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					       Guidelife Project

            WP4
  Identification of barriers

     Carpathian Foundation Romania
- Fund for Development of the Carpathian Euroregion -

               Fieldwork report written by
            Sergiu Baltatescu, PhD.
               University of Oradea




                    October 29th 2007, Danemark         1
Target Groups


   A. young unemployed individuals
   B. ethnic minorities individuals




                   October 29th 2007, Danemark   2
Context

   Lack of visibility and representation of the
    guidance and counseling sector
   Lack of counselors
   Lack of organizations specialized in counseling




                    October 29th 2007, Danemark       3
                           Lack of
                      organizations and
                         regulations




                                                     Lack of knowledge
Lack of specialists                                     by the target
                                                           groups

                       October 29th 2007, Danemark                       4
Effects

   Reluctance of the interviewed individuals from both
    target groups
   Reluctance of the guiding & counseling organizations
   Counselors have no deep knowledge on the obstacles,
    when working with the specified target groups
         They merged the “difficulties” and “obstacles”

                              issues




                      October 29th 2007, Danemark          5
Methodology

   Fieldwork June-October 2007, Oradea
   18 interviews:
      6 with persons from the counseling sector

      9 with Target Group 1 (Youth unemployed)

      6 with Target group 2 (Ethnic Minorities)




   Interactive focus group


                    October 29th 2007, Danemark    6
Interviews with the guidance counselors
and educators

    duration: 20 - 40 minutes each
    experts active in both, public and private
     institutions.




                    October 29th 2007, Danemark   7
Public sector - AJOFM (County Agency for
Labor force Employment)

    work very often with both of the disadvantaged
     target groups
    often serve as mediators, guiding the applicants
     towards the available jobs
    have limited options because of the dysfunctions
     of the current labourforce allocation system


                     October 29th 2007, Danemark        8
    Public sector - AJOFM (County Agency
    for Labor force Employment)
   Reactions:
      the “clients” are only interested in asking for vocational courses free of

       charge, provided by AJOFM  refusing real guidance
      the “clients” are not interested to find a suitable job

      the employers send misleading reports on their available jobs (the jobs

       are already taken)
      the councilors have no training in counseling

      they have idiosyncratic ideas about counseling

      counseling is done: “…without specialists, proper locations, materials…

       I must recognize we’re doing the counseling activity “by ear” “


                                October 29th 2007, Danemark                     9
Counselors from the private sector


   Private owned companies in consultancy and training in
    human resources, business development and head hunting
   NGO’s - counseling programs financed by EU programs
   Most of them are not especially trained in counseling area
   They insist on owning a scientific approach because they
    use licensed competences’ tests & tools




                      October 29th 2007, Danemark            10
A. Target Group 1 - young unemployed

   Young individuals
       recent high school graduates
       not married
       never worked before
       have no qualification
       look for a job or for a vocational training course
        provided free of charge by AJOFM agency




                        October 29th 2007, Danemark          11
A. Target Group 1 - young unemployed

   People at the end of their young age
       married with children
       became unemployed 3-9 months before
       are looking for a new job or a chance to change their
        qualification
       follow a vocational training course provided free of
        charge by the AJOFM agency




                       October 29th 2007, Danemark              12
B. Target Group 2 - ethnic minorities

       Hungarian minority individuals (3) from Oradea
         very young
         at the beginning of their career and
         willing to accept irregular jobs
         majority are educated and have high educational
          aspirations




                       October 29th 2007, Danemark          13
B. Target Group 2 - ethnic minorities

   Roma - gipsy individuals (3)
       24-28 years old
       are married (one with children)
       from a village near Oradea
       have very low or no formal education
       never had a formal job
       live mainly from social help and work in agriculture




                       October 29th 2007, Danemark             14
    Interactive focus group
        Participants from counseling sector
        Participants from target groups – 4 undergraduate
         students, looking for a job
           they never worked before
           have no qualification
           looking for a job
           most of them (3) where from Hungarian minority group
           they had temporary jobs until now
        3 young people that graduate university for 1+3
         years
           they could only found underpaid jobs
           are still unemployed
                                October 29th 2007, Danemark        15
Identification of barriers & obstacles

   Lack of information about the whole process of
    counseling, that causes:
       skepticism towards counseling area
       fear that the personal information they give to private
        firms in the process of guidance would be used against
        them
       the roots of this lack of information are attributed by
        some of the respondents to the educational system



                       October 29th 2007, Danemark            16
Possible causes:

   1. educational system does not train people in order to
    deal with the process of finding a job
       lack of knowledge about interviews, CV etc
       young unemployed have higher aspirations than their training
        would allowed
   2. local employment - employers are not really interested
    in “multiple skills” of the candidates (i.e.: team work, time
    management and so on)
   3. all these problems are aggravated by the lack of
    visibility and promotion of the counseling companies

                          October 29th 2007, Danemark                  17
Target group 1: young unemployed


    Some of the respondents answer that there is a
     lack of information about the whole process
     of counseling, that includes:
       the available jobs

       their rights to access the job market




                   October 29th 2007, Danemark        18
Target group 2: ethnic minority individuals

   The Hungarians – language problems
   The Rroma – a more difficult situation
       lack of minimum school background
       lack of jobs
       lack of training
       prejudice and discrimination
       spatial isolation
       lack of funds to cover minimal expenses of the counseling process
       many of them are very often relying on their leaders




                          October 29th 2007, Danemark                   19
Actions to be implemented in order to
overcome the barriers
    At the level of the State agencies
        waiting for the policy to be changed at the central level (top-
         down approach)

    At the level of private counseling companies:
        increase of the knowledge about the counseling activities
        promotional actions in schools or faculties
        promotional and common projects with State agencies
        free counseling programs for the specific target groups
        no specific actions were mentioned for the Rroma community


                          October 29th 2007, Danemark                      20
Participation and opinions about training
programs available for guidance and
counseling professionals
    none of the respondents mentioned any training
     needs
    training could help them
    topics: “counseling”, “steps in counseling”,
     psychology of interpersonal communication and
     marketing were approached



                   October 29th 2007, Danemark        21
Counseling offer - satisfaction level and
needs assessment
    TG received little or less counseling
    TG have no idea of what this means
    Generally, a positive attitude - the guidance is
     useful - but we can’t tell in what respects
    The most important benefit – free of charge
     vocational training courses




                        October 29th 2007, Danemark     22
Do you think the guidance and counselor
professionals understand your situation?

     All the respondents were satisfied
     Alternative explanation:
        the counselor at the local labor force agency is also

         a mediator and should apply the law
        understanding is when their arguments have been

         accepted by the counselor (they can benefit from
         the unemployment benefits)


                        October 29th 2007, Danemark              23
Participation in and opinions about the
training for the counseling sector

     good opinion on – recognized utility of the
      qualifications provided




                   October 29th 2007, Danemark      24
Barriers experienced - Target Group 1
   1. lack of qualifications – schools
   2. lack of the experience
   3. local job market:
       jobs on black or grey market
       seasonal jobs
       not specified or extra working time
       rights of the workers often not respected
       commuting problems
   4. finding a job is conditioned by the relations you have
    on the job market (nepotism, bribery)
   5. they have to accept bad and insecure jobs - not the
    lack of a job


                          October 29th 2007, Danemark           25
Barriers experienced - Target Group 2

   Hungarian ethnic group
       The linguistic barrier
       Self-selection of a candidate

   Roma
       The lack of education
       The spatial isolation
       The discrimination on the job market was not
        mentioned


                       October 29th 2007, Danemark     26
Solution to overcome the barriers

   Improve the training
   Actively looking for other opportunities on the job
    market
   TG2 Rroma have rather a passive attitude
    continuing to rely on the help of the State
   They are looking for private alternatives - daily
    and seasonal jobs


                    October 29th 2007, Danemark      27
    Social exclusion-inclusion, active
    citizenship, personal development
   Because their reference groups (for example, people in their
    neighborhood) have similar work status, none of the unemployed see
    himself as being really excluded
   The economical aspect of the exclusion: without a stable job, some of
    unemployed persons begin to have problems with cash - because they are
    rather recently without work - For Rroma community members, the low
    income is the most important reason for exclusion from the society
   The most urgent problem is the lack of health insurances
   The psychological benefits of a job, such as security and feeling of
    affiliation, is missing




                            October 29th 2007, Danemark                 28
What would you like to receive from the
counseling?

    Requested characteristics of a counseling
     program
       to be free of charge

       to be practical

       to be adapted to each client




                    October 29th 2007, Danemark   29

				
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