers appeared,
serving them a coffee beverage they could not reproduce at home. Coffee drinking
spread along with associated conventions of consumption such as standing at the
counter, encouraged by price controls that allowed proprietors to charge more
for service at a table.




Photos Left: Gaggia 1950 Export Model - Peter Hoare
        Right: Bar Roma, Forlimpopoli 1956 with lever machine - Maltoni collection
06 From Semi to
   Supra-Automatics




In 1961 the Milanese firm Faema launched the E61, which used an electric pump
to pressurise cold water drawn from the mains, and then pass it through a heat
exchanger. The barista simply used a switch to start and end the flow.
Subsequently automatic (push button), super-automatic (incorporating milk frothing)
and supra-automatic (which begin by grinding the beans) machines have appeared.
These have met with most success in overseas markets, with Swiss firms such
as Schaerer and Franke particularly prominent in their development.


The advent of a mass consumer society in Italy during the 1960s saw a substantial
growth in coffee consumption in and out of the home. After the 1970s recession,
a new wave of expansion occurred and a few national roasters emerged – such
as Lavazza, Illy, Segafredo and Kimbo. However the bar sector continues to be
dominated by independent enterprises.




Photos Left: Faema E61 - Maltoni Collection   Right: Cimbali Bean to Cup Machines - Jonathan Morris
07 Italian Coffee
   comes to the UK




The Moka Bar in London’s Soho district was the first UK coffee bar to install
a Gaggia machine in 1952. Customers preferred cappuccino to espresso and
expected it to be served hot, leading one Italian waiter to joke that he could shave
in the time it took to reach a drinkable temperature. The Moka was owned by the
Scotsman Maurice Ross. In 1953 Gaggia’s UK agent Pino Riservato opened the
Moka-Ris bar to demonstrate the functioning of a coffee bar to prospecitve clients.
Moka-Ris was also the name given to the espresso blend produced by the London
based Kenyan Coffee Company, in association with Gaggia, that gained 75% of the
coffee bar market.




Photos Left: Customer Shaving in the Moka Bar, 1954 - Getty Images
        Top right: Interior of the Moka-Ris Bar, 1953 - courtesy of Matthew Partington, copyright Marcus Vergette
        Bottom right: The Moccamba Coffee Bar/Night Club, 1954 - Getty Images
08 The Fad for Frothy Coffee




Italian-style coffee spread throughout the UK during the 1950s. At first it was served
as an exotic beverage in nightclubs that stayed open after the pubs had shut, in
fashionable department stores, and ‘continental’ cafès that amalgamated elements
from all over Europe. However, the fad was sustained by coffee bars serving ‘frothy
coffee’ set up for young people across the country who wanted their own spaces in
which to dance and listen to their music away from the pubs used by their parents.
In the early 1960s, however, changes in the licensing laws and pub environment,
combined with rent rises and the advent of simpler ‘pour and serve’ coffee-making
systems, saw the end of the coffee bar era.




Photos Left: Kensington Coffee Bar, 1955 - Getty Images
        Top right: Coffee at Fortnum and Masons, 1954 - Getty Images
        Bottom right: El Cubano Coffee Bar complete with toucans, 1956 - AHDS/Design Council Archives
09 The Anglo-Italian Cafe




The Italian community in the UK had long been involved in catering in centres such
as London, Glasgow and South Wales. However most of their customers were manual
workers whose overwhelming preference was for tea. Many cafes used the machines
built by Still and Son of London whose two bulk storage chambers allowed for separate
tea and coffee production, along with a wand to froth milk. In the 1980s, as customers
became more interested in Italy, more cafes began to purchase espresso machines
supplied and serviced by agents within the community, and started serving panini.




Photos Top left: Still machine - John Lewis archive   Top right: Bar Centrale - Jonathan Morris
         Bottom left: Bar Italia - Charles Prager     Bottom right: New Piccadily - Charles Prager
10 Italian Coffee
   Roasters in the UK




The main supplier of coffee to the Italian cafes in London was Drury Tea and Coffee
founded by the Olmi brothers in 1936.This has remained a family business until
this day. Like many UK roasters the company are also agents for a coffee machine
manufacturer – in this case Rancilio.


In 1971 another roastery was set up by the Costa brothers, Sergio and Bruno.
In the 1980s Costa Coffee began opening retail shops and coffee bars, run as
franchises by families from the Anglo-Italian community.Today Sergio’s son Marco
has established a new company called Caffè Torelli. The Drury, Costa and Torelli
roasteries are all located in Lambeth, just south of the Thames.


Most UK roasters now produce espresso. The largest independent roaster is
Matthew Algie of Glasgow, whose clients include Marks and Spencer and Pret a Manger.




Photos Left: Drury Roastery 1956 - Drury Coffe   Right: Caffè Torelli logo – Caffè Torelli
11 Speciality Coffee
                                                                                    Speciality Coffee
                                                                                    Operating Units
                                                                                      in the USA
                                                                             1989   585          1998   10,000

                                                                             1990   1,150        1999   12,000

                                                                             1991   1,650        2000   12,600

                                                                             1992   2,250        2001   13,800

                                                                             1993   2,850        2002   15,400

                                                                             1994   3,600        2003   17,400

                                                                             1995   5,000        2004   18,600

                                                                             1996   6,700        2005   21,400

                                                                             1997   8,400


                                                                             Source: SCAA Factsheet



In 1982 the Speciality Coffee Association of America was founded by small independents across
the industry to raise public awareness of quality coffee. At first they concentrated on selling
single-origin beans to brew coffee at home, but soon discovered that serving hand-made Italian
style coffees in-store attracted more customers. By 1990 there were over 200 coffee carts
serving cappuccinos and lattes in Seattle, where a new coffee culture arose. The overall
number of speciality outlets in the USA has grown from 585 in 1989 to 21,400 in 2005.


Speciality coffee associations were subsequently founded in other continents, seeking to
raise standards throughout the coffee chain. They organise events such as the World Barista
Championships in which contestants must prepare an espresso, cappuccino and signature drink.
An Italian has never won the WBC.




Photos Top left:Klaus Thomsen of Denmark winning the 2006 WBC - Charles Prager
        Top right: The original Starbucks selling speciality beans 1977 - Seattle Municipal Archives
        Bottom left:Caffe Ladro, Seattle - Charles Prager       Bottom right: Latte Art - Charles Prager
12 Starbucks
                                                                                   Growth of Starbucks
                                                                                   1987           17 stores

                                                                                   1992           165

                                                                                   1997           1,412

                                                                                   2002           5,886

                                                                                   2006           11,784 (July)




Starbucks began in Seattle as a speciality bean retailer in 1971. In 1987 it was taken
over by Howard Schultz who converted it to a coffee house chain, inspired by the
‘theatre’ of bars he visited in Italy. However he changed the format to suit American
tastes, introducing takeaway service, comfortable seating, and larger cup sizes: an Italian
cappuccino is 6 fl.ozs., in Britain it is usually 8 fl.ozs., while in Starbucks the smallest is
12 fl.ozs and the largest 20 fl. ozs. The beverages taste softer and last longer,
encouraging customers to linger and sample the coffee house experience. New
espresso-based beverages were invented and given Italianate names. In 1992 the
company went public, beginning its rapid expansion to the point that today around
one in three US coffee houses is owned by Starbucks.




Photos Left: Starbucks Coffee shop, USA         Right: Starbucks Coffee shop, UK
 13 UK Coffee Shops
 The coffee shop format was imported into the UK in the 1990s. The vast majority
 were set up by small independents. In 1994 the first chains opened in London: Seattle
 (started by two former residents of that city) and Coffee Republic, founded by Bobby
 and Sahar Hashemi. 1995 saw the appearance of Caffè Nero and Puccino’s, again both
 founded by British businessmen, but this time using Italian, rather than American
 branding. Costa was also acquired by the British conglomerate Whitbread in 1995
 but continued to insist upon its Italian identity, while in 1998 Starbucks entered the
 UK market by buying up Seattle. Today Starbucks and Costa are the largest chains
 while growth is also strong in the non-specialist sector where supra-automatic
 machines are bringing the beverages to supermarket cafès and food forecourts.



 No. outlets UK Operators December 2005            UK Coffee Shops by type

                                                                    1997    2005    overall % inc.
                           Starbucks         466   Independent      3,900   4,870         25
                           Costa Coffee      405   Branded          371     2,657         616
                           Caffè Nero        248   Non-Specialist   485     1,252         158
                           Caffe Ritazza     132



                                                   TOTAL            4,756   8,779         85




Source: Allegra Strategies, Project Café 6, 2005
14 UK Coffee Culture
                                                      Frequence of Customer
                                                      visits to a coffee shop
                                                      90.0%      visit at least
                                                                 once a week

                                                      20.9%      visit on daily basis


                                                      Average length of visit
                                                      0-15 mins              12.1%
                                                      16-30 mins             49.1%
                                                      Over 30 mins           38.9%


                                                      Source: Allegra Strategies,
                                                      Project Café 6, 2005




Coffee overtook tea as the most popular beverage consumed outside the home in
the UK in 2000. British customers spend longer on the premises than American or
Italian consumers, using the shop as a social space to relax or work, to meet friends
or to conduct business meetings. The rise in working ‘from home’, the advent of the
laptop computer and wireless internet, the trend for mothers to meet outside the
home, and for breaks to be taken outside the workplace have all benefited the coffee
shop. Coffee culture began amongst young metropolitan adults, but has now been
embraced by most age groups across the country. Italian coffee remains central
to the experience: because (unlike tea) it is difficult to make at home, so appears
to justify customers paying the high prices that enable coffee shops to cover their
rents and services.




Photo Costa coffee, Soho - Charles Prager
15 Globalisation
   of Italian Coffee




Italian style coffee has now conquered much of the drinking out market in Europe.
In Germany espresso-based beverages have overtaken filter coffee, in Eastern Europe
coffee shops are presented as offering an entry point into an integrated European
culture, while in Hungary the old coffee house traditions are being revived in
contrast to the gloomy communist-era Eszpresszo bars.


Coffee shops are spreading rapidly in Asia and the Middle East where their customers
come from the new middle class, especially the young. Although western in image,
many are again run by indigenous entrepreneurs. In India, the two leading chains are
both local businesses, Barista and Café Coffee Day, which has just opened its first
European outlet in Vienna.




Photos From left to right: Restored coffee house and eszpresszo bar in Hungary - Jonathan Morris
        Café Coffee Day - Colin Smith
16 The Impact of
   Globalisation




The global spread of Italian-style coffee has been of great benefit to Italy’s coffee industry
and its consumers.While domestic consumption has stagnated, exports of roasted
espresso have risen substantially to c20% of production, and effectively subsidise prices to
the domestic consumer.The premium roaster Illy generates more earnings abroad than in
Italy, and has developed licensed café concepts to capitalise on the coffee shop phenomena.


The artisanal machine maker, La Marzocco of Florence, exports 97% of its output. Its
dual boiler machines became popular in America because they could provide the frothing
power needed in a market dominated by milky drinks. American investors now have a
controlling interest in the company. Estimates suggest that over 70% of the world’s
professional espresso machines are still ‘Made in Italy’; although in Spring 2007, it was
announced that production of Gaggia machines would move from Milan to Romania.




Photos Left: Illy licensed coffee bar - Illy    Right: Piero Bambi of La Marzocco - Jonathan Morris
17 The Project
The Cappuccino Conquests
           The Transnational History of Italian Coffee

www. Cappuccinoconquests.org.uk

Funded by the AHRC/ESRC Cultures of Consumption Programme
Director:    Professor Jonathan Morris     Researcher: Dr. Claudia Baldoli


Advisory Board                           Mr. Colin Smith
                                         President, Speciality Coffee Association of Europe,
Mr. Edward Bramah
                                         Smith’s Coffee Company Ltd,
Bramah Tea and Coffee Museum
                                         Dr. Margherita Sprio
Prof. Piero Brunello
                                         University of Essex
University of Venice
                                         Prof. Gareth Shaw
Prof. Stephen Gundle
                                         University of Exeter
Royal Holloway University
                                         Dott. Leonardo Simonelli, Mr. Barry Walker
Prof. Laura Lepschy
                                         Italian Chamber of Commerce in London
University College London.

Mr Adrian Maddox Classic Cafes

Prof. Luigi Odello, Dott. Carlo Odello
National Institute for Italian
Espresso, International Institute
of Coffee Tasters


Exhibtion Design
Matthew Bigg

Special Thanks
Enrico Maltoni and Charles Prager
Sponsored by:

								
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