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AP_Psychology_Midterm_Review_Questions - The Bronx High School of

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					1.   Professor McClure believes that young children are            8.   Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results
     frequently able to make morally correct decisions because          primarily from an unbalanced diet and abnormal brain
     humans are endowed with an inborn knowledge of basic               chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ___ perspective on
     ethical principles. The professor’s belief is most                 depression.
     consistent with the view of:                                           a. Neuroscience
          a. Aristotle                                                      b. Social-cultural
          b. Plato                                                          c. Psychodynamic
          c. John Locke                                                     d. Behavior genetics
          d. Francis Bacon                                                  e. Cognitive
          e. Democritus
                                                                   9.   Mrs. Alfieri believes that her husband’s irritability toward
2.   Research participants were asked to monitor and report             her results from his unconscious feelings of hostility
     their own immediate sensory reactions to differently               toward his own mother. Mrs. Alfieri is interpreting her
     colored objects. This research involved a technique                husband’s behavior from a(n) ___ perspective.
     known as:                                                               a. Evolutionary
          a. PRTR                                                            b. Behavioral
          b. Behavior genetics                                               c. Psychodynamic
          c. Psychoanalysis                                                  d. Behavior genetics
          d. Massed practice                                                 e. Social-cultural
          e. Introspection
                                                                   10. Although Paul seems bright and capable to his parents
3.   The unreliability of introspection contributed to the             and friends, he has been failing in school. Paul agrees to
     waning popularity of:                                             speak with a psychologist, who suggests that his problems
         a. Structuralism                                              stem from internal processes such as unrealistic
         b. Pragmatism                                                 expectations and negative thinking. The psychologist’s
         c. Empiricism                                                 view is typical of which of the following models of
         d. Behaviorism                                                behavior?
         e. Psychoanalysis                                                 a. Psychoanalytic
                                                                           b. Humanistic
4.   Contemporary psychology is best defined as the science                c. Cognitive
     of:                                                                   d. Sociobiological
         a. Conscious and unconscious mental activity                      e. Behavioral
         b. Observable responses to the environment
         c. Behavior and mental processes                          11. Mrs. Thompson believes that her son has become an
         d. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions                        excellent student because she consistently uses praise and
         e. Maladaptive and adaptive behaviors                         affection to stimulate his learning efforts. Her belief best
                                                                       illustrates a ___ perspective.
5.   Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is            a. Behavior genetics
     more heavily influenced by their genetic dispositions or               b. Cognitive
     by their home environments are most directly relevant to               c. Neuroscience
     the debate regarding:                                                  d. Psychodynamic
          a. Structuralism versus functionalism.                            e. Behavioral
          b. Rationality versus irrationality.
          c. Observation versus introspection.                     12. In a written report of their research, psychologists specify
          d. Psychoanalysis versus associationism                      exactly how anxiety is assessed, thus providing their
          e. Nature versus nurture.                                    readers with a(n):
                                                                            a. Hypothesis
6.   The neuroscience perspective in psychology would be                    b. Independent variable
     most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by:               c. Operational definition
         a. Environmental circumstances.                                    d. Standard deviation
         b. Blood chemistry.                                                e. Confounding variable
         c. Unconscious conflicts.
         d. Subjective interpretations.                            13. The most distinctive characteristic of the experimental
         e. Rewards and punishments                                    method is that it
                                                                           a. Studies a few people in great depth
7.   Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall                b. Studies subjects in their natural environment
     and physically strong partners because this preference                c. Is an efficient way to discover how people feel
     enhanced the reproductive success of our female                       d. Seeks to establish cause-effect relationships
     ancestors. This viewpoint best illustrate the ____                    e. Provides a chronological basis for reaching
     perspective.                                                              conclusions
         a. Social-cultural
         b. Behavioral                                             14. A double-blind control is essential for which of the
         c. Cognitive                                                  following?
         d. Evolutionary                                                    a. A study comparing the IQ test scores of children
         e. Psychodynamic                                                      from different educational systems
        b.  A study of relationships among family members                c.   Axon
        c.  An experiment to determine the effect of a food              d.   Myelin sheath
            reward on the bar-pressing rate of a rat                     e.   Nucleus
        d. Assessment of a treatment designed to reduce
            schizophrenic symptoms                               22. Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor
        e. A survey of drug use among teenagers.                     activity for the neurotransmitter:
15. The case study is a research method in which:                         a. Dopamine
        a. A single individual is studied in great depth                  b. Epinephrine
        b. A representative sample of people are questioned               c. Acetylcholine
            regarding their opinions or behaviors                         d. Serotonin
        c. Organisms are carefully observed in a laboratory               e. GABA
            environment
        d. An investigator manipulates one or more               23. An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to:
            variables that might affect behavior                         a. Alzheimer’s disease
        e. A cross-section of the population is compared                 b. Schizophrenia
                                                                         c. Parkinson’s disease
16. Jeff mistakenly assumes that everybody around him                    d. Depression
    enjoys listening to country music just as much as he does.           e. Multiple Sclerosis
    Jeff best illustrates:
         a. the false consensus effect                           24. Epinephrine is to hormone as acetylcholine is to:
         b. the hindsight bias                                           a. Synapse
         c. an illusion of control                                       b. Action potential
         d. the placebo effect                                           c. Endorphin
         e. stereotyping                                                 d. Neurotransmitter
                                                                         e. Glial cell
17. The function of dendrites is to:
       a. Receive incoming signals from other neurons            25. Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes
       b. Release neurotransmitters into the spatial                 paralysis by blocking the release of:
            junctions between neurons                                    a. Endorphins
       c. Coordinate the activation of the parasympathetic               b. Epinephrine
            and sympathetic nervous systems                              c. Acetylcholine
       d. Control pain though the release of opiate like                 d. Dopamine
            chemicals into the brain                                     e. GABA
       e. Determine when additional hormones are
            required in the bloodstream                          26. Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to
                                                                     muscles in your hands by the ___ nervous system.
18. The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased            a. Central
    when the axon is encased by a(n):                                   b. Peripheral
       a. Association area                                              c. Parasympathetic
       b. Myelin sheath                                                 d. Sympathetic
       c. Endocrine gland                                               e. Autonomic
       d. Glial cell                                             27. Neural networks refer to:
       e. Synaptic vesicle                                              a. The branching extensions of a neuron
                                                                        b. Functionally interconnected clusters of neurons
19. An action potential is generated by the movement of:                      in the central nervous system
        a. Glial cells                                                  c. Neural cables containing many axons
        b. Hormones                                                     d. Junctions between sending and receiving
        c. Vesicles                                                           neurons
        d. Ions                                                         e. Neurons that connect the central nervous system
        e. Neurotransmitters                                                  to the rest of the body

20. Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took          28. In order to identify which of Lucy’s brain areas was most
    more time to travel a neural pathway than he might have          active when she talked neuroscientist gave her a
    anticipated. His observation provided evidence for the           temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a(n):
    existence of:                                                         a. CT scan
         a. Association areas                                             b. PET scan
         b. Glial cells                                                   c. EEG
         c. Synaptic gaps                                                 d. MRI
         d. Interneurons                                                  e. FMRI
         e. Neural networks
                                                                 29. Which of the following is a brain-imaging technique that
21. Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located in          produces the most detailed picture of brain structure?
    knoblike terminals on the:                                           a. EEG
        a. Dendrites                                                     b. MRI
        b. Soma                                                          c. PET
         d.   CT                                                           d.   Hypothalamus
         e.   EMG                                                          e.   Broca’s area

30. The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and         38. After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore’s physical
    breathing is called the:                                          coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory
        a. Cerebellum                                                 stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately,
        b. Medulla                                                    however, he began to experience unusual difficulty in
        c. Reticular formation                                        scheduling his daily activities and solving simple
        d. Thalamus                                                   problems. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered
        e. Pons                                                       damage to his:
                                                                          a. Cerebellum
31. The thalamus processes information for all of the                     b. Thalamus
    following senses EXCEPT                                               c. Hypothalamus
         a. Smell                                                         d. Autonomic nervous system
         b. Hearing                                                       e. Association areas
         c. Taste
         d. Vision                                                39. Which of the following parts of the brain is most active
         e. touch                                                     in decision-making?
                                                                           a. Reticular formation
32. A brain tumor that results in obesity would most likely be             b. Corpus callosum
    located in the                                                         c. Hypothalamus
        a. Left frontal lobe                                               d. Cerebral cortex
        b. Base of the brain stem                                          e. Pituitary gland
        c. Area of the hypothalamus
        d. Reticular activating system                            40. After a severe hockey injury, Louis lost his ability to read,
        e. Somatosensory cortex                                       even though he could see well, speak fluently, and
                                                                      understand whatever others said. It is likely that his
33. Severing a cat’s reticular formation from higher brain            cortex was damaged in:
    regions causes the cat to:                                             a. The angular gyrus
         a. Become violently aggressive                                    b. Wernicke’s area
         b. Cower in fear                                                  c. The frontal lobe
         c. Experience convulsive seizures                                 d. Broca’s area
         d. Lapse into a coma                                              e. Somatosensory cortex
         e. Become sexually preoccupied
                                                                  41. The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly
34. Phineas Gage showed severe personality changes                    demonstrated in:
    following an accident that damaged the                               a. Children who have had a cerebral hemisphere
         a. Cerebellum                                                        surgically removed
         b. Temporal cortex                                              b. Individuals with Alzheimer’s disease
         c. Hypothalamus                                                 c. Adults with aphasia
         d. Hippocampus                                                  d. Elderly stroke patients
         e. Prefrontal cortex                                            e. People free of any disease or brain damage

35. The language disorder in which speech flows smoothly          42. The human genome is the complete
    as a nonsensical “word salad” is:                                    a. Set of human sexual characteristics regulated by
         a. Broca’s aphasia                                                  the X and Y chromosomes
         b. Wernicke’s aphasia                                           b. Range of traits that contribute to reproductive
         c. Apraxia                                                          success
         d. The split-brain syndrome                                     c. Sequence of nucleotides organized as coiled
         e. Brain lesion                                                     chains of DNA
                                                                         d. Sequence of DNA organized within the
36. Which of the following areas of the body has the largest                 chromosomes
    number of sensory neurons?                                           e. Cascade of interactions between genetic
       a. Back                                                               predispositions and surrounding environments
       b. Foot
       c. Ear
       d. Lips
       e. Wrist                                                   43. Human genetic diversity consists of the variations in the
                                                                      sequence of our
37. The experience of auditory hallucinations by people with              a. Nucleotides
    schizophrenia is most closely linked with the activation of           b. Synapses
    areas in their:                                                       c. Memes
        a. Motor cortex                                                   d. Gender schemas
        b. Wernicke’s area                                                e. Hormones
        c. Temporal lobes
44. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to                      e.   A person’s identification with the parent of the
    predict that                                                                 opposite sex
        a. Fathers are more protective of their children than
              mothers                                              56. Gender role refers to
        b. Mothers are more protective of their children                  a. One’s biological sex
              than fathers                                                b. The sense of being male or female
        c. People are the most romantically attracted to                  c. The set of expected behaviors for males and
              those who are the most genetically dissimilar to                females
              themselves                                                  d. The sense of being homosexual or heterosexual
        d. Genetic predispositions have little effect on our              e. How masculine a boy is or how feminine a girl is
              social relationships
        e. Children are not likely to be abused by their
              biological parents                                   57. The practice of covering your mouth when you yawn best
                                                                       illustrates the impact of
45. Men judge women as especially attractive if they appear                 a. Genetic predispositions
    __________ and women judge men as especially                            b. Roles
    attractive if they appear __________.                                   c. Gender schemas
         a. Mature; mature                                                  d. Personal space
         b. Youthful; youthful                                              e. Norms
         c. Mature;’ youthful
         d. Youthful; mature                                       58. Genetic influences on personality traits are most clearly
         e. Successful; mature                                         highlighted by comparing __________ with __________,
                                                                           a. Identical twins raised together; identical twins
46. A child’s temperament is likely to be                                       raised apart
       a. Difficult to observe                                             b. Fraternal twins raised together; fraternal twins
       b. Stable over time                                                      raised apart
       c. A product of parenting style                                     c. Identical twins raised together; fraternal twins
       d. A reflection of their gender schemas                                  raised together
       e. Changing according to stages of development                      d. Identical twins raised apart; fraternal twins raised
                                                                                together
47. For children from impoverished environments,                           e. Fraternal twins raised apart; fraternal twins
    stimulating educational experiences during early                            raised together
    childhood are most likely to
         a. Facilitate the development of nucleotides              59. Our selective exposure to those life experiences that are
         b. Decrease their emotional attachment to their own           best suited to our unique temperaments best illustrates the
             parents                                                   interaction of
         c. Have no discernable effect on subsequent                        a. Roles and norms
             academic performance                                           b. Nature and nurture
         d. Prevent the degeneration of activated                           c. Schemas and memes
             connections between neurons                                    d. Neural connections and maturation
         e. All of the above                                                e. Gender and ethnicity

48. It has been suggested that our sensitivity to peer influence   60. The smallest unit of meaning in a language are
    is genetically predisposed because it has facilitated the             a. Phonemes
    process of human mating. This suggestion best illustrates             b. Phenomes
         a. Gender schema theory                                          c. Morphemes
         b. Freudian psychology                                           d. Morphines
         c. Molecular genetics                                            e. Pheromones
         d. An evolutionary perspective
         e. Behavior genetics                                      61. In the Harlow study of emotional attachment, infant
                                                                       monkeys were placed in a cage and given both a “wire”
54. A cluster of behaviors expected of those who occupy a              mother and a “cloth” mother. Researchers then moved a
    particular social position is a                                    bottle of milk from one mother to the other while
         a. Norm                                                       introducing various stimuli to see if the monkey would
         b. Role                                                       form attachment to either of the “mothers.” In this
         c. Schema                                                     experiment, the independent variable is
         d. Meme                                                            a. The placement of the bottle of milk
         e. Culture                                                         b. The “wire” mother versus the “cloth” mother
                                                                            c. The preference of the infants for the “wire”
55. Gender identify refers to                                                    mother
       a. One’s biological sex                                              d. The preference of the infants for the “cloth”
       b. The sense of being male or female                                      mother
       c. The set of expected behaviors for males and                       e. The preference of the infants for the source of
            females                                                              milk
       d. How masculine a boy is or how feminine a girl is
62. In the above example, the dependent variable is                69. A baby looks under the sofa for a ball that has just rolled
         a. The placement of the bottle of milk                        underneath it. According to Piaget, the baby’s action
         b. The “wire” mother versus the “cloth” mother                shows development of
         c. The various stimuli introduced to the infant                   a. Conservation of mass
             monkeys                                                       b. Reversibility
         d. The preference of the infants for the “cloth”                  c. Object permanence
             mother                                                        d. Logical thinking
         e. The preference of the infants for the source of                e. Metacognition
             milk
                                                                   70. Mary Ainswothr’s Strange Situation paradigm is typically
                                                                       used to test young children’s
63. All of the following are stages in the development of                  a. Ego strength
    language that children of virtually every culture go                   b. Intelligence
    through EXCEPT                                                         c. Reaction time
         a. Babbling                                                       d. Incidental learning
         b. Grammatical speech                                             e. Attachment
         c. Telegraphic speech
         d. One-word sentences                                     71. Noam Chomsky’s view of language proposes that
         e. Introductive speech                                           a. There is an inherent language acquisition device
                                                                          b. Thinking is merely subvocal language
64. The rules that govern the placement of words and phrases              c. Different levels of language ability are
    in a sentence are called                                                 hereditarily determined
         a. Semantics                                                     d. Language acquisition can be explained by social
         b. Grammar                                                          modeling
         c. Syntax                                                        e. Language is learned principally through verbal
         d. Phonemes                                                         reinforcement
         e. Morphemes
                                                                   72. The most well-adjusted and socially competent children
65. Piaget proposed that children develop knowledge by                 tend to come from home where parents employ which of
        a. Constructing reality out of their own experiences           the following parental styles?
        b. Participating in traditional learning environments               a. Minimal supervision
        c. Responding to physiological changes                              b. Authoritarian
        d. Modeling various cultural influences                             c. Authoritative
        e. Drawing on genetically predisposed knowledge                     d. Indulgent
                                                                            e. Permissive
66.     14-mont-old toddler is placed in an unfamiliar situation
      with the child’s mother, who then leaves the room for a      73. Our readiness to learn walking at about age 1 represents
      time. When the mother returns, the child squirms and             the development of
      tries to get away from the mother when picked up, but                 a. The cerebellum
      also seems distressed when placed back on the floor.                  b. The cerebral cortex
      Mary Ainsworth would consider this evidence of which of               c. Object permanence
      the following?                                                        d. Reflexive balance
           a. Hyperactivity                                                 e. Sensorimotor skills
           b. Narcissistic personality type
           c. Resistant or ambivalent attachment style             74. If research suggested that a prenatal mother’s use of an
           d. Avoidance                                                artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial
           e. Secure attachment style                                  sweetener would be considered a(n)
                                                                             a. FAS
67. Which Piagetian stage of cognitive development is                        b. Forma of DNA
    characterized by mastery of conservation tasks?                          c. Depressant
        a. Sensorimotor                                                      d. Teratogen
        b. Preoperational                                                    e. Neurotransmitter
        c. Concrete operations
        d. Formal operations                                       75. The rooting reflex refers to a baby’s tendency to
        e. Tertiary circular reactions                                     a. Withdraw a limb to escape pain
                                                                           b. Turn the head away from a cloth placed over the
68. The rules of grammar are rules of                                           face
        a. Phonemes                                                        c. Look longer at human faces than at inanimate
        b. Morphemes                                                            objects
        c. Semantics                                                       d. Be startled by a loud noise
        d. Syntax                                                          e. Open the mouth in search of a nipple when
        e. Pragmatics                                                           touched on the cheek
76. Habituation refers to the                                             d.   Late adulthood
       a. Awareness that things continue to exist even                    e.   Middle adulthood
             when not perceived
       b. Decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to             83. Alzheimer’s disease involves a deterioration of neurons
             which one is repeatedly exposed                         that produce
       c. Adjustment of current schemas to make sense of                  a. Dopamine
             new information                                              b. Estrogen
       d. Interpretation of new information in terms of                   c. Acetylcholine
             existing schemas                                             d. Serotonin
       e. Biological growth processes that are relatively                 e. Epinephrine
             uninfluenced by experience
                                                                 84. Three-month-old Andrew was obviously startled by the
77. Four-year-old Karen can’t remember anything of the first         first ring of the telephone, but with each subsequent ring
    few months of her life. This is best explained by the fact       he seemed to become less reactive. This best illustrates
    that                                                             the process of
         a. The trauma of birth interfered with the                        a. Accommodation
            subsequent formation of memories                               b. Assimilation
         b. Most brain cells do not yet exist at the time of               c. Conservation
            birth                                                          d. Habituation
         c. Experiences shortly after birth are a meaningless              e. Imprinting
            blur of darkness and light
         d. Many neural connection that underlie memories        85. Giulio’s bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim’s. If it
            are only beginning to form shortly after birth           takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim’s bag feel heavier, it
         e. Early memories are repressed                             will take 10 extra marbles to make Giulio’s bag feel
                                                                     heavier. This best illustrates:
78. Mr. And Mrs. Batson can’t wait to begin toilet training               a. the opponent-process theory
    their one-year-old daughter. The Batson most clearly                  b. accommodation
    need to be informed about the importance of                           c. frequency theory
         a. Imprinting                                                    d. sensory adaptation
         b. Habituation                                                   e. Weber’s law
         c. Fluid intelligence
         d. Maturation readiness                                 86. Sensory adaptation refers to:
         e. Object permanence                                           a. the process by which stimulus energies are
                                                                             changed into neural impulses.
79. The body structures that enable reproduction are the                b. Diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging
       a. Primary sex characteristics                                        stimulus
       b. Secondary sex characteristics                                 c. The process of selecting, organizing, and
       c. Teratogens                                                         interpreting sensory information
       d. Sex-linked genes                                              d. Changes in the shape of the lens as it focuses on
       e. Gender schemas                                                     objects
                                                                        e. The heightening of one sense to compensate for
80. According to Erikson, adolescence is to identity as late                 a decrease in another one
    adulthood is to
        a. Integrity                                             87. The constant quivering movements of our eyes are
        b. Autonomy                                                  necessary in order to:
        c. Generativity                                                  a. facilitate the process of accommodation
        d. Intimacy                                                      b. illuminate the entire retina
        e. Trust                                                         c. minimize sensory adaptation
                                                                         d. do all of the above
81. Sixteen-year-old Brenda questions her parents’ values but            e. enable the ganglion cells to efficiently fire
    does not fully accept her friends’ standard either. Her
    confusion about twhat she really wants and values in life    88. The process by which our sensory systems convert
    suggests that Brenda is struggling with the problem of           stimulus energies into neural messages is called:
        a. Autonomy                                                      a. Accommodation
        b. Identity                                                      b. sensory adaptation
        c. Initiative                                                    c. transduction
        d. Integrity                                                     d. parallel processing
        e. Generativity                                                  e. sensory interaction

82. Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction       89. The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Weisel
    time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their           consist of:
    peak during                                                          a. nerve cells in the brain
        a. Late adolescence                                              b. rods and cones
        b. Early adulthood                                               c. bipolar cells
        c. Puberty                                                       d. ganglion cells
         e.   olfactory receptor cells                                      a.   Locke
                                                                            b.   Kant
90. The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness,              c.   Freud
    melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates:                         d.   Aristotle
        a. sensory interaction                                              e.   Watson
        b. kinesthesis
        c. accommodation                                           98. Which of the following cues do artists use to convey
        d. subliminal perception                                       depth on a flat canvas?
        e. parallel processing                                             a. Convergence
                                                                           b. Continuity
91. Of the four distinct skin senses, specialized receptor cells           c. Interposition
    have been identified for the sense of:                                 d. Closure
        a. pressure                                                        e. all of the above
        b. pain
        c. warmth                                                  99. Which of the following cues is most essential to the
        d. cold                                                        perception of depth in the visual cliff?
        e. hot                                                             a. texture gradient
                                                                           b. interposition
92. The opponent-process theory is to our sense of color as                c. stroboscopic movement
    the gate-control theory is to our sense of:                            d. connectedness
         a. pitch                                                          e. stereopsis
         b. smell
         c. equilibrium                                            100. The sequentially flashing Christmas tree lights appeared
         d. kinesthesis                                                to generate pulsating waves of motion. This best
         e. pain                                                       illustrates:
                                                                            a. Stroboscopic movement
93. When there is a conflict between bits of information                    b. retinal disparity
    received by two or more senses, which sense tends to                    c. the phi phenomenon
    dominate the others?                                                    d. visual capture
        a. Hearing                                                          e. perceptual adaptation
        b. Vision
        c. Smell                                                   101. Although college textbooks frequently cast a trapezoidal
        d. Touch                                                        image on the retina, students typically perceive the books
        e. none of the above; the senses work together as               as rectangular objects. This illustrates the importance of:
             equal partners                                                  a. Interposition
                                                                             b. size constancy
94. The cocktail party effect provides an example of:                        c. linear perspective
        a. perceptual constancy.                                             d. shape constancy
        b. Perceptual set.                                                   e. binocular cues
        c. Selective attention.
        d. The phi phenomenon.                                     102. Of two identical horizontal bars in the Ponzo illusion, the
        e. Perceptual adaptation.                                       bar that is ___ in the visual field appears to be ___
                                                                        because it appears to be farther away.
95. The principles of connectedness and closure best illustrate              a. higher; shorter
    that:                                                                    b. lower; shorter
          a. sensations are organized into meaningful patterns               c. higher; longer
             (Gestalt)                                                       d. lower; longer
          b. perception is the direct product of sensation                   e. none of the above; the Ponzo illusion deals with
          c. cultural experiences shape perception                                arrows
          d. visual information is especially likely to capture
             our attention                                         103. Consciousness is to subconsciousness as ___ is to ___.
          e. perceptual systems use the Geon theory to build              a. monism; dualism
             a three dimensional world                                    b. serial processing; parallel processing
                                                                          c. narcolepsy; sleep apnea
96. Holding two index fingers in front of the eyes can create             d. latent content; manifest content
    the perception of a floating finger sausage. This best                e. delta wave; alpha wave
    illustrates the effect of:
         a. Convergence                                            104. Studies of daydreaming indicate that:
         b. relative clarity                                               a. for most people, daydreaming is a rare
         c. retinal disparity                                                   occurrence
         d. interposition                                                  b. older adults spend more time daydreaming than
         e. visual capture                                                      do younger adults
                                                                           c. among college students, women’s daydreams
97. The ability of newly hatched chicks to perceive depth best                  have more athletic content than do men’s
    serves to support the views of:
         d.   individuals who are prone to violence,                       e.   60 minutes
              delinquency, and foul language have fewer vivid
              fantasies                                           112. During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr.
         e.   none of the above, day dreams are insignificant          Reid suddenly lapsed into a state of REM sleep. Mr. Reid
              in consciousness                                         apparently suffers from:
                                                                           a. Narcolepsy
105. Those who emphasize that mood fluctuations may be                     b. Insomnia
     indicative of seasonal affective disorder are highlighting            c. sleep apnea
     the importance of:                                                    d. REM rebound
          a. the menstrual cycle                                           e. Sleepwalking
          b. dissociation
          c. REM sleep                                            113. Mr. Oates always sleeps restlessly, snorting and gasping
          d. Biological rhythms                                        throughout the night. It is most likely that Mr. Oates
          e. Narcolepsy                                                suffers from:
                                                                            a. sleep apnea
106. False sensory experiences that occur in the absence of                 b. narcolepsy
     appropriate sensory stimulation are called:                            c. night terror
         a. night terrors                                                   d. insomnia
         b. dreams                                                          e. sleep talking
         c. psychedelics
         d. dissociations                                         114. Greg remembered a recent dream in which his girlfriend
         e. hallucinations                                             suddenly grabbed the wheel of his speeding car to prevent
                                                                       him from driving off the edge of a cliff. Greg’s therapist
107. The rhythmic burst of brain activity that occur during            suggested that the dream might be a representation of the
     Stage 2 sleep are called:                                         girlfriend’s frantic efforts to save the couple from sexual
         a. alpha waves                                                disaster. According to Freud, the therapist was attempting
         b. paradoxical sleep                                          to reveal the ___ of Greg’s dream.
         c. sleep spindles                                                  a. REM content
         d. delta waves                                                     b. Circadian rhythm
         e. K complexes                                                     c. Latent content
                                                                            d. Manifest content
108. Which of the following is a circadian rhythm?                          e. EEG pattern
       a. The ebb and flow of an individual’s emotions
           during a 24 hour period                                115. Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of
       b. Jet lag experienced after an airline flight from             recent life events through:
           Los Angeles to Tokyo                                            a. Dissociation
       c. A cycle of biological functioning that lasts about               b. sleep apnea
           25 hours with no light cues                                     c. night terrors
       d. The series of five stages that people go through                 d. REM sleep
           during a normal night’s sleep                                   e. Sleep cycles
       e. The systematic alternation between alpha waves
           and delta waves during the different sleep stages      116. Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses
                                                                       to random bursts of neural stimulation?
109. Sigmund Freud referred to dreaming as the                              a. dissociation theory
         a. key to the kingdom                                              b. social influence theory
         b. place where the rubber hits the road                            c. activation-synthesis theory
         c. royal road to the unconscious                                   d. Freud’s dream theory
         d. height of the sublime                                           e. Crick-McCarley Theory
         e. ego-defense mechanisms
                                                                  117. Twenty-eight-year-old Theodore has an irrational fear of
110. REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because:                    dogs. His therapist hypnotizes him and asks him to
        a. our heart rate is slow and steady, while our                mentally relive his earliest childhood experience with a
            breathing is highly irregular                              dog. The therapist is making use of:
        b. we are deeply asleep but can be awakened easily                 a. posthypnotic amnesia
        c. our nervous system is highly active, while our                  b. age regression
            voluntary muscles hardly move                                  c. retrograde amnesia
        d. it leads to highly imaginative dreams that are                  d. temporal dissociation
            perceived as colorless images                                  e. the hidden observer
        e. internal and external states are in equilibrium
                                                                  118. In Hilgard’s studies of pain sensitivity, the hidden
111. The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every:                 observer reported experiences typically associated with:
         a. 30 minutes                                                     a. the Freudian unconscious
         b. 90 minutes                                                     b. paradoxical sleep
         c. 2 ½ hours                                                      c. slow-wave sleep
         d. 4 hours                                                        d. normal consciousness
         e.   motivational conflict                                         c.   A child is spanked for sassing her parents
                                                                            d.   A student earns the lowest grade on a test and is
119. The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order                 given an F
     to experience its effects is an indication of:                         e.   A child is forbidden to watch television for a
          a. Withdrawal                                                          week
          b. Dissociation
          c. Resistance                                            125. In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded
          d. Tolerance                                                  and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had
          e. narcolepsy                                                 just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the
                                                                        importance of
120. The discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued                a. Negative reinforcement
     use of certain drugs is called:                                         b. Punishment
         a. Intolerance                                                      c. Classical conditioning
         b. Narcolepsy                                                       d. Observational learning
         c. Withdrawal                                                       e. Spontaneous recovery
         d. Retraction
         e. dissociation                                           126. Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years
                                                                        ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today
121. In large doses, alcohol is a ___; in small amounts, it is a        she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear
     ___.                                                               had undergone
          a. depressant; stimulant                                           a. Spontaneous recovery
          b. stimulant; depressant                                           b. Extinction
          c. hallucinogen; depressant                                        c. Generalization
          d. stimulant; stimulant                                            d. Discrimination
          e. depressant; depressant                                          e. Acquisition

122. Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important     127. Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric schock as
    because:                                                            __________ is to __________.
        a. it highlighted the role of cognitive processes in                a. Positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
             learning                                                       b. Primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
        b. so many different species of animals, including                  c. Immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer
             humans, can be classically conditioned.                        d. Reinforcement; punishment
        c. it demonstrated an essential difference between                  e. Partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
             animal and human learning.
        d. of all the above reasons.                               128. Someone who contributes money to her church every
        e. none of the above reasons, Pavlov's research is              Sunday donates according to a _____ reinforcement
             no longer relevant                                         schedule.
                                                                            a. Fixed-interval
123. Because Mr. Barron demonstrates appreciation only for                  b. Variable-interval
     classroom performance that is flawless, his students have              c. Fixed-ratio
     become poor and unmotivated learners. Mr. Baron most                   d. Variable-ratio
     clearly needs to be informed of the value of                           e. Partial
          a. Generalization
          b. Modeling                                              129. For several years Ruth played softball for the sheer
          c. Shaping                                                    enjoyment of the game. Her loss of intrinsic interest in
          d. Latent learning                                            playing after being recruited by a professional team for
          e. Spontaneous recovery                                       $100 a game best illustrates:
                                                                            a. The overjustification effect
124. Negative reinforcement is most clearly illustrated by                  b. Spontaneous recovery
     which scenario?                                                        c. Intermittent reinforcement
         a. A student’s disgustingly sarcastic jokes cease                  d. Latent learning
             when his roommate lends him some bash                          e. Respondent behavior
         b. A campus “street dog” barks in appreciation
             when food handouts are given to him

				
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