Student Affairs as A Professional Endeavor

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					 Student Affairs as A
Professional Endeavor
 We’ll start with a few slides from
 Matthew Simmons’ presentation,
 What is Student Affairs, Anyway?
        What Is Student Affairs Anyway?
   How do I explain it to others?
       It’s like going to school without taking classes!
       I enjoy working with college students and helping to
        shape their lives
       I get to see students grow and develop right before
        my very eyes
       I get to work with a diverse group of people and help
        educate them about diversity and many other
        important areas
       What Can I Do in Student
   Student Activities      Career Services
   Residence Life          Student Union
   Housing
                            Dean of Students
   Greek Affairs
                            Health Education and
   Public Occasions         Wellness
   Leadership              Vice President
   LGBT Programs           Minority Student
   Orientation              Advising
 What Do I Need to Know As a
      New Professional?
 Nothing  less than the best – quality, do
  your homework!
 Student and job satisfaction – as you
  move further from the students, remember
  that they are your primary satisfaction and
 Your professionalism is showing – do what
  you do BEST!
Is this endeavor,
which can’t be described to anybody,
which includes all these functions, and in
which you’re challenged to act

really a profession?
     What’s ―professional‖ work?
 Look   at the following case
 Respond to it as a ―professional‖ might
 Respond to it as a ―technical‖ worker might
 Are there any differences in your
 If so, what are the differences and how do
  these relate to your understanding of
  ―professional‖ work?
   The Libidinous Hall Director
The president of the university received a call
  from the chair of the state senate’s finance
  committee expressing outrage that his 21 year
  old daughter has been spending the night in
  the apartment of the residence hall director.
  The president calls the VP for Student Affairs
  to advise him that the university would be
  better off without the services of the hall
  director. When the VP talks to the head of
  residence life, he learns that there have been
  innuendoes, but no specific charges, to the
  effect that this hall director has a history of
  similar involvements over several years.
         What’s a Profession?
 Name   a field that everyone would agree is
  a profession
 What are the attributes that distinguish it
  as a profession?

All that the writers can agree on? that a profession is NOT
      A business, a science, or a racket [Becker, 1956]
         What is a Profession
 Most theorists say that a profession
                         A systematic body of theory
                                 Superior knowledge

                                              Ethics

                            Standards and sanctions

                               A professional culture

     Does   student affairs have these attributes?
      A Systematic Body of Theory
 Which    requires a professional school for
  its instruction
 Where should our theory be based?
     The SPPOVs distinguished
       • Student personnel work
       • Student personnel point of view
     Crookston distinguished
       • Student personnel
       • Student affairs
       • Student development
     Are there real differences among the terms?
           So, what is our theory?
 Is it student development theory?
 Is it administrative or organizational theory?
 Is it an educational philosophy?
 What education is necessary in these theories
  and is our distinctive use of them enough to
  make us a profession?
       A corollary: would a university professor have to have
        a theory of teaching or would the theory of her
        discipline be enough to make her a professional?
       Another: does a doctor have to take a course on
        medical ethics to be truly a professional?
    Authority Based on Superior
        Again, a professional school and training would be
                                                needed, but
   Did you really think that you needed a master’s degree when you
            applied for student affairs jobs right out of undergraduate
                                                          Do you now?
                                            Lingo vs. knowledge
           What is real expert-ise and what is mere education-ese?
       Application of knowledge v. housekeeping chores
   Do you observe practitioners doing their most professional work?
                            Need for professional preparation
                                      At senior administrative levels?
               Professional Ethics
   Implies a service motive for any profession
   Individual v. Collective Ethics
   Internal v. External Regulation
       Who do we work for?
       Can managers be professionals?
         • What makes any administrator a professional or not?
         • Are we any different?
   The Ethics Statements of the Associations
       ACPA
       How effective is this in reinforcing the professional
        status of student affairs?
       Is it enforceable?
      Standards and Sanctions
The Major Associations are Responsible
     Can you take seriously the professional merits
      of a group that started off as the Association
      of Appointment Secretaries?
 The   roles of CAS and CACREP
     Standards for Practice and Preparation
       • CAS both; CACREP preparation
     More about CAS in a few minutes
 Certification   v. accreditation
   Accreditation                        Certification
        Institutions and not                Individuals and not
         persons                              institutions
        Legally in the public’s
                                             Legally in the
                                              individual’s interest
        Minimal competence
         criteria                            Minimal competence
        Student affairs as a                 criteria
         component of                        In some professions,
         institutional process                the opportunity for
        Graduate programs                    third party payments
         not part of NCATE

    Some professions only allow certification through accredited programs
           Motivations for Both
 Legitimacy    as a profession
     Turf controlled and others cannot enter
 Quality   control for public
     In times of limited resources, budget cuts,
      drops in enrollment
 Status   possibilities
             A Professional Culture
   Role of Associations
       Inculcating a particular set of norms and values
       A ―quasi religious commitment‖ for a ―calling‖
       Problems of inclusion/exclusion
         • Is NASPA an old boy’s network because of its historical roots
           as NADOM?
         • What happened to NAWE?
       Based on your review of Kimmel’s slides about
        professional associations and your own knowledge
         •   What do they seem to stand for?
         •   Which are most important?
         •   How do they differ?
         •   How many do we need?
American Association of    Association of Colleges &
College Registrars and     University Housing Officers
Admissions Officers        - International (ACUHO-I)
(AACRAO)                   Association of Fraternity
American Association for   Advisors (AFA)
Employment in              Collegiate Information and
Education (AAEE)           Visitor Services Association
American College           (CIVSA)
Counseling Association     National Academic Advising
(ACCA)                     Association (NACADA)
American College Health
Association (ACHA)         National Association of
American College           Campus Activities (NACA)
Personnel Association      National Association of
(ACPA)                     Colleges and Employers
American Counseling        (NACE)
Association (ACA)          National Association of
Association for Student    Student Personnel
Judicial Affairs (ASJA)    Administrators (NASPA)
    National Clearinghouse for
   Commuter Programs (NCCP)
 National Council for Educational
Opportunity Associations (NCEOA)
    National Council on Student
      Development (NCSD)
  National Intramural-Recreational
    Sports Association (NIRSA)
Network of Colleges and Universities
Committed to the Elimination of Drug
        and Alcohol Abuse
Is Student Affairs a Profession?
 Traditional   Viewpoints
     Only four classic ones and a lot of semi-
      professional aspirants
     Might never be accepted as one because the
      perception is that we and other administrators
      serve the institution rather than higher
     Yet most of the practitioners in the field
      believe that our field is a profession [91% in
        An Emerging Profession?
   Stages of Professionalization [Wilensky, Caplow, et al.]
       People begin doing a necessary job
       Professional associations form
         • Identify the core of work and delegate other work to
         • Preside over internal conflicts
         • Change the name to create a sense of mystery
       Political maneuvers to gain legal sanctions against
        unauthorized practitioners
       Establish an enforceable code of ethics
   Carpenter, Miller, and Winston identified us as
    an emerging profession years ago
  The importance of a
professionalizing attitude
―At some point each semester, perhaps at the moment this article is
    being read, a group of graduate students will find itself reviewing the
    professional status of student affairs. The group will be supplied
    with classic polemics—‖A Profession Stillborn,‖ ―Progress Toward
    Professionalism,‖ and others—by professors whose fervor about the
    topic will be greeted with unstifled yawns. ―Who cares?‖ some will
    ask, disputing the judgment of their professors, many practitioners,
    and numerous journal editors that this subject is important to the
    field. . .
―I myself am skeptical about some of the benefits of full-fledged
    professional status for student affairs practitioners. I prefer to think
    of the field as dynamic and professionalizing, rather than as static
    and fully professionalized. A dynamic conception of student affairs
    requires more than the assessment of its accomplishments.
    Professionalization demands continuing improvement of the skills of
    student affairs practitioners, regardless of their status. . .
―Professionalization is a concept which must be applied to all
    occupations in a world of change. Status is not an end in itself, it is
    earned by the good work of practitioners. Even then, it is not
    permanent. The message to graduate students is simple: Your
    education, like your work and like the students you will help, does
    not end. They grow; you grow. That should be the fundamental
    characteristic of the field you have chosen.‖
 How does this concern
about profession relate to
  the following charge?
    ―The long sought profession of college
 student affairs has not been, is not, and will
  not be recognized and accepted as a vital
        aspect of the academic world‖

                                James Penney
             Penney’s concerns
   That we were housekeepers instead of people
    basing work on a philosophy
   There was no need to be identified as a
    separate profession
   We are problem-oriented and not theory-
    oriented in our literature
   Are we generalists or specialists. . .of what?
   The SPPOV was not philosophically limited to
    student affairs work
   If counseling is the thread of practice, it’s also
    derivative and not uniquely ours
 One of my major concerns

Whether the obsession with and
 benefits of status are helpful or
 harmful to our ability to serve
 students and build synergy in
 our institutions?
                      The Role of CAS
           The Council for the Advancement of Standards
           Most of the following slides are on the website
           An essential part of the process of
            accreditation, which has four steps
       1.     Standards must be agreed on
                That’s the reason why CAS exists
       2.     Self study must take place
       3.     Evaluation using the standards on site
       4.     Decision to accredit/approve or not

All our programs in higher education are going through this sort of process right now
Council for the Advancement of
Standards in Higher Education

    An Introduction to the CAS
  Approach to Quality Assurance in
     Educational Programs and
              December, 2001
                                               The CAS
                                         It’s Important
                                       that you Know
                                             about Him
Dr. Don Creamer served as President of ACPA in 1978-79, and he has been
a leader of the Student Affairs profession throughout his career. A prolific
writer and an ACPA Senior Scholar, Don serves as Professor and Program
Leader for the Higher Education and Student Affairs preparation program at
Virginia Tech. He has been a major advocate of quality assurance in
Student Affairs preparation and practice and has served on both the ACPA
Professional Issues Core Council and the Council for the Advancement of
Standards. Don received the ACPA Annuit Coeptis award in 1989. He was
instrumental in the establishment of the Educational Leadership Foundation
and he currently serves as its Vice-Chairperson.
             Overview of CAS
 Founded   in 1979 in response to efforts to
  establish specialized accreditation for
  student affairs preparation programs
 CAS is a consortium of 34 professional
     It started off with 16, encouraged by NASPA
      and ACPA to attend a series of meetings
 Twenty-nine standards and guidelines
 have been promulgated (and sometimes
 revised) by fall 2001
    The evolution of alphabet soup
   APA to ACES [1973]
        Standards and certification for counselors to
         match the status afforded psychologists
   ACES to APGA [1977]
        Adopted and applied to student personnel as
         well as counselors with ACES as agent
   APGA to ACPA [1978]
        Ad hoc committee formed and rejected
        CAS begun w/16 agencies and 4 meetings
   APGA becomes AACD and establishes
    CACREP in 1985
   CAS publishes 16 practice standards in 1986
   When ACPA breaks away, AACD becomes
               CAS Mission
 Promulgate  standards and guidelines for
  practice and preparation
 Promote assessment in educational
 Promote the use of standards in practice
 Promote quality assurance within higher
  CAS Principles: Students and
       Their Institutions
 Student   is considered as a unique, whole
 Institutional environments shape learning
 Responsibility for learning rests with the
 Institutions provide opportunities for
 Institutions reflect society and its diversity
  CAS Principles: Diversity and
 Institutionsembrace diversity and
  eliminate barriers that impede student
 Justice and respect for differences bond
  individuals to community
  CAS Principles: Organization,
Leadership, and Human Resources

 Leadership   is essential for institutional
 Institutional success is related to clarity
  of mission
 Qualification of staff members is tied
  directly to quality of educational
  programs and services
 Leaders possess sound educational
  preparation and experience
     CAS Principles: Health
   Engendering Environments
 Educationalprograms and services
 prosper in benevolent environments that
 provide students with appropriate levels of
 challenge and support.
      CAS Principles: Ethics
 Educationalservice providers provide
 impeccable ethical behavior in their
 professional and personal lives.
               CAS Purpose

 Beliefs about excellence require that all
  programs and services in institutions of higher
  education function at optimum levels
 Beliefs about collaboration require that all
  programs and services be accomplished in
  concert by students and educators
 Beliefs about ethics require that all programs
  and services be carried out in an environment
  of integrity and high ideals.

       CAS Purpose, Slide 2
 Beliefsabout student development require
 that the student be considered as a whole
 person in the context of a diverse
 population and a diversity of institutions,
 that outcomes of education be
 comprehensive, and that the total
 environment be structured to create
 opportunities for student involvement and
       CAS Purpose, Slide 3
 Beliefs about responsibility require that the
 institution recognize the rights and
 responsibilities of students as its citizens
 and that it provide an array of resources
 and learning opportunities that enable
 students to exercise their responsibility to
 take full advantage of them.
    The CAS Approach to Self-
  Regulation and Self-Assessment

The essential elements of self-regulation include:
  Institutional culture that values
   involvement of all its members in decision
  Quality indicators that are determined by
   the institution
  Use of standards and guidelines in quality
 The CAS Approach to Self-Regulation
     and Self-Assessment, Slide 2
 Collection  and analysis of data on
  institutional performance
 Commitment to continuing improvement
  that presupposes freedom to explore and
  develop alternative directions for the future
    Putting the CAS Standards to
   Establish and prepare the self-study team
   Conduct the self-study
   Identify and summarize evidence
   Identify discrepancies
   Determine appropriate corrective action
   Recommend action for program enhancement
   Prepare an action plan
 Other Uses of CAS Standards
 Program   establishment
 Staff development
 Academic preparation
 Credibility
        Now let’s take a look at
 TheSelf Assessment Guidelines for
     You’ve read that we try to abide by them
     Why should we?
     Differentiate standards and guidelines
     What are our strengths and areas of needed
      improvement? [break into groups to look at
      different sections]
                  Ted Miller said
   A standard implies
   A criterion for judgment
   Which implies change
   Which implies a threat to
    the status quo
   In fact, they offer
       a challenge to be met
       Decisions to be made
       And opportunities for
        program improvement
                                He was the first president of CAS