ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS BY USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA): A CASE STUDY IN INDONESIA AND FRANCE Rattanawan Tam Mungkung*, Joël Aubin, Hayo van der Werf, Triheru Prihadi, Souhila Amrouche, Marc Legendre, and Jacques Slembrouk Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR Sol-Agronomie Spatialisation, Rennes, France Aquaculture is seen as a potential way to requirements and high oxygen demand of compensate for declining productivity trout (Fig 2). The pond system of catfish from marine fish capture. The required the highest energy, mainly due to environmental issues associated with the larger amount of diesel use attached to aquaculture production activities are being the use of dried fish from trawling (for use discussed widely, the main question being in the local fish feed) as well as a higher whether aquaculture is a more sustainable FCR (Food Conversion Ratio). The same method of fish production. This factors also resulted in the highest impacts emphasizes the need to identify more on potential climate change and sustainable aquaculture production acidification. The highest amount of systems. This study used Life Cycle organic and nutrient loading was found in Assessment (LCA) as an environmental the cage system of carp and tilapia and analytical tool to compare the thus had the highest eutrophication environmental performances of different potential. The highest net primary aquaculture production systems: a carp production use found in trout production is (Cyprinus carpio) and tilapia the consequence of the multiple feed raw (Oreochromis niloticus) cage system in ingredients used. This LCA study has Indonesia; a pond system of catfish allowed us to compare different fish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) in Indonesia; aquaculture production systems and to and a trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) flow- identify improvement options for each of through system in France. the systems studied. Based on the production cycle in 2007, Hatchery Emissions to air, water and soil different aquaculture production sites were Water Land Resources use for broodstock rearing assessed regarding resource use, pollutants, Energy extraction and production Fingerlings Feed Energy and waste emitted to the environment to Feed ingredients’ production Chemicals Infrastructure Emissions to air, water produce one tonne of fish. The resource Chemicals’ production Water Farm and soil Infrastructure materials’ production use and emissions from raw material Fuel extraction and production Land Fingerlings Feed extraction and processing, energy use for Energy Chemicals Infrastructure Emissions to energy resources extraction, and emission Market air, water and soil to air from electricity production, including Water transports in all stages, were also included LCA’s system boundary Figure 1 TheOxygen Vehicles Fuel in the study (Fig 1). The environmental 100 % impact indicators considered were: water 90 dependency (m3), energy requirement 80 70 (MJ), climate change potential (kg CO 2 - 60 50 eq.), acidification (kg SO2 -eq.), 40 eutrophication potential (kg PO4 -eq.), and 30 net primary production use (kg C) per 20 10 tonne of fish produced. 0 Water dependency Energy requirement Climate change (kg Acidification (kg SO2 Eutrophication (kg Net primary (m3) (MJ) CO2 eq.) eq.) PO4 eq.) production (kg C) The results indicate the highest water Cage system (Carp & Tilapia) Pond system (Pangasius) Flow-through system (Trout) Figure 2 Comparative potential impacts from different dependency and energy use for the flow- aquaculture systems, expressed per tonne of fish, as a through system, due to the large water percentage of the system presenting the highest impact.
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