Sustainability by decree

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									     A Prevention 101 Series Publication

Building Program and Coalition Support

           The Higher Education Center for
           Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention
           Funded by the U.S. Department of Education
This publication was funded by the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools at the U.S. Department
of Education under contract number ED-04-CO-0137 with Education Development Center, Inc.
The contracting officer’s representatives were Tara Hill and Phyllis Scattergood. The content of this
publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Education,
nor does the mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by
the U.S. government. This publication also contains hyperlinks and URLs for information created
and maintained by private organizations. This information is provided for the reader’s convenience.
The U.S. Department of Education is not responsible for controlling or guaranteeing the accuracy,
relevance, timeliness, or completeness of this outside information. Further, the inclusion of informa-
tion or a hyperlink or URL does not reflect the importance of the organization, nor is it intended to
endorse any views expressed, or products or services offered.

U.S. Department of Education
Arne Duncan

Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools
Kevin Jennings
Assistant Deputy Secretary

April 2010

This publication is in the public domain. Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part is granted.
While permission to reprint this publication is not necessary, the citation should be: U.S. Department
of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other
Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, Sustainability: Building Program and Coalition Support,
Washington, D.C., 2010.

This publication and other resources are available on the Web site for the U.S. Department of
Education’s Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention:

                               Building Program and Coalition Support
                                                 by Peggy Glider, Ph.D.

Given the prevalence of alcohol and                                                  Ongoing problem analysis allows
other drug abuse and violence on our       1. Incorporating                          campuses to tailor programming or
campuses and in our communities,              Sustainability Into                    coalition goals to meet changing needs,
programs and coalitions developed to          Assessment, Planning,                  to secure appropriate resources, and to
prevent or intervene in these problems                                               identify key individuals who are
are faced with a challenging and long-
                                              And Evaluation                         supportive of prevention efforts and
term task. While the development of                                                  can help integrate existing program-
coalitions or campus-based preven-                                                   ming or coalition efforts into the larger
tion programs is a healthy start, these    Problem Analysis or Needs                 prevention efforts of the community.
efforts must be sustained over time        Assessment                                Depending on the nature of the
to have a truly lasting effect. Sustain-                                             programming or the goals of the
                                           The first, critical step in planning a
ability can seem a daunting task in the    program or building a coalition is to     coalition, planners may find that an
midst of implementing programs or          determine the scope and nature of the     initial problem has been resolved
mobilizing a coalition; however,           issues to be addressed, examining         (e.g., new policies are in place and
by incorporating sustainability into       existing and needed resources and         consistently enforced); however, new
all aspects of prevention efforts          identifying barriers to implementation    issues may have emerged or some
(assessment, planning, implementa-         and sustainability. The May 2009          initial problems may remain that need
tion, and evaluation), it becomes an       publication Problem Analysis: The First   more sustained efforts. Without solid
achievable goal. This emphasis on          Step in Prevention Planning1 provides     and ongoing problem analysis, it is
sustainability will actually strengthen    excellent guidelines for how to conduct   difficult to build a strong argument for
prevention efforts from the beginning.     a problem analysis within a campus or     sustainability.

This publication is organized into         a community. Problem analysis is a key
                                           part of building sustainability.          Strategic Planning
two basic sections. The first emphasizes
the need to include sustainability in                                                Effective programming and collaboration
assessment, planning, and evaluation.                                                require planning. A strategic planning
                                            Conducting a problem analysis
The final section focuses on mecha-                                                  process is extremely useful in designing,
                                            involves (1) gathering objective data
nisms for developing and promoting          on the nature and scope of the prob-     implementing, and modifying preven-
sustainable programs and coalitions.        lem at both national (for purposes       tion efforts to meet the needs of the
Each aspect plays a role in overall         of comparison) and local levels; (2)     campus and community, as identified
sustainability. The following sugges-       examining available resources and        through the problem analysis. Strategic
tions for program and coalition             assets in the campus community;          Planning for Prevention Professionals on
sustainability have been synthesized        and (3) analyzing and summariz-          Campus,3 an earlier publication in the
from publications, Web sites, and           ing this information to clarify needs    Prevention 101 Series, describes in detail
personal experiences shared by              and opportunities. Note that the         the strategic planning process that can
colleagues across the country.              process outlined here is suitable for    be applied by prevention professionals.
                                            both two- and four-year institutions,
                                            including both residential and com-      While strategic planning is often utilized
                                            muter campuses.2                         during the program development phase,
                                                                                     this process is also useful when planning

                                             strategic plan or plans of collaborating   Selecting the appropriate strategy
                                             agencies, for instance, by tying           should be based on in-depth assessment
    Those involved in strategic planning
                                             prevention goals to the mission of the     of needs and existing resources (as des-
    must (1) conduct a problem analy-
                                             institution. Showing this relationship     cribed above under Problem Analysis),
    sis; (2) establish long-term goals and
    objectives—that is, the changes in       and the integral part the program plays    including staffing and institutional
    people or the environment that are       strengthen sustainability efforts.7        support, to ensure that the program
    needed to reduce the magnitude of                                                   or strategy is a good fit and thus more
    the problem; (3) examine research,       Selecting Programs or Policies             likely to be effective and sustainable.
    historical program experience, and       That Are Evidence Based or                 Selecting evidence-based strategies that
    theory to identify potential strate-     Theoretically Sound                        fit the campus’s situation and conduct-
    gies that will address the campus’s                                                 ing a sound evaluation (see below) to
    problems and achieve its long-term       It is much easier to sustain programs      demonstrate the effectiveness of these
    goals and objectives; (4) create a       that are shown to be effective. The        strategies (e.g., our program or strategy
    strategic plan; and (5) execute an       Prevention 101 Series publication          works and is making a difference) lay a
    iterative evaluation plan.4              Setting Goals and Choosing Effective       strong foundation for garnering long-
                                             Strategies8 addresses the importance       term commitment and sustainability.
                                             of working with programs that have
for sustainability.5 Ways to achieve
                                             evidence of effectiveness with similar     Evaluation
sustainability should be built into the
                                             populations or that address similar
strategic plan. An example would be
                                             issues. In 2002, the Task Force of the     Even if evidence-based strategies are
the early inclusion of stakeholders who
                                             National Advisory Council on Alcohol       implemented, ongoing process and
will be helpful in sustaining prevention
                                             Abuse and Alcoholism of the National       outcome evaluation are needed to
efforts. Laying the groundwork for
                                             Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alco-       provide data to strengthen program-
sustainability goes hand-in-hand with
                                             holism published an extensive review       ming. Solid evaluation data are also
implementation.6 Thinking about and
                                             of existing programming, identifying       necessary to build the argument for
discussing sustainability throughout the
                                             four tiers of effectiveness: evidence of   sustainability by providing evidence of
strategic planning process will highlight
                                             effectiveness among college students,      effectiveness. As part of the strategic
those areas in which small changes in
                                             evidence of success with general           planning process and ongoing program
the plan can result in having the neces-
                                             populations, evidence of promise,          implementation, evaluation is critical.12
sary data, partners, and visibility needed
                                             and evidence of ineffectiveness.9 More     Process evaluation documents what
to support the long-term viability of the
                                             in-depth reviews of specific recom-        was done while outcome evaluation
program or coalition. By including sus-
                                             mendations have also been published.       documents the changes that occurred
tainability strategies from the beginning,
                                             Toomey and her colleagues10 updated        due to the program or coalition efforts.
planners are more likely to employ them
                                             the research findings regarding envi-      Evaluation needs to be part of the
in a timely and purposeful fashion.
                                             ronmental strategies, while Larimer        strategic plan to ensure that the appro-
It is also helpful to integrate program      and Cronce11 reviewed the literature       priate data are collected and utilized to
goals and priorities into the university     supporting the effectiveness of            monitor program or strategy implemen-
                                             individual-based strategies. Together,     tation, make improvements, as needed,
                                             these three documents can serve as         and to determine level of impact.
    “Start on the first day of program-      guidelines for selecting programs or
    ming or external funding to                                                         Sound program evaluation should assist
                                             strategies to address identified needs.
    discover any future barriers to                                                     in identifying the key components of
    sustaining efforts.”                     It is important to note that not all       the program that need to be sustained,
                                             strategies, no matter how effective        at a minimum, to continue having the
        — Betty Straub, Ed.D.,               they have been, are appropriate for all    desired outcomes.13 Evaluation should
          Senior Program Director/           campuses or situations. For instance,      also look at cost-effectiveness. When
          Research Evaluator-Scientist
                                             a program needs to consider the costs      seeking resources for sustainability, evalu-
          Pacific Institute for
                                             and resources involved prior to select-    ation data help to build the argument for
          Research and Evaluation
                                             ing a strategy, even if it is considered   why current efforts should be continued
                                             the most effective program to employ.      and the potential costs (e.g., medical,


property damage, liability insurance        guidance on how to find the right            assist in identifying ongoing support.18
premiums) if they go away.14 It is also     person and then build a strong work-         Building collaborative partnerships is
important to understand what the data       ing relationship with him or her. Given      an ongoing process that can involve
indicate and how to present the data to     limited funding for most programs,           some common barriers, such as varying
avoid overgeneralizing (e.g., contribut-    paying for evaluation can be a chal-         priorities among members, conflicts of
ing desired changes to the program          lenge. One suggestion would be to            interest, and lack of or shifting funding.
when no direct links exist or assuming      contact a local college to identify          To overcome these barriers, coalition
that the findings for a specific program    professors or students who are inter-        leaders need to continually assess what is
mean the same program would work on         ested in the topic and may be willing        happening, communicate concerns, and
all campuses) or misusing the data (e.g.,   to become involved. Most professors          work with all members to overcome any
only reporting desired outcomes without     and graduate students need data for          issues. As programs are implemented
acknowledging negative outcomes).           publications so this can be a win-           and refined, more collaboration may
                                            win situation. The Higher Education          be needed.
Engaging an evaluator from the              Center’s Web site also provides a wide
beginning of program development            range of resources on program evalua-        Networking
is important. The publication How to        tion that can be useful in planning for
Select a Program Evaluator15 outlines       evaluation and assuring that appropri-       It may be helpful to network with other
questions to ask and skills to look for     ate data are collected to build support      groups across the state and country
when hiring an evaluator and gives          for sustainability.                          who share the program’s or coalition’s
                                                                                         mission. These can include state or local
                                                                                         prevention agencies, MADD chapters,
                                            sharing of resources and demonstrates
2. Mechanisms for                           strong commitment to the issue(s).
                                                                                         state liquor control offices, county
   Developing and                                                                        treatment and prevention programs,
                                            Collaboration requires ongoing com-          and so forth. Such networking efforts
   Promoting                                munication and nurturing of relation-        can increase the program’s visibility.
   Sustainable Programs                     ships. Partners need to be empowered         In Experiences in Effective Prevention,19
                                            to use their strengths.17 Not all collabo-   model program recipients reported that
                                            rators will be involved in all aspects of    networking increased the likelihood of
Collaboration                               the program or coalition; administra-        sustainability; that is, it is more diffi-
                                            tors should utilize partner strengths,       cult for an institution to discontinue a
Given the immensity of the task of pre-     interests, and resources strategically.      program that has gained local, state, or
venting or reducing alcohol and other       Programs and coalitions also need indi-      national recognition. Broader network-
drug abuse and violence, collaboration      viduals who will advocate for them and       ing can also help to modify and improve
is essential. Strong programs identify                                                   efforts through the exchange of ideas
key stakeholders on and off campus                                                       and techniques with colleagues. Attend-
who can share the same vision and work                                                   ing state and national professional
collaboratively to develop, implement,        “Support and assist the commu-
                                                                                         meetings can provide program staff and
evaluate, and sustain efforts through         nity members who share common
                                                                                         coalition leadership with the latest effec-
identifying how each can be helpful           concerns. . . . Invite members
                                                                                         tive strategies. Networking can also pro-
                                              to join your coalition with cau-
in mobilizing long-term support and                                                      vide insight into sustainability strategies
                                              tion and purposeful intent. Avoid
resources. The stronger these relation-                                                  and resources that might not have been
                                              the trap of one person from this
ships, the more likely key stakeholders                                                  identified locally but have been success-
                                              department and one from that
will contribute to sustaining efforts.                                                   ful for similar programs or groups.
                                              organization just to fill the roster.”
Experiences in Effective Prevention: The
U.S. Department of Education’s Alcohol            — Sally A. Linowski, Ph.D.,
                                                    Associate Director,
                                                                                         Promoting the Program
and Other Drug Prevention Models on
College Campuses Grants16 indicates                 University Health Services,          Every publication, Web site, and col-
that across model programs, collabora-              University of Massachusetts          league queried about sustainability indi-
tion created a “critical mass” of strong            Amherst                              cated the importance of promoting the
support. Collaboration also allows for                                                   program. For a program or coalition to

                                                                                         programs no longer be available. One
    “Brag about your program. Submit information on your program success to              note of caution is to make sure that the
    the campus media for articles, TV, radio spots, and other media opportuni-           process is a true assessment and report-
    ties. Capitalize on opportunities to talk about your program when alcohol use        ing of what is happening, not an
    or other behaviors gain national attention. Share your results widely. Submit        opportunity to make the campus “look
    proposals for conference presentations and prepare publications highlighting         good” to promote the institution.
    successes, challenges, and lessons learned.”
                                    —M. Dolores Cimini, Ph.D.,                           Building Organizational
                                     Assistant Director for Prevention and               Capacity
                                     Program Evaluation, University at Albany,
                                                                                         To sustain programs and coalitions,
                                     State University of New York
                                                                                         an infrastructure must be in place to
                                                                                         support them. Developing or strength-
                                                                                         ening infrastructure is part of building
be sustained, potential sources of fund-    Promoting the program also means             organizational capacity. The model pro-
ing or other support need to be aware of    presenting program goals and data in a       grams reviewed in Experiences in Effective
the program, the individuals involved,      format that makes them easy to under-        Prevention23 stressed the importance of
the program’s successes, and its contri-    stand, communicate, and utilize. Pre-        planning ahead for changes in staffing,
butions to the organizational mission.      sentations of program successes need to      leadership, and resources. One way to
                                            be tailored to the audience.21 It can be     ensure the sustainability of programs
One way of promoting the program                                                         and coalitions is to ensure that multiple
                                            helpful to present both quantitative data
and strengthening collaborations is to                                                   program staff or coalition leaders and
                                            (numbers showing changes in desired
celebrate successes publicly.20 Giving                                                   members are trained in the essential
                                            behaviors) and qualitative data (anec-
public recognition to collaborators and                                                  program elements or strategies. By
                                            dotes or testimonials from program
administration can assist in sustaining                                                  training individuals at multiple levels,
                                            recipients or stakeholders). By combin-
ongoing efforts. Individuals are much                                                    programming is likely to be sustained
                                            ing these types of data, the presentation
more likely to continue to support and                                                   even if there is turnover in key staff or
                                            can engage the audience and present
advocate for a program if they feel their                                                leadership positions. Development of
                                            measurable evidence of success.
efforts are recognized and appreciated.                                                  written resources, such as manuals and
                                            One helpful way to raise awareness           ongoing documentation of program
                                            of the issues and promote existing           processes, also ensures that programs are
    “Make a place for yourself at the       programming is through the biennial          sustained with fidelity. It is also helpful
    university, city, county, and state     review process. All institutions of higher   to keep a written record of collaborators
    level. Offer expertise and make         education that receive any type of           and the roles that they have played. If
    a case for the worthiness of your       federal funding are required by law to       transitions are needed from one col-
    population. Many believe college        conduct a biennial review of their           laborator (individual or organization) to
    students are already overprivileged
                                            prevention program to determine its          another, this position can be filled more
    and don’t want to share resources
                                            effectiveness and implement changes to       appropriately and seamlessly.
    to protect or to prevent harm in
                                            the program if they are needed, and to
    this population. Show why an
                                            ensure that disciplinary sanctions are       Building a Diversified
    investment in the college popula-
    tion is good for everyone.”             consistently enforced.22 Engaging            Funding or Support Plan
                                            stakeholders from across campus,
       — Koreen Johannessen, M.S.W.,        including senior administration, in this     Regardless of which types of funding
         Former Director of                 review process provides the opportunity      sources are pursued, it is important to
         Health Promotion and               to highlight program effectiveness,          include sustainiblity funding options
         Preventive Services,               identify gaps in services or program-        and support within the strategic plan.
         University of Arizona              ming that need to be filled, and discuss     This plan should include the types
                                            potential negative effects on the campus     of funding sources to be pursued
                                            and community should the existing            for particular program elements, the


manner in which the approach will be         such funding provides an opportunity          or certain elements. In Building Long-
made, and the person responsible for         to establish a program or coalition and       Term Support for Alcohol and Other
the approach. It is also important to        determine effectiveness, at least in the      Drug Prevention Programs,27 the authors
establish a timeline.24 As already stated,   short term, grants are not intended for       point out that foundations are generally
program sustainability is an ongoing         long-term support. If grants are the          interested in projects and programs
process that begins as early as possible.    only source of funding that is sought,        that have evidence of effectiveness in
Once initial seed money or grant             programs risk lack of stability and           producing change and can be replicated
funding is ending, it is difficult to        sustainability over the long term.            to achieve a broader effect or “reach.”
gather enough resources to sustain           Programs and coalitions can lose sight        Approaching foundations requires
programming with quality and fidelity.       of their mission, vision, and strategic       research into their interests and past
                                             plan if all of their sustainability efforts   funding history. Working with the
Incorporating sustainability into the        focus primarily on obtaining grants,          campus development office (grant
strategic planning process involves          some of which may provide funding             administration personnel) can be
identifying a range of funding oppor-        but not be a good fit, that is, the           critical when approaching foundations
tunities and resources. In order to          funder’s goals may not be the goals of        or individuals for donations.28 The
develop a comprehensive and diversi-         the program.                                  development office can help to identify
fied plan, it is important to begin by                                                     potential funders, develop applications,
determining the costs and resources          There are alternatives or additions to
                                                                                           and assist in building relationships or
needed for each component as well as         grant funding, many of which are
                                                                                           serving as advocates for the program.
for the entire program or project. As        described by Nagy in “Strategies for
mentioned in the evaluation section, it      Sustaining the Initiative.”26 A favorable      Some program elements may also have
may be necessary to determine which          sustainability outcome for most               the potential for charging a fee-for-
components are most critical and seek        programs would be to become a line            service.29 This could mean charging for
funding for those first, rather than         item in an existing departmental or           a specific class that has been developed
only thinking of sustainability in the       organizational budget. This can be            and evaluated or selling manuals or
global, all or nothing sense. It is also     achieved through working closely with         materials. In general, while this type
important to assess existing resources       senior administrators or advocating for       of funding will support finite program
that will be sustained beyond the initial    the program with legislators. While           elements, rather than comprehensive
funding source. These may include            this may be the ideal, many programs          programming or coalition work, it can
staff, facilities, equipment, program        will never attain this status. This           constitute an important part of a larger
materials, volunteers, and so forth. The     process can also be lengthy and there         sustainability plan.
funding plan for sustainability should       are other measures program directors
be designed to fill the gaps between         can explore while working on securing         Final Note
existing and ongoing resources and           a budget line item. In times of fiscal
those that are critical for program          problems, budget line items may even          The suggestions described in this pub-
sustainability that will be lost when        be withdrawn so it is important not to        lication may be helpful in sustaining
current funding ends.25                      rely solely on this source of funding.        program efforts and building program
                                                                                           support. Some of the most important
                                             As mentioned earlier, collaborators can       factors include being purposeful, cre-
Creating a diversified sustainability        share resources and thus decrease the
plan involves thinking creatively                                                          ative, flexible, and visible. Additional
                                             external resources needed for sustain-        resources that can help with sustain-
and being flexible. There are various        ability. In-kind donations, such as
potential sources of funding and                                                           ability are provided at the end of this
                                             equipment, materials, and meeting             document.
resources, some of which are more            space, can be sought from local
obvious than others (e.g., donations,        businesses and organizations. Publicly        Peggy Glider, Ph.D., is the coordinator
volunteers, endowments, city, county,        acknowledging these donations can             of evaluation and research for the Campus
and state budget support, and partner-       help to generate other donations.             Health Service at the University of
ships with other agencies to share                                                         Arizona.
expenses). Many projects and coalitions      Corporate and private giving can also
are started under grant funding. While       be sought to sustain the entire program

                                                      9. Task Force of the National Advisory Council         17. U.S. Department of Health and Human
References                                                on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National              Services. Action 5: Keeping It All Together:
                                                          Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.             Ideas for Sustaining Your Initiative (Rockville,
1. DeJong, W. Problem Analysis: The First Step
                                                          A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of              Md.: U.S. Department of Health and
   in Prevention Planning (Washington, D.C.:
                                                          Drinking at U.S. Colleges (Washington, D.C.:           Human Services, Substance Abuse and
   U.S. Department of Education, Higher
                                                          National Institutes of Health, 2002). Posted           Mental Health Services Administration,
   Education Center for Alcohol and Other
                                                          at http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.               Center for Mental Health Services, 2002).
   Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2009).
                                                          gov/NIAAACollegeMaterials/TaskForce/                   Available at
   Available at
                                                          TaskForce_TOC.aspx.                                    publications/allpubs/SVP-0063/action_
                                                      10. Toomey, T. L.; Lenk, K. M.; and Wagenaar,              pamphlet_5/default.asp.
                                                          A. C. “Environmental Policies to Reduce            18. Center for Mental Health in Schools, New
2. Ibid.
                                                          College Drinking: An Update of Research                Initiatives: Considerations Related to Planning,
3. Langford, L., and DeJong, W. Strategic Plan-
                                                          Findings.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol and           Implementing, Sustaining, and Going-to-Scale.
   ning for Prevention Professionals on Campus
                                                          Drugs 68: 208–209, 2007.                           19. DeJong, Experiences in Effective Prevention.
   (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
                                                      11. Larimer, M. E., and Cronce, J. M. “Identifi-       20. U.S. Department of Health and Human
   Education, Higher Education Center for
                                                          cation, Prevention, and Treatment Revisited:           Services, Keeping It All Together: Ideas for
   Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence
   Prevention, 2008). Available at http://www.            Individual-Focused College Drinking                    Sustaining Your Initiative.              Prevention Strategies 1999–2006.” Addictive        21. National Center for Mental Health Promotion
   strategic-planning-prevention-professionals-           Behaviors 32: 2439–2468, 2007. Posted at               and Youth Violence Prevention, “Legacy
   campus.                                                        Wheel.”
4. Ibid.                                                  journal/03064603.                                  22. DeRicco, B. Complying With the Drug-Free
5. DeJong, W., and Davidson, L. Building Long-        12. DeJong and Davidson, Building Long-Term                Schools and Campuses Regulations [EDGAR
   Term Support for Alcohol and Other Drug                Support for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention          Part 86]: A Guide for University and College
   Prevention Programs (Washington, D.C.: U.S.            Programs.                                              Administrators (Washington, D.C.: U.S.
   Department of Education, Higher Educa-             13. Center for Mental Health in Schools. New               Department of Education, Higher Education
   tion Center for Alcohol and Other Drug                 Initiatives: Considerations Related to Planning,       Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse
   Prevention, 2000). Available at http://www.            Implementing, Sustaining, and Going-to-Scale.          and Violence Prevention, 2006). Available          14. DeJong and Davidson, Building Long-Term                at
   building-long-term-support-alcohol-and-                Support for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention          publications/complying-drug-free-schools-
   other-drug-prevention-programs; National               Programs; Center for Mental Health in                  and-campuses-regulations-edgar-part-86-
   Center for Mental Health Promotion and                 Schools, New Initiatives: Considerations               guide-unive.
   Youth Violence Prevention. “Legacy Wheel.”             Related to Planning, Implementing, Sustaining,     23. DeJong, Experiences in Effective Prevention.
   Available at           and Going-to-Scale.                                24. Nagy, J. “Developing a Plan for Financial
   implementing/sustainability/legacy-wheel.          15. Langford, L., and DeJong, W. How to Select a           Sustainability.” Chapter 42, section 1 of
   (Accessed on March 11, 2010.)                          Program Evaluator (Washington, D.C.: U.S.              The Community Toolbox (Lawrence, Kan.:
6. National Center for Mental Health Promotion            Department of Education, Higher Educa-                 University of Kansas). Available at http://ctb.
   and Youth Violence Prevention. “Legacy                 tion Center for Alcohol and Other Drug       
   Wheel.”                                                Prevention, 2001). Available at http://www.        25. Ibid.
7. Center for Mental Health in Schools. New               26. Nagy, J. “Strategies for Sustaining the
   Initiatives: Considerations Related to Planning,       how-select-program-evaluator.                          Initiative.” Chapter 46, section 2 of The
   Implementing, Sustaining, and Going-to-Scale       16. DeJong, W. Experiences in Effective Prevention:        Community Toolbox (Lawrence, Kan.:
   (Los Angeles: University of California, Los            The U.S. Department of Education’s Alcohol             University of Kansas). Available at http://
   Angeles, 2008). Available at http://smhp.              and Other Drug Prevention Models on College              Campuses Grants (Washington, D.C.: U.S.            27. DeJong and Davidson, Building Long-Term
   pdf; DeJong and Davidson, Building Long-               Department of Education, Higher Education              Support for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention
   Term Support for Alcohol and Other Drug                Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse                Programs.
   Prevention Programs.                                   and Violence Prevention, 2007). Available at       28. Ibid.
8. DeJong, W. Setting Goals and Choosing                    29. Nagy, “Strategies for Sustaining the
   Effective Strategies (Washington, D.C.: U.S.           publications/experiences-effective-prevention.         Initiative.”
   Department of Education, Higher Education
   Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse
   and Violence Prevention). In review.


                                          The U.S. Department of Education’s           The Network Addressing Collegiate
Resources                                 Higher Education Center for Alcohol          Alcohol and Other Drug Issues
                                          and Other Drug Abuse and Violence  ; see Web
Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools
                                          Prevention                                   site for e-mail and telephone contacts
                                ;               by region
U.S. Department of Education
                                          1-800-676-1730;;                                                               The Network Addressing Collegiate
                                          TDD Relay-friendly, Dial 711
202-245-7896                                                                           Alcohol and Other Drug Issues
                                          The Higher Education Center considers        (Network) is a national consortium
OSDFS supports efforts to create safe
                                          strategic planning and evaluation to be      of colleges and universities formed to
schools, respond to crises, prevent
                                          important components of a comprehen-         promote healthy campus environments
alcohol and other drug abuse, ensure
                                          sive prevention approach. The Higher         by addressing issues related to alcohol
the health and well-being of students,
                                          Education Center has several publications    and other drugs. Developed in 1987 by
and teach students good character and
                                          and other materials to help campus           the U.S. Department of Education, the
citizenship. The agency provides
                                          administrators develop and evaluate          Network comprises member institutions
financial assistance for drug abuse and
                                          prevention programs. These materials         that voluntarily agree to work toward
violence prevention programs and
                                          can be accessed for free from its Web        a set of standards aimed at reducing
activities that promote the health and
                                          site. The Higher Education Center also       alcohol and other drug abuse problems
well-being of students in elementary
                                          provides training and technical assistance   at colleges and universities. It has more
and secondary schools and institutions
                                          services related to strategic planning.      than 1,600 members nationwide.
of higher education.

    We wish to thank the individuals listed below for reviewing this publication. We appreciate the
    comments they provided to help us assure that this publication has a solid scientific foundation
    and contains clear messages. To the extent that we achieved that goal, the credit is theirs. To the
    extent we did not, the fault is ours.
        • M. Dolores Cimini, University at Albany, State University of New York
        • Jenny Haubenreiser, Montana State University

                TiTles in The Prevention 101 SerieS
                The ApproAch And FrAmework
                1.		 Environmental	Management:	A	Comprehensive	Strategy	for	Reducing	
                     Alcohol	and	Other	Drug	Use	on	College	Campuses	
                2.		 Environmental	Management:	An	Approach	to	Alcohol	and	Other	Drug	
                3.		 Experiences	in	Effective	Prevention:	The	U.S.	Department	of	Education’s	
                     Alcohol	and	Other	Drug	Prevention	Models	on	College	Campuses	Grants
                4.		 Preventing	Violence	and	Promoting	Safety	in	Higher	Education	Settings:	
                     Overview	of	a	Comprehensive	Approach
                The Building Blocks
                1.		 Getting	Started	on	Campus:	Tips	for	New	Prevention	Coordinators	
                2.		 Strategic	Planning	for	Prevention	Professionals	on	Campus	
                3.		 Problem	Analysis:	The	First	Step	in	Prevention	Planning	
                4.		 Setting	Goals	and	Choosing	Evidence-based	Strategies	[In	review]
                5.		 Sustainability:	Building	Program	and	Coalition	Support
                6.		 Building	an	Infrastructure	for	AODV	Prevention:	Coalitions	and	
                     Statewide	Initiatives
                7.		 College	Alcohol	Risk	Assessment	Guide:	Environmental	Approaches	
                     to	Prevention	(CARA)	
                8.		Methods	for	Assessing	College	Student	Use	of	Alcohol	and	Other	Drugs
                9.		Evaluating	Environmental	Management	Approaches	to	Alcohol	and	Other	
                    Drug	Abuse	Prevention	
                10.		Alcohol	and	Other	Drug	Policies	for	Colleges	and	Universities:	A	Guide	
                    for	Administrators	[In	review]

                                                  Our Mission

          he                                      The mission of the U.S. Department of


                                                  Education’s Higher Education Center for
      for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse
           and Violence Prevention                Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence
  Funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s
     Of ce of Safe and Drug-Free Schools          Prevention is to assist institutions of higher
                                                  education in developing, implementing, and
                                                  evaluating alcohol, other drug, and violence
                                                  prevention policies and programs that will foster
                                                  students’ academic and social development and
                                                  promote campus and community safety.

How We Can Help
The U.S. Department of Education’s Higher Education Center offers an integrated array of
services to help people at colleges and universities adopt effective prevention strategies:
 • Resources, referrals, and consultations
 • Training and professional development activities
 • Publication and dissemination of prevention materials
 • Assessment, evaluation, and analysis activities
 • Web site featuring online resources, news, and information
 • Support for the Network Addressing Collegiate Alcohol and Other Drug Issues

                              Get in Touch
                              Additional information can be obtained by contacting:
                              The Higher Education Center for
                              Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention
                              Education Development Center, Inc.
                              55 Chapel Street
                              Newton, MA 02458-1060
                              Phone: 1-800-676-1730; TDD Relay-friendly, Dial 711

               Funded by the U.S. Department of Education

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