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   Theory and Practice, 3/e
   Peter G. Northouse, Ph.D.
Chapter 4
Style Approach
    Style Approach Defined
     Perspective            Definition

   Leader-focused      Comprised of Two
    perspective          Kinds of Behaviors
                         – Task behaviors
   Emphasis on                Facilitate goal
    what leaders                accomplishment

    do and how           – Relationship
    they act                   Help subordinates feel
                                comfortable with
                                themselves, each
                                other, and the situation
    Ohio State Studies
   Leadership Behavior Description
    Questionnaire (LBDQ)
   LBDQ-XII (Stogdill, 1963)

    University of Michigan
• Results - Two types of leadership behaviors conceptualized
  along a single continuum
        Employee orientation
           Strong human relations emphasis
        Production orientation
           Stresses the technical aspects of a
                     Blake & Mouton Leadership Grid

         9 1, 9                                              9, 9
         8 Country Club Management                Team Management
Concern for People

         5                          5, 5
         4                 Middle-of-the-Road
         2 Impoverished Management       Authority-Compliance Mgmt
         1 1, 1                                               9, 1
              1     2    3     4      5     6      7     8     9
            Low                                            High
                          Concern for Results
Authority-Compliance (9,1)
      Definition                 Role Focus
   Efficiency in           More emphasis on task
    operations results       and job requirements and
    from arranging           less emphasis on people
    conditions of work      Communicating with
    such that human          subordinates outside task
    interference is          instructions not
    minimal                  emphasized
                            Results driven; People
                             regarded as tools to that
Country Club (1,9)
      Definition                 Role Focus
   Thoughtful            Low concern for task
    attention to the       accomplishment coupled with
                           high concern for interpersonal
    needs of people        relationships
    leads to a            De-emphasizes production;
    comfortable,           leaders stress the attitudes
    friendly               and feelings of people
    organization          Positive climate fostered by
    atmosphere and         being agreeable, eager to help,
    work tempo             comforting, noncontroversial
Impoverished (1,1)
      Definition                   Role Focus
   Minimal effort           Leader unconcerned with both
    exerted to get work       task and interpersonal
    done is appropriate
                             Going through the motions,
    to sustain                but uninvolved and withdrawn
    organizational           Have little contact with
    membership                followers and are described as
                              indifferent, noncommittal,
                              resigned, and apathetic
Middle-of-the-Road (5,5)
       Definition                    Role Focus
   Adequate                  Leaders who are
    organizational             compromisers; have
                               intermediate concern for task
    performance                and people
    possible through          To achieve equilibrium, leader
    balancing the              avoids conflict while
    necessity of getting       emphasizing moderate levels
    work done while            of production and
    maintaining                interpersonal relationships
    satisfactory morale       Described as expedient;
                               prefers the middle ground,
                               soft-pedals disagreement
Team (9,9)
       Definition                    Role Focus
   Work accomplished          Strong emphasis on both
    through committed           tasks and interpersonal
    people;                     relationships
    interdependence via        Promotes high degree of
    a “common stake”            participation and
    in the organization’s       teamwork
    purpose, which             Leader stimulates
    leads to                    participation, acts
    relationships of            determined, makes
    trust and respect           priorities clear, follows
                                through, etc.
   Major shift in leadership research
   Broad range of studies on leadership style
   Task and relationship behaviors

   No universal style of leadership
   Implies that the most effective leadership style is
    High-High style
Chapter 5
Situational Approach
Leadership Styles- Situational

    The behavior pattern of an individual
     who attempts to influence others;
     – Directive (task) behaviors
     – Supportive (relationship) behaviors
The Four Leadership Styles
         S3                                    S2

          High Supportive      High Directive
          Low Directive        High Supportive

         S4                                    S1

          Low Supportive       High Directive
          Low Directive        Low Supportive

   Low           Directive Behavior              High
         High            Moderate              Low
         D4        D3               D2         D1
     Developed                            Developing
            Developmental Level of Followers
S1 - Directing Style

                    Leader focuses
                     communication on goal
                    Spends LESS time
High Directive       using supportive
Low Supportive
S2 - Coaching Style
                      Leader focuses
                       communication on BOTH
S2                     goal achievement and
                       supporting subordinates’
 High Directive        socioemotional needs
 High Supportive      Requires leader
                       involvement through
                       encouragement and
                       soliciting subordinate
S3 - Supporting Style
                      Leader does NOT focus
                       solely on goals; rather the
S3                     leader uses supportive
                       behaviors to bring out
                       employee skills in
 High Supportive
 Low Directive         accomplishing the task
                      Leader delegates day-to-
                       day decision-making
                       control, but is available to
                       facilitate problem solving
S4 - Delegating Style
                     Leader offers LESS task input
                      and social support; facilitates
S4                    subordinates’ confidence and
                      motivation in relation to the
                     Leader lessens involvement in
 Low Supportive       planning, control of details,
 Low Directive        and goal clarification
                     Gives subordinates control and
                      refrains from intervention and
                      unneeded social support
Situational Approach

     “The Situational approach
         requires leaders to
   demonstrate a strong degree of
   Marketplace approval.
   Practicality.
   Prescriptive value.
   Leader flexibility.
   Differential treatment.

   Validity questions – lack of empirical foundation.
   Conceptualization of terms are unclear.
   Issue of one-to-one versus group leadership in an
    organizational setting.
Chapter 6
Contingency Theory
    Contingency Theory Approach
    “Leaders match their style to the competence and
    commitment of subordinates.”
          Perspective                         Definition
    Contingency theory is a
    leader-match theory (Fiedler
                                          Effective
    & Chemers, 1974)                       leadership is
     – Tries to match leaders to
       appropriate situations
                                           contingent on
   Leader’s effectiveness                 matching a
    depends on how well the                leader’s style to
    leader’s style fits the context
   Fiedler et al.’s generalizations       the right setting
    about which styles of
    leadership are best and worst
    are empirically grounded
Leadership Styles
      Definition              Dimension Definitions
   Leadership styles        Task-motivated leaders -
                              Concerned primarily with
    are described as:         reaching a goal
    – Task motivated         Relationship-motivated
                              leaders - Concerned with
    – Relationship
                              developing close interpersonal
      motivated               relationships

        Leader Style Measurement Scale
      Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale
        High = Relationship-motivated leader
        Low = Task-motivated leader
Contingency Theory
            Focus                    Overall Scope
   By assessing the 3            By measuring Leader’s
    situational variables, any     LPC score and the 3
    organizational context can
    be placed in one of the 8
                                   situational variables, it
    categories represented in      is possible to predict
    the Contingency Theory         whether a leader will
    Model                          be effective in a
   After the nature of a          particular setting
    situation is determined, the
    fit between leader’s style
    and the situation can be
Situational Variables
     Situational                 Definition

    Leader-Member        LMR - Refers to the group
                           atmosphere and the degree of
     Relations             confidence, loyalty, and
    Task Structure        attraction of followers for
     Position Power      TS - Concerns the degree to
                           which requirements of a task
                           are clear and spelled out
    Determine             PP - Designates the amount of
   Favorableness           authority a leader has to
   of Situations           reward or punish followers
 in Organizations
      Contingency Model

Task          High      Low       High      Low
Structure   Structure Structure Structure Structure
            Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong   Weak
Position   Power Power Power Power Power Power Power Power
Preferred    1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8
Leadership      Low LPCs                              Low
                                   High LPCs
Style          Middle LPCs                           LPCs
   Empirical support.
   Broadened understanding.
   Predictive.
   Not an all-or-nothing approach.

   Black Box problem.
   Criticism of validity - LPC scale.
   Cumbersome in real-world settings.
   Fails to explain what should be done about workplace
Chapter 7
Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Theory Approach

  Path-goal theory centers on how
  leaders motivate subordinates to
    accomplish designated goals
Conditions of Leadership
Leadership generates motivation when:
                   It increases the number and
                    kinds of payoffs
                   Path to the goal is clear and
                    easily traveled with
                    coaching and direction
                    Obstacles and roadblocks
                    are removed
                    The work itself is
                    personally satisfying
Path-Goal Theory Matrix
       LEADER                GROUP                  TASK
     BEHAVIOR               MEMBERS            CHARACTERISTICS
  Directive Leadership
   “Provides guidance         Dogmatic             Ambiguous
    & psychological          Authoritarian        Unclear rules
       structure”                                   Complex

 Supportive Leadership
 “Provides nurturance”        Unsatisfied        Repetitive
                            Need affiliation   Unchallenging
                           Need human touch Mundane & mechanical

Participative Leadership
 “Provides involvement”      Autonomous            Ambiguous
                            Need for control        Unclear
                            Need for clarity      Unstructured

Achievement Oriented
  “Provides challenges”    High expectations       Ambiguous
                             Need to excel         Challenging
   Useful theoretical framework.
   Integrates motivation.
   Practical model.

   Confusing interpretation of theory
   Partial support through empirical research
   Fails to adequately explain the relationship between leadership
    behavior and worker motivation.
   Leadership as one-way event

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