Recommendations coffee machines_ by pengxiuhui

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									                                                                                                                Best Products of Europe




Coffee machines: recommendations for policy design
January 2010, Jürg Nipkow, Eric Bush, Barbara Josephy, Anette Michel.
Topten International Group TIG, Paris, www.topten.info




Content

1. Summary ............................................................................................................................................ 2
2. Overview on ongoing political instruments and initiatives ..................................................................... 3
3. Market situation in Europe................................................................................................................... 4
4. Energy consumption and saving potentials .......................................................................................... 5
5. Euro-Topten Measuring Method and Calculation Formula for the Electricity Consumption of Coffee
   Machines for Household Use ............................................................................................................. 5
   Impact and experiences with the Euro-Topten Measuring Method for Coffee Machines ...................... 6
6. Policy Recommendations for Coffee Machines ................................................................................... 7
   Appropriate implementation of Standby- and Off mode regulation ...................................................... 7
   Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) ............................................................................. 7
   Energy Label for Coffee Machines ..................................................................................................... 7
7. Infoplus .............................................................................................................................................. 8




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1. Summary
According to GfK more than 18 million coffee machines are sold in Europe every year, thereof 10 million
traditional filter coffee machines and 8 million espresso- and filter-pad machines. For comfort and quality
reasons there is a strong trend towards espresso fully automatic and an extremely strong trend towards
espresso portioned machines. However, these comfort products account for large (unnecessary) energy
losses for permanent preheating and standby modes. Thus this paper concentrates on these espresso
fully automatic and espresso portioned machines.
A coffee machine usually accounts for more electricity consumption than an energy-label-class A oven or
a class A++ refrigerator. Regarding the great differences between products and the high saving
potentials, an energy-label for coffee machines would be a very effective measure to raise efficiency of
coffee machines. In the framework of the IEE-project ‘Euro-Topten’ a measuring method and calculation
formula for the electricity consumption of coffee machines was developed. This measurement
methodology and a standard usage pattern are suggested and might be incorporated into the IEC 60661
standard and a labelling directive.
With relatively simple measures such as auto-power-down, better insulation of boilers and low standby
the energy efficiency of coffee machines can be strongly enhanced. According to measurements and
tests by Topten, the magnitude of the energy saving potential of an efficient versus a typical espresso
machine is about 120 kWh per year. If in the next years 100 million coffee machines in Europe were
replaced by energy efficiency models, every year 12’000 million kWh or 1’800 million Euro electricity
costs could be saved.
It however is of prime importance to choose appropriate measurement methods. The experiences of
Topten over several years indicate that key features such as auto-power-down with short preset delay
and insulated boilers have to be included carefully. On the other hand, effects which look important at a
first glance such as energy consumption for producing a coffee or vapour, showed to be of little relevance
but would cause measurement methods to become unreasonably complex und ineffectual in praxis. In
fact, the ‘keeping warm’ energy consumption exceeds the consumption for coffee and vapour production
by far.
Technologies for high efficiency coffee machines do exist and have been introduced on the market. By
now, a number of high efficiency models of several important coffee machine brands are available on the
European market. They are presented on www.topten.info. An energy label for coffee machines would be
appropriate and would give incentives to trade and industry to develop and offer more energy-efficient
coffee machines. Additionally, the Ecodesign regulation which is being prepared should formulate
effective minimum energy performance requirements, guided by the best products available. As a first
step, the Blue Angel will label the most energy efficient coffee machines. The energy-related criteria are
based on the measuring method developed by Euro-Topten and S.A.F.E..
The market of coffee machines in European countries is still extremely disperse, however there are
strong trends to higher sales figures and towards high end products (real espresso- and portioned
machines instead of traditional filter systems) in all countries. It is a great challenge to introduce energy
efficiency measures in a country before a boom of first equipment acquisition.




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2. Overview on current political instruments and initiatives


                   Eco-design of Energy-Using Products

                   A preparatory study regarding the eco-design of coffee machines has been
                   launched, which will propose implementing measures for coffee machines (Lot
                   25).
                   As a short time measure, auto-power-off (which avoids keeping hot of water) and
                   standby thresholds should be introduced (tier 1). Furthermore, an energy label
                   based on the well-known A-G scale should be developed.
                   In midterm minimum efficiency requirements should be upgraded according to
                   the scale of a future energy label (tier 2).

                   Additionally, coffee machines will be covered by the standby and off mode
                   regulation put in force in January 2010: products must have a standby
                   consumption of maximally 1W (2W with display) and must provide an auto
                   power-down function.
                   Implementation of this regulation for coffee machines is strongly recommended to
                   include both standby and auto-power-down, and the time lag should not exceed
                   one hour.



                   Blue Angel for coffee machines

                   The well-known German eco-label increasingly focuses on climate protection
                   and from 2009 particularly energy-efficient and climate-friendly products will also
                   be awarded. Of 100 new products to be labelled by 2012, espresso machines
                   will be among the first ten (as RAL-UZ 136, available from June 2009). The
                   energy-related award criteria for coffee machines were developed by Euro-
                   Topten.




                   Promotion programs
                      In midterm minimum efficiency requirements should be upgraded according to
                      scales of high efficiency coffee
                   Promotionof the future energy label machines according to Euro-Topten with
                   measures such as rebate programs, information campaigns, or bonus-malus
                   systems.




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3. Market situation in Europe
The following table and figures show the total sales figures of 18 European countries (AT, BE, CH, DE,
FR, GB, ES, IT, NL, PT, SE, DK, FI, GR, PL, HU, CR and SR) according to GfK.
Traditional filter coffee machines still have the highest market share (55%). There is a considerable trend
towards Espresso fully automatic and an extremely strong trend towards espresso portioned machines
(capsules and pads). Low-comfort and low quality machines (hand-operated espresso piston, pad-filters,
combis) are losing market share. The (most energy relevant) espresso- and pad-filter machines have a
market share of 43% and an actual growth of 6.9%.


Sales coffee machines [in 1000]            2006       2007 Increase
Filter                                   10‘076     10‘072     0.0%
Pad-Filter                                3‘546      3‘410    -3.8%
Espresso portioned                        1‘647      2‘356   43.1%
Espresso fully automatic                    824        870     5.5%
Espresso piston hand-operated             1‘358      1‘246    -8.2%
Combi Espresso-Filter                       312        284    -8.9%
All Coffee machines                      17‘763     18‘238     2.7%
All Espresso- and Pad-machines            7‘375      7‘882     6.9%




According to private communications from
producers the national markets differ strongly.
There are countries such as Italy, Switzerland or
Portugal with a market share of espresso
machines of more than 70%. On the other hand
countries such as Belgium, Germany or the
Netherland yet have espresso machine market
shares of less than 20%. In Belgium or the
Netherlands pad-filters are quite popular with a
market share of about 40%.

A look at the value markets reveals more:            Sales values
Assuming roughly that typical prices are 30
Euros for filter machines, 80 Euros for pad-
filters and 200 Euros for espresso machines
there evolves an opposite picture. Espresso
machines are strongly dominating the market in
sales value (see figure).




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4. Energy consumption and saving potentials
Based on diverse measurements and tests of Topten, energy consumption of a typical espresso
machines (portioned and automatic) may be assumed to be 170 kWh per year. With relatively simple
measures as auto-power-off, better insulation of boilers and low standby the energy efficiency of coffee
machines can be strongly enhanced. High efficiency espresso machines only have a consumption of
about 50 kWh per year, very high efficient capsule machines even below 40 kWh. Thus the magnitude of
the energy saving potential of efficient versus typical espresso machines is about 120 kWh per year. As a
first approach the same values are also assumed for espresso piston hand-operated, pad-filter and
traditional filter machines.

The table shows the estimated efficiency potential:
Coffee machines                       E-consumption       E-consumption           Efficiency
in Europe                          for typical models for Topten models            Potential
                         Units                 kWh/a             kWh/a                kWh/a
Sales per year           20 Mio             3'400 Mio           1'000 Mio         2'400 Mio
Stock                   100 Mio           17'000 Mio            5'000 Mio        12'000 Mio


The stock of coffee machines in Europe is estimated at 100 million units consuming 17’000 million kWh
per year causing electricity costs of about 2’500 million Euros. Roughly 20 million coffee machines are
sold per year. If in the near future the entire European coffee machine stock was replaced by energy
efficient models, each year 12’000 million kWh or 1’800 million Euro electricity costs could be saved.



5. Euro-Topten Measuring Method and Calculation Formula for the Electricity
   Consumption of Coffee Machines for Household Use
The Euro-Topten measuring method identifies the annual electricity consumption of bean-to-cup as well
as pad & capsule coffee and espresso machines. The measuring method covers the operating modes
ready (water is kept at temperature for an immediate cup of coffee), standby (water is not kept at
temperature) and off. Coffee machines with or without auto-power-down as well as models with or without
regular ready mode (e.g. with flow-type heater) can be measured.

The aim of the present measuring method is to identify the total energy consumption (TEC) for the typical
use of the machine during 1 year, as it is described under ‘Standard use’. This includes the keeping hot of
the coffee machine for a certain time (ready mode consumption) as well as the standby mode. The
production of coffee is not measured, but is accounted for with a standard value, as it requires relatively
little energy and the difference from one machine to another is minimal.
The particular reasons not to include the coffee production are the following:
1. The energy consumption of the production mainly depends on the user’s demands and the according
   use patterns. The degree of efficiency of the production does have a certain influence, too, but it also
   correlates well with the ‘On’ consumption, which is being considered in the Euro-Topten measuring
   method. Assuming a typical coffee consumption of 2’190 cups per year (according to Euro-Topten
   standard use) the theoretical energy consumption for the production accounts for less than 50% of
   the annual energy consumption of the most efficient coffee machines, and even for less than ¼ in the
   case of typical machines.
2. The measurement of the energy consumption for production of coffee and vapour is extremely
   complex because very precise measurements of temperatures, quantities and time frames are
   necessary. It has to be considered, that coffee machines do re-heat after production of coffee or
   vapour which can need up to one minute. Furthermore the measured energy depends on the

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    temperature of the boiler which depends on the random time lag since the last heating pulse. The
    procedure would need a multitude of precisely defined steps and tolerances.
3. The complexity of measurements of production energy would not only for the producers be a costly
   burden. Most notably it would be a problem for controlling. Considering costs, risks with tolerance
   difficulties the controlling one another between manufacturers probably would not really work and
   also official spot checks would be extremely expensive. In contrast measurements according to the
   methods of Euro-Topten are proved and tested.
4. New models of high-end coffee machines offer more and more special functions for preparation of
   milk; the trends are hardly ever predictable. It seems impossible to handle these extensions with
   schematic methods of measurement even including correction factors. On the other hand
   measurement of ready and standby consumption with factory settings is clear and easy.
This is why many producers and test laboratories appreciate the measurement methods of Euro-Topten
which excludes measurement of production processes. The energy-related criteria of the Blue Angel for
coffee machines are based on the Euro-Topten measuring method.


Impact and experiences with the Euro-Topten Measuring Method for Coffee Machines

•       Best Products of Europe: Presentation of the most energy-efficient coffee machines on the
        European market (www.topten.info, 10 models of five brands, January 2010). Best Products of
        Europe is an aggregation of all national Topten-projects and displays the very best products all
        over Europe.

•       Topten Switzerland: Presentation of the most energy-efficient coffee machines on the Swiss
        market (www.topten.ch, 30 models of eleven brands, January 2010). The selection criteria on
        national Topten sites are still less stringent than on the European site www.topten.info.

•       Austrian Energy Agency AEA: Presentation of the most energy-efficient coffee machines on the
        Austrian market (www.topprodukte.at, 22 models of 10 brands, January 2010). The selection
        criteria on national Topten sites are still less stringent than on the European site www.topten.info.

•       Most important Swiss retailers: Coop bases its label ‘Oecoplan’ for high efficiency coffee
        machines on Euro-Topten selection criteria and measuring method. As from summer 2009
        Migros is distinguishing Topten-Coffee machines at the point of sale as Topten-products.

•       Over 30 energy consumption testings of coffee machines by order of retailers, environmental
        organizations and producers of coffee machines.

•       German Energy Agency (dena): International competition and award of the most efficient coffee
        machines at the Domotechnica/Koelnmesse, February 2008. The award winners were Jura ENA
        5 Blossom White and WIK Elektro-Hausgeräte CremAroma CAM 50D (=Satrap in Switzerland).

•       European Commission: Award of the most efficient coffee machine at the Klagenfurt Fair in the
        framework of the ‘Euro-Topten Product Exhibition and Competition’, September 2008. The award
        winner was Jura ENA 5

•       Promotion programs of Swiss electrical utilities to increase the market share of high efficiency coffee
        machines: Zurich Municipal Electric Utility ewz (since autumn 2007), Berne Municipal Electric
        Utility ewb (June 2009), Electric Utility Tamins ewt (since 2008), Basel Municipal Electric Utility iwb
        (during spring 2008).

•       Euro-Topten and the Blue Angel have defined energy-related criteria for coffee machines. In order to
        be labeled by the Blue Angel, among other criteria coffee machines must include an auto-power-down
        function with a maximum time lag of 1 hour, consume no more than 1.0W in standby mode, have a
        mains switch and a maximum power consumption in ready mode of 35 Wh (fully automatic, piston


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        hand-operated) or 30 Wh (capsule and pad machines). The ready mode power consumption is defined
        and measured according to the Euro-Topten measuring method.


6. Policy Recommendations for Coffee Machines
Policy measures are needed to realize the electricity saving potential of 12000 Mio kWh per year of
coffee machines. The Standby- and off mode regulation, which will be put in force in January 2010, must
be implemented appropriately in the case of coffee machines. Furthermore, minimum energy
performance standards (MEPS) and an energy label for coffee machines should be established.

Appropriate implementation of Standby- and Off mode regulation
In January 2010 the ‘horizontal’ (covering all products) Ecodesign Standby- and Off mode regulation will
be put in force and require also coffee machines to have a standby consumption of no more than 1W (2W
with display).
In phase II- from January 2013 – Energy using products must have a power management function
switching to a standby or off mode ‘after the shortest possible period of time appropriate for the intended
use of the equipment’: for coffee machines, this time lag must be defined as maximally one hour.

Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS)
The Ecodesign of EuP preparatory study regarding coffee machines (Lot 25) has been launched, which
will propose implementing measures to limit the environmental impact of household coffee machines.
Effective measures should include strict MEPS targeting the coffee machines’ ready and standby modes.
Maximum energy consumption limits should be guided by the most efficient products on the market:
     - Ready mode (coffee period according to Euro-Topten measuring method):
            o Tier 1
                35 Wh: fully automatic, piston hand-operated coffee machines
                30 Wh: capsule and pad coffee machines
            o Tier 2
                More stringent criteria, according to market development
     - Standby: 1.0 W
     - Auto-power-down: time lag must not exceed 1 hour.

The Lot 25 preparatory study should profit of the preliminary work done by Euro-Topten and the Blue
Angel and use the measuring method and criteria as a basis.


Energy Label for Coffee Machines
Standards for coffee machines should be designed on the basis of the preliminary work of Euro-Topten
and the Blue Angel and should be incorporated into the standard IEC 60661. An energy label for coffee
machines should be established. An EU-energy label for coffee machines would be a very effective
measure to raise efficiency and would give incentives to industry and trade to develop and offer energy-
efficient coffee machines.




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7. Infoplus
    Publications
    •   Strategies to Enhance Energy Efficiency of Coffee Machines. Eric Bush, Jürg Nipkow, Barbara
        Josephy, Susanne Heutling and Rainer Griesshammer (Topten International Group TIG, Swiss
        Agency for Efficient Energy Use S.A.F.E., , Oeko-Institute). EEDAL-Conference, Berlin 2009.
    •   Energy label for coffee machines. Jürg Nipkow and Eric Bush (S.A.F.E.). EEDAL-Conference,
        London 2006.
    •   Standby consumption of houshold appliances. Jürg Nipkow and Eric Bush (S.A.F.E.) on behalf of
        the SFOE Swiss Federal Office of Energy 2003.

Standards and Labels
   • Measuring Method and Calculation Formula for the Electricity Consumption of Coffee Machines
                                                         th
       for Household Use. Euro-Topten and S.A.F.E., May 9 2009.
       www.topten.info/uploads/images/upload/Measuring%20Method%20Coffeemachines-090509.pdf
    •   Spreadsheet form allowing an easy calculation of the energy consumption according to the
        typical usage pattern (as described in the Measuring Method and Calculation Formula for the
        Electricity Consumption of Coffee Machines for Household Use by Euro-Topten and S.A.F.E.,
        May 9th 2009.)
    •   The Blue Angel: RAL-UZ 136: Espressomaschinen / Kaffeemaschinen mit hohem Druck.
        Vergabegrundlage für Umweltzeichen. June 2009. Previously unreleased.
    •   IEC. Methods for measuring the performance of electric household coffee makers, international
        standard IEC 60661, Ed. 2.2, 2006-02
    •   Ecodesign regulation for standby and off mode consumption:
        http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:339:0045:0052:EN:PDF


Institutions and initiatives
    •   CECED: European Committee of Manufacturers of Domestic Equipment , Brussels, Belgium
        www.ceced.org/
    •   GfK Group, Nürnberg, Germany: www.gfk.com/
    •   S.A.F.E. Swiss Agency for Efficient Energy Use, Zürich, Switzerland: www.energieeffizienz.ch
    •   S.A.L.T. Swiss Alpine Laboratories for Testing of Energy Efficiency, Chur, Switzerland:
        www.salt.ch
    •   The Blue Angel / Der Blaue Engel – The world’s oldest and most well-known eco-label:
        www.blauer-engel.de/en/
    •   Rebate and promotion program for high efficiency coffee machines of Zurich by ewz (in German):
        www.stadt-
        zuerich.ch/internet/ewz/home/medien/medieninformationen/2007/kaffeemaschinen.html
    •   European Comission: Directorate-General for Energy and Transport, Brussels, Belgium:
        http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/energy_transport/index_en.htm
    •   Eco-design of Energy-Using Products: :
        http://ec.europa.eu/energy/demand/legislation/eco_design_en.htm
        http://www.ecodesign-info.eu/
    •   Odyssee, Energy Efficiency Indicators in Europe : www.odyssee-indicators.org/
    •   Topten: www.topten.info



__________________________________________________________________________________
January 2010, Jürg Nipkow, Eric Bush, Barbara Josephy, Anette Michel. Topten International Group TIG,
Paris, www.topten.info

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