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ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT AQUACULTURE (DOC)

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					ENVIRONMENTAL      PERFORMANCE      COMPARISON    OF   DIFFERENT
AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS BY USING LIFE CYCLE
ASSESSMENT (LCA): A CASE STUDY IN INDONESIA AND FRANCE
Rattanawan Tam Mungkung*, Joël Aubin, Hayo van der Werf, Triheru Prihadi, Souhila Amrouche,
Marc Legendre, and Jacques Slembrouk
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR Sol-Agronomie Spatialisation, Rennes, France

Aquaculture is seen as a potential way to              requirements and high oxygen demand of
compensate for declining productivity                  trout (Fig 2). The pond system of catfish
from     marine    fish    capture.     The            required the highest energy, mainly due to
environmental issues associated with                   the larger amount of diesel use attached to
aquaculture production activities are being            the use of dried fish from trawling (for use
discussed widely, the main question being              in the local fish feed) as well as a higher
whether aquaculture is a more sustainable              FCR (Food Conversion Ratio). The same
method of fish production. This                        factors also resulted in the highest impacts
emphasizes the need to identify more                   on potential climate change and
sustainable     aquaculture     production             acidification. The highest amount of
systems. This study used Life Cycle                    organic and nutrient loading was found in
Assessment (LCA) as an environmental                   the cage system of carp and tilapia and
analytical   tool    to     compare      the           thus had the highest eutrophication
environmental performances of different                potential. The highest net primary
aquaculture production systems: a carp                 production use found in trout production is
(Cyprinus      carpio)      and      tilapia           the consequence of the multiple feed raw
(Oreochromis niloticus) cage system in                 ingredients used. This LCA study has
Indonesia; a pond system of catfish                    allowed us to compare different fish
(Pangasius hypophthalmus) in Indonesia;                aquaculture production systems and to
and a trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) flow-                identify improvement options for each of
through system in France.                              the systems studied.
Based on the production cycle in 2007,                                                                                                             Hatchery
                                                                                                                                                                                    Emissions to
                                                                                                                                                                                    air, water
                                                                                                                                                                                    and soil
different aquaculture production sites were                                                                   Water
                                                                                                              Land
                                                       Resources use for broodstock rearing
assessed regarding resource use, pollutants,           Energy extraction and production
                                                                                                              Fingerlings
                                                                                                              Feed
                                                                                                              Energy

and waste emitted to the environment to                Feed ingredients’ production
                                                                                                              Chemicals
                                                                                                              Infrastructure
                                                                                                                                                                                    Emissions to
                                                                                                                                                                                    air, water
produce one tonne of fish. The resource                Chemicals’ production

                                                                                                              Water
                                                                                                                                                      Farm                          and soil

                                                        Infrastructure materials’ production
use and emissions from raw material                     Fuel extraction and production
                                                                                                              Land
                                                                                                              Fingerlings
                                                                                                              Feed

extraction and processing, energy use for                                                                     Energy
                                                                                                              Chemicals
                                                                                                              Infrastructure                                                        Emissions to

energy resources extraction, and emission                                                                                                           Market
                                                                                                                                                                                    air, water
                                                                                                                                                                                    and soil

to air from electricity production, including                                                                 Water
transports in all stages, were also included                                                LCA’s system boundary
                                                                               Figure 1 TheOxygen
                                                                                           Vehicles
                                                                                                              Fuel

in the study (Fig 1). The environmental                    100
                                                                 %




impact indicators considered were: water                    90




dependency (m3), energy requirement
                                                            80

                                                            70


(MJ), climate change potential (kg CO 2 -                   60

                                                            50
eq.),     acidification     (kg     SO2 -eq.),              40


eutrophication potential (kg PO4 -eq.), and                 30



net primary production use (kg C) per                       20

                                                            10

tonne of fish produced.                                      0
                                                                     Water dependency   Energy requirement   Climate change (kg   Acidification (kg SO2   Eutrophication (kg      Net primary
                                                                           (m3)                (MJ)              CO2 eq.)                  eq.)                PO4 eq.)        production (kg C)


The results indicate the highest water                                                    Cage system (Carp & Tilapia)   Pond system (Pangasius)    Flow-through system (Trout)


                                                       Figure 2 Comparative potential impacts from different
dependency and energy use for the flow-                aquaculture systems, expressed per tonne of fish, as a
through system, due to the large water                 percentage of the system presenting the highest impact.

				
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