Three Dimentions.ppt - Mason aca

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					   1.3. Engineering Creativity:
        Three Dimensions
                 1. Fundamentals
CEIE 411 “Introduction to Design and Inventive Engineering”
                 Tomasz Arciszewski
                    Spring, 2010
                                                        1
Global/Regional Dimension



                            2
                    Source
•   Richard Florida, Public Policy School, GMU
•   Regional economics expert
•   Focus on large scale social changes
•   Nationally and internationally known for
    introducing the concept of a “creative class”




                                                    3
                 Evolution
• Evolution of modern societies has periods of
  quantitative and qualitative changes
  (transformations)
• Major periods:
  – Agricultural Society, focus on land and human
    labor
  – Industrial Society, focus on raw materials and
    physical labor
  – Knowledge Society, focus on human intelligence
    and creativity

                                                     4
           Transformation
• Period of rapid technological and social
  changes
• A modern society is a complex adaptive
  system
• Transformation can be interpreted as:
  – Instability region
  – Trajectory change
  – Elimination of evolution contradictions
  – Period of inequalities and of social tension
                                                 5
    and changes
              Creative Class
• Several descriptions:
  – All people producing non-material goods
    (knowledge),
  – Creators of meaningful new forms
  – All people doing non-routine work
• Two major components:
  – Super-Creative Core: scientists, engineers,
    university professors, poets, novelists, artists,
    leaders of modern society
  – Creative Professionals: work in knowledge-
    intensive industries, high-tech and financial
    services, legal and health professionals            6
       Creative Class Growth

•   Beginning of the 20th Century - 10%
•   Mid-forties - 15%
•   Early eighties - 20%
•   Now - 30%



                                          7
      Creative Class Importance

US Major Economy Sectors:

• Manufacturing
• Services
• Creative sector - approximately 50% of
  all wages and salary income


                                           8
  Transformation Challenges
• Building the broader creative society
• New social institutions and policies are
  needed
• Addressing the issue of growth inequalities
  and of social tension
• Income differentiation (Inequality index) is
  highest in the creative regions:
  – Raleigh - Durham NC
  – San Francisco
  – Washington - Baltimore
                                                 9
        Major Hypotheses
• Regional growth depends on creativity,
  as measured by the New Creativity
  Index
• Regional growth may be stimulated
  (controlled) by building creative
  ecosystems /environments/communities
  /regions (creative regions)

                                       10
           Creative Region
•   Memphis, Tennessee, 2003
•   Workshop on building a creative region
•   100 invited participants
•   The Memphis Manifesto produced:
    guidelines for a community how to
    develop “innovation infrastructure” /
    creative region

                                             11
       Memphis Manifesto
• The call to action by the Creative Class
• Provides 10 principles how to build a
  creative region
• More details at
 http://www.memphismanifesto.com/




                                             12
                    Creative Region Building Principles
•   1.        Cultivate and reward creativity. Everyone is part of the value chain of creativity. Creativity can
    happen at anytime, anywhere, and it’s happening in your community right now. Pay attention.
•   2.        Invest in the creative ecosystem. The creative ecosystem can include arts and culture, nightlife, the
    music scene, restaurants, artists and designers, innovators, entrepreneurs, affordable spaces, lively
    neighborhoods, spirituality, education, density, public spaces and third places.
•   3.        Embrace diversity. It gives birth to creativity, innovation and positive economic impact. People of
    different backgrounds and experiences contribute a diversity of ideas, expressions, talents and
    perspectives that enrich communities. This is how ideas flourish and build vital communities.
•   4.        Nurture the creativeness. Support the connectors. Collaborate to compete in a new way and get
    everyone in the game.
•   5.        Value risk-taking. Convert a “no” climate into a “yes” climate. Invest in opportunity-making, not just
    problem-solving. Tap into the creative talent, technology and energy for your community. Challenge
    conventional wisdom.
•   6.        Be authentic. Identify the value you add and focus on those assets where you can be unique. Dare
    to be different, not simply the look-alike of another community. Resist monoculture and homogeneity. Every
    community can be the right community.
•   7.        Invest in and build on quality of place. While inherited features such as climate, natural resources
    and population are important, other critical features such as arts and culture, open and green spaces,
    vibrant downtowns, and centers of learning can be built and strengthened. This will make communities
    more competitive than ever because it will create more opportunities than ever for ideas to have an impact.
•   8.        Remove barriers to creativity, such as mediocrity, intolerance, disconnectedness, sprawl, poverty,
    bad schools, exclusivity, and social and environmental degradation.
•   9.        Take responsibility for change in your community. Improvise. Make things happen. Development is
    a “do it yourself” enterprise.
•   10.       Ensure that every person, especially children, has the right to creativity. The highest quality lifelong
    education is critical to developing and retaining creative individuals as a resource for communities.

                                                                                                                   13
Creativity and Tolerance Indexes
• Creativity Index:
   –   The innovation index
   –   High-tech index
   –   Gay index
   –   Creative class index
• Tolerance Index:
   –   The gay index
   –   The Bohemian index
   –   The Melting Pot index
   –   A measure of racial integrity
• Both indexes are strongly correlated
  (approximately 80%)                    14
           The Gay Index
• 1990’s, Hary Gates, Urban Institute,
  Washington, DC
• Studied concentration of gay people is
  various regions (US Census of Population)
• Discovered that places popular among gays
  are locations of high-tech industry
• The Gay Index measures the number of
  “unmarried partners of the same sex”
• “Canaries of the Creative Age”

                                              15
          The Bohemian Index
• It measures the number of artististically creative
  people (artists)
• Artists:
   –   Authors
   –   Designers
   –   Musicians
   –   Composers
   –   Actors
   –   Directors
   –   Painters
   –   Sculptors
   –   Etc.
                                                       16
     Creative Class Values
• Individuality
• Meritocracy with focus on merit:
  – Hard work
  – Challenge
  – Stimulation
  – Goal-setting
  – Achievement
• Diversity and openness
                                     17
          Regional Growth

• Social capital has little impact
• Creative capital very important
• Human capital very important




                                     18
                Social Capital
• It occurs in tightly knit old-style communities
• Major descriptors:
   –   Political involvement
   –   Civil leadership
   –   Faith-based initiatives
   –   Protest politics
   –   Giving and volunteering
• An inverse relationship between the social
  capital and High-Tech Index

                                                    19
          Creative Capital
• It occurs in creative communities
• Major descriptors:
  – High levels of diversity
  – High-Tech industry presence
  – Low levels of social capital
  – Low levels of political involvement
• A linear relationship between the
  creative capital and High-Tech Index
                                          20
              Conclusion
• Creative class is an emerging social
  class of growing importance
• Creative class occurs in a creative
  region
• There are many characteristics of a
  creative region, which are relatively well
  understood
• It is possible to create a creative region
                                           21
The Medici Effect




                    22
                      The Medicis
• A very wealthy banking family
• Florence, Italy, 15th century
• Funded creators in many disciplines:
   –   Architects
   –   Painters
   –   Scientists
   –   Philosophers
   –   Poets
   –   Sculptors
• Created a unique environment leading to the Medici
  Effect

                                                       23
24
 The Medici Phenomenon/Effect
• Congregation of creators
• A creative community
• Human interactions, exchange of ideas, mutual
  inspiration and learning, breaking barriers between
  disciplines and cultures
• Connecting/intersecting disciplines to produce
  creative insights
• Creating intersections
• Creative explosion
• Changing context, Synectics in action
• Rapidly expanding search space
• A complex dynamic system                              25
    Creating the Medici Effect
• Breaking down the barriers between fields
  (Swedish and Mexican food)
• Breaking associative barriers (changing the
  context, situated learning, vector of inertia)
   – A brick and a wall versus a brick and an energy
     accumulator
• Darwin and Gould (a prominent zoologist)
   –   Local versus global thinking style
   –   Both saw birds from the Galapagos Islands
   –   Gould (a taxonomist) saw a classification
   –   Darwin saw evolution (big picture)              26
27
            Intersection
Time and place specific unique
  combinations of:
• Fields
• Disciplines
• Cultures
• Personalities
• Languages

                                 28
        Intersection Examples
• Mick Pearee, an architect in Harare, Zimbabwe
• A challenge to build an office building without air
  conditioning
• Solution at the intersection of:
   – Architecture
   – Biology, how termites cool their nests (constant 87 F
     degrees)
• Creative solution:
   – Use of wet mud to cool the air
   – Use of winds to distribute cool air

                                                             29
          Intersection Examples
• 2002, Brown University, Rhode Island
• A rhesus monkey is trained to play a computer game
  controlling the cursor mentally
• Deliberate effort to find an intersection of disciplines
• Research group focused on understanding how the
  brain works:
   –   Mathematicians
   –   MDs
   –   Neuroscientists
   –   Computer scientists
• GMU Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study

                                                             30
       Intersection Drivers
• Movement of people
• Convergence of science (disciplines
  coming together)
• Leap of computation (simulation,
  distributed computing, etc.)



                                        31
     How to Break Barriers
• Expose yourself to a range of cultures
  (and languages)
• Learn differently (self-education and
  broad learning experience in several
  fields)
• Reverse assumptions
• Take multiple perspectives

                                           32
       Expect the Unexpected
•   Break barriers
•   Create Intersection
•   Create a flood of ideas
•   Control your fears of risks




                                  33
  Directional versus Intersectional Ideas

• Local versus global thinking
• Directional Ideas:
  – Produced within a single domain
  – Result of evolution
  – Following the inertia vector
• Intersectional Ideas:
  – Produced at the intersection of at least two
    domains
  – Result of revolution (paradigm change)
  – Changing the direction of evolution
                                                   34
Creative versus Innovative Ideas
• Creative ideas:
  – New, or unknown before
     • To the creator (relative nature)
     • In the field (absolutely new)
  – Valuable, or relevant and potentially useful
• Innovative ideas:
  – Creative ideas
  – Implemented, realized
• Innovation - applied creativity
                                                   35
             Conclusions
• The Medici Effect is crucial for creation
  of a creative community
• Intersection is the fundamental
  mechanism of creativity
• Understanding the Medici Effect allows
  its recreation


                                              36
The Renaissance Man



                      37
            Renaissance
• Began second part of 15th century
• Rinascimento in Italian:
  the revival (of classical ideas of human power
  and potentiality)
• Cultural, intellectual and social
  transformations driven by capitalism
• Ascetics of Middle Ages versus
  “consumerism” of Renaissance


                                               38
      Why Renaissance?

• Black Death (Bubonic plaque) in the
  14th century
• Rapid death of about 50% of population
• Religious, philosophical and emotional
  paradigm change
• Wealth concentration
                                       39
Treasure Ship




                40
           Renaissance:
           Major Features

•   Social changes
•   Scientific discoveries
•   Geographic discoveries
•   Inventions
•   Art revolution

                             41
           Social Changes
• Humanism - focus on preoccupation with man
  in relation to human society rather than to
  God
• Growing role of women
• Decline of feudalism
• Beginning of capitalism
• International trade (globalization)
• Interest in arts, fine arts, literature
• Immigration
• Beginning of colonialism                    42
      Scientific Discoveries
Astronomy:

• Sun planetary system
    (Mikolaj Kopernik)
• Dynamics of a planetary system
    (Johannes Kepler)

                                   43
     Geographic Discoveries

• Spanish explorers:
  – Columbus - North America
• Portugal explorers:
  – Vasco da Gama - West Coast of Africa
  – Henry the Navigator - Atlantic exploration along
    the west coast of Africa
• Dutch explorers:
  – Krzysztof Arciszewski - Brazil

                                                       44
Krzysztof Arciszewski
46
     Krzysztof Arciszewski
• 1592-1656
• A leading figure of the Polish Renaissance
• Educated:
   – Protestant schools (Poland)
   – University of Frankfurt (Germany)
   – Military Academy (The Netherlands)
• An intelligence officer (Count Radziwil,
  Cardinal Richelieu)
    Krzysztof Arciszewski
• A military engineer (Pernambuco,
  Reclife)
• A military officer:
  – A Dutch and Polish General and
    Admiral
• Conquered Brazil
• Participated in several wars in
  Eastern Europe
• Created Polish Royal Artillery and
  Fleet
Military and Engineering Achievements
    Krzysztof Arciszewski
• A poet
• Published a medical treatise
• A biologist:
  – Brought from Brazil a large
    collection of plant and animal
    specimens
  – Created a material foundation for
    modern biology and zoology in the
    Netherlands
Da Vinci and Arciszewski: Global Men
• Non-traditional education
• Accused of crimes and forced to leave their
  countries
• Unmarried (successful intelligence and
  compensation)
• Polymaths
• Spoke and wrote in several languages
• Lived and worked in several countries
• Frequently traveled
                 Inventions

•   Printing press
•   Pencil and inexpensive paper
•   Magnetic compass and large sailing ships
•   Long-range cannon
•   Mechanical clock



                                               52
            Art Revolution

•   Humanism
•   Landscape
•   Color
•   Perspective
•   New technologies

                             53
            Major Figures
• Columbus (an explorer)
• Mikolaj Kopernik
      (an astronomer)
• Leonardo Da Vinci
      (an engineer)
• William Shakespeare (a poet)
• Nicollo Machiavelli
      (a philosopher)
• John Calvin (theology)
                                 54
Alberti, Copernicus, Galilei




                               55
        Paradigm Change
Significant changes in all areas of life in
  various European societies leading to
  new understanding of science, religion,
  art, and, most importantly, to an
  entirely new attitude to life based on
  the assumptions of unlimited human
  potential and of the importance of joy
  of life
                                         56
 Uomo Universale, Universal/Global Man
• A well-rounded, balanced person comfortable
  with both art and science (liberal education)
• IT literate
• Mentally literate (Mental Literacy, Tony
  Buzan, practical familiarity with evolving
  understanding of the human man)
• Globally aware (appreciation of global links in
  communication, economies, ecosystems,
  cultures, etc.)
• Leon Batista Alberti (1404-1472), architect,
  engineer, mathematician, painter,
  philosopher, athlete, musician                 57
58
Leonardo Da Vinci




                    59
60
          Why Leonardo?
“Think of the end before the beginning”
                        Leonardo Da Vinci

• A Renaissance man
• Truly a creative designer
• Father of the design
  science/methodological reflection

                                       61
                            Life
• Born in 1452 in Florence area
• Apprentice in the studio of sculptor and painter Andrea del
  Verrrochio
• 1472, joins the Company of St. Luke, a guilt of apothecaries,
  physicians, and artists
• 1476, arrested in Florence and accused of sodomy
• 1482, moves to Milan and works for Ludivico Sforza (The Last
  Supper)
• 1500, returns to Florence
• 1512, moves to Rome to work for the Pope
• 1516, moves to France, Ambois in the Loire Valley
• 1519, dies

                                                                  62
         Accomplishments
• Art:
first to paint landscapes, use of oil paints,
   application of perspective, sfumato, etc.,
   Mona Lisa, the Last Supper, The Madonna
   and the Child, etc.
• Architecture:
general design principia, cathedrals in Milan
   and Pavia


                                                63
64
65
66
67
The Last Supper




                  68
69
Angel




        70
71
Self-portrait




                72
73
Mona Lisa




            74
75
            Accomplishments
• Sculptor:
The Saint John the Baptist, Preaching to a Levite, etc.
• Inventor:
a flying machine, a parachute, a gear box, a bicycle,
   etc.
• Military engineer:
armored tank, machine gun, submarine
• Scientist:
contributions in anatomy, botany, geology and physics

                                                          76
77
78
79
80
81
Self-propelled Cart




                      82
Self-propelled Cart




                      83
Self-propelled Cart




                      84
85
86
      Why so successful?

• What was the driving force?
• How to learn it?
• How to become a universal man?




                                   87
       Da Vincian Principles
1.   Curiosita
2.   Dimonstrazione
3.   Sensazione
4.   Sfumato
5.   Arte/Scienza
6.   Corpolita
7.   Connessione
                               88
89
Curiosita

            90
             Curiosita

…is a curious approach to life and a
 quest for continuous learning

(design knowledge acquisition,
  design process as a learning
  process)
                                       91
              Curiosity
• We are born curious with the desire to
  learn more
• Our challenge: using and developing
  our curiosity
• Great minds go on asking questions
  with the same intensity throughout
  their lives
• Curiosity provides knowledge
                                           92
     Motivation (Leonardo)

• No passion for women
• “He transmuted his passion into
  inquisitiveness” (Freud)
• Formal studies and daily experiences of
  the world around us


                                        93
         Investigative Style
• Depth of study and broad range of related
  topics
• Use of multiple perspectives (literally and
  symbolically)
• Multistage learning with breaks (conscious
  and subconscious periods)
• Changing distance (literally and symbolically)
• Use of metaphors and poetic language


                                               94
        Curiosita and You

• Great minds ask great questions
• Cultivate your questioning frame of
  mind
• Develop your curiosita through proper
  exercises
• Listen when asking questions
                                          95
                Curiosita:
       Applications and Exercises
• Keep your notebook
   – Always carry it
   – Jot down ideas, impressions, observations, etc.
• A hundred questions
   –   Important to you
   –   Written in a single session
   –   No grammar concerns
   –   Later highlight the themes
   –   Consider emerging themes without any judgment
       (brainstorming)
• Top Ten Questions
   – Most significant
   – Rank them                                         96
   – Leave them to mature
          Ten Power Questions
• Drawn from different people
• Considered powerful catalysts to personal growth and fulfillment
• Questions:
    – When am I most naturally myself? What people, places, and
      activities allow me to feel most fully myself?
    – What is one thing I could stop doing, or start doing, or do differently,
      starting today that would most improve the quality of my life?
    – What is my greatest talent?
    – How get I get paid for doing what I love?
    – Who are my most inspiring role models?
    – How can I best be of service to others?
    – What is my heart’s deepest desire?
    – How am I perceived by: my closest friend, my worst enemy, my
      boss, my children, my co-workers, etc.?
    – What are the blessings of my life?
    – What legacy would I like to leave?                                   97
        How Does a Bird Fly?
• Choose one of Da Vinci’s favored topics:
  –   A bird in flight
  –   Flowing water
  –   The human body
  –   A landscape
  –   Reflected light
  –   A knot
• Ask 10 questions, no answers
• Next, the same exercise for your personal
  topic
                                              98
         Theme Observations
• Choose a theme for the day and record
  observations
• Use your list of 100 questions
• Favorite themes:

  –   Emotions
  –   Seeing
  –   Listening
  –   Touch

                                          99
       Contemplation Exercise
• Contemplation - a lost art
• “To look at with continued attention, to meditate on” (Webster)
• Choose any question from previous exercise (what people allow
  me to feel most fully myself?)
• Concentrate on it for at least 10 minutes
• Write your question on a sheet of paper
• Find a quiet place, hang it on the wall
• Relax, breath deeply allow extended exhalation
• Just sit with your question
• Be focused


                                                               100
     Stream of Consciousness Exercise

• A tool for plumbing the depths of your question
• Choose any question, write in your notebook your thoughts and
  associations as they occur, no editing
• Devote at least 10 minutes
• Keep your pen moving
• Write continuously
• Write pure gibberish
• Take a break after a stream of consciousness exercise
• Read aloud what you have written
• Highlight the words and phrases that speak most strongly
• Look for themes and questions
• Contemplate, “Write drunk, revise sober”

                                                             101
       Curiosita and Creative
         Problem Solving
• The primary key to his method
• Create an open mind
• Paradigm shift from focusing on “the right answer”
  toward asking “is this a right question?,” “what are
  some different ways of looking at this problem?”
  (Fairfax circle example)
• Replace, reframe the initial question
• Nomadic societies: How to get to water?
• Agrarian societies: How do we get water to come to
  us?

                                                         102
         Finding the Questions
• Begin by asking simple, “naive” questions
• Ask awkward questions:
   – Why is the emperor naked?
   – Write in your notebook all your questions
• Key questions:
   –   When?
   –   Who?
   –   How?
   –   Where?
   –   Why?

                                                 103
       Curiosita and Continuous
                learning
• “just as iron rusts from disuse, and stagnant
  water putrefies, or when cold water turns to
  ice, so our intellect wastes unless it is kept in
  use”
• Learn a new disciple (dream hobby)
   –   Play a musical instrument
   –   A new language
   –   Scuba diving
   –   Martial arts

                                                  104
         Realize your Ideal Hobby
• Work in your notebook, map out a strategy for
  realizing your ideal hobby
• Make a list of your ideal hobbies, select one
• Ask questions:
   –   How, specifically, will I be benefit from this pursuit?
   –   What are my goals?
   –   What resources will I need?
   –   Where can I find a good teacher?
   –   How much time will I devote to it?
   –   What obstacles must I overcome?



                                                                 105
      Build your own Lexicon

•   Define thousands of words
•   Build ontologies
•   Build intelligent agents
•   Build your own knowledge system



                                      106
Nurture Emotional Intelligence
• Understanding of people and animals on emotional
  level
• Interpersonal and intra-personal intelligence
• Ask spouse, children, friends, etc. for regular
  feedback
   – My weakness
   – My strength
   – What to do to be more effective
• Listen carefully, do not argue, record the feedback for
  contemplation

                                                      107
Dimonstrazione

                 108
        Dimonstrazione


…is a commitment to test knowledge
 through experience

(demonstration, computer simulation,
  virtual reality, physical testing)

                                  109
110
         Dimonstrazione


A commitment to test knowledge through
  experience, persistence and a
  willingness to learn from mistakes



                                     111
           Best Teacher

• Able to help the student to learn for
  himself
• Knows that experience is the source of
  wisdom
• Tries to make the most of your learning
  experience
• Apprentice concept
                                        112
                Learning

• “it is important to go straight to nature”
• “studying books is gaining “experience
  by proxy”




                                               113
              Mistakes
• “Experience never errs; it is only your
  judgment that errs in promising results
  as are not cause by your experience”
• Learning from experience also means
  learning from mistakes
• Negative examples have the same
  values as positive examples in machine
  learning

                                        114
     Ludovico Sforza’s Kitchen
            Automation
•   Leonardo as the head chef for a major banquet
•   Each dish as a miniature works of art
•   New powerful stove
•   A complex system of mechanical conveyor belts to
    more plates around the kitchen
•   A massive sprinkler system
•   Artists and cooks working together
•   Overcrowded kitchen
•   Conveyor fails
•   Fire breaks out
•   A flood washing away all the food and a part of the
                                                          115
    kitchen
    Dimonstrazione and You
• Real significance of Renaissance:
transformation of fundamentals, assumptions,
   preconceptions and beliefs
• “The greatest deception men suffer is from
   their own opinions”
• Questioning our own opinions, assumptions,
   and beliefs
• Use the self-assessment check list (next
   transparency)

                                          116
                 Self-Assessment
•   I am willing to acknowledge my mistakes
•   My closest friend would agree that I am willing to acknowledge my
    mistakes
•   I learn from my mistakes and rarely make the same one twice
•   I question “conventional wisdom” and authority
•   When a celebrity I admire endorses a product, I am more likely to buy it
•   I can articulate my most fundamental beliefs and the reasons I hold
    them
•   I have changed a deeply held belief because of practical experience
•   I persevere in the face of obstacles
•   I view adversity as an opportunity for growth
•   I am sometimes susceptible to superstition
•   I am considering new ideas my friends and associates would say that I
    am a) gullible and “New Agey,” b) closed-minded cynic, c) an open-
    minded skeptic
                                                                         117
            Dimonstrazione:
           Explore Questions
• What are the most influential experiences of your life
  (>7)? Provide 1-sentence descriptions
• Reflect how you apply your experience on an
  everyday basis
• Identify the most influential experience of your life
• Reflect on it - How has this experience colored my
  attitudes and perceptions? Write your answers
• Ask yourself: Can I rethink some of the conclusions
  drawn at the time?


                                                       118
        Check your Beliefs and
              Sources
• Do you know how you found your beliefs?
• Consider any 3 of the following areas:
   –   Human nature
   –   Ethics
   –   Politics
   –   Religion
   –   Medicine
   –   Meaning of life
   –   Marriage
   –   Parenting
   –   History
   –   Other cultures
                                            119
     Check your Beliefs and
           Sources
• Write in your note book your beliefs for
  your 3 areas
• Ask questions:
  – How did I form this idea?
  – How firmly do I believe it?
  – Why do I maintain it?
  – What would make me change my belief?
  – Which of my beliefs inspire the strongest
    emotions?                                   120
     Check your Beliefs and
           Sources

• Consider the role of media, people, and
  your experience
• Identify validity criteria you use dealing
  with your beliefs
• Consider family influence, newspapers,
  television

                                           121
      Three Points of View

• Write in your notebook a belief which
  generated the strongest emotion
• Consider it from 3 perspectives:
  – Your perspective
  – From a distance (different culture)
  – Ask a friend to contribute

                                          122
       Anti-commercial Martial Arts

• Advertising pressure
• Self-defense exercises:
   – Study your favorite magazine and analyze the strategy and
     tactics of each ad
   – Do the same with your favorite radio/tv program
   – Identify ads affecting you most strongly
   – Make the list of 3 best ads. What makes them so good?
   – Identify 10 purchases and identify the influence of ads
   – Try a stream of consciousness writing session on “Role of
     advertising in the formation of my values and self-image”



                                                             123
  Learning from Mistakes and
           Adversity
• Explore your attitudes toward mistakes and contemplate the
  following questions and record your reflections
• Questions:
   – What did you learn at school about making mistakes?
   – What did your parents teach you about making mistakes?
   – What is the biggest mistake you ever made?
   – What did you learn from it?
   – What mistakes do you repeat?
   – What role does the fear of making mistakes play in your daily life, at
     work, and at home
   – Are you more likely to make mistakes of commission or omission?
• Try a stream of consciousness writing session on “What I would
  do differently if I had no fear of making mistakes”

                                                                        124
        Creating Affirmation
• Critical determinant of success: resilience in
  the face of adversity (Pat Galloway - never
  take NO for an answer)
• Your best friends: awareness, deep
  contemplation and humor
• Create you own affirmations
• Write them in 2 forms:
  – I am patient with myself
  – I feel patient with myself
• The second form is more powerful
                                               125
          Learning form
        “Anti-role Models”

• Make a list of at least 3 people who
  have made mistakes that you would like
  to avoid
• Learn from their mistakes



                                      126
Sensazione

             127
           Sensazione


…is the continual refinement of the
 senses and of our results

(design knowledge evolution, design
  evolution)

                                      128
           Doors to Experience
• Sight:
saper vedere
(knowing how to see!!!!)
• Sound
• Touch
• Smell
• Rediscover your senses!!!!
• Psychology:
creative scientists are also artists (R. Michalski -
  a pianist, Andrew Nowak - a painter)            129
               Da Vinci
“He who loses his sight loses his view of
  the universe, and is like one interred
  alive who can still move about and
  breathe in his grave. Do you not see
  that the eye encompasses the beauty of
  the whole world: It is the master of
  astronomy, it assists and directs all the
  arts of man…”
                                         130
                   Vision
• Supreme sense
• Painting was therefore the greatest discipline
• “who would believe that so small a space
  could contain the images of the whole
  universe”
• Second most important sense - hearing in the
  context of music



                                              131
          Multi-sensory Input
•   Vision
•   Hearing - music
•   Feel of fine velvets, silks, and leather
•   Scent of flowers and perfumes
•   Culinary art
•   “the five senses are the ministers of the
    soul”
                                            132
          Sensazione and You
• Creating synesthesia, the synergy of the
  senses, a secret of great artists and scientists
  through the refining of our sensory
  intelligence
• It means thinking about:
   –   Most beautiful thing you have ever seen
   –   The sweetest sound you’ve ever heard
   –   The most exquisitely tender touch
   –   Sublimely delicious taste and a haunting,
       delectable aroma
                                                   133
        Synesthesia

• Senses are the “midwives of
  intelligence”
• Do not “look without seeing”
• “Just as an athlete develops his
  muscles, Leonardo trained his senses,
  educating his observant faculties”

                                          134
Synesthesia




              135
136
      Self-Assessment: Vision
• I am sensitive to color harmonies and clashes
• I know the color of all my friend’s eyes
• I look out into the far horizon and up to the sky at
  least once a day
• I am good at describing a scene in detail
• I like doodling and drawing
• Friends would describe me as alert
• I am sensitive to subtle changes in lighting
• I can picture things clearly in mind’s eye


                                                         137
       Self-Assessment: Hearing
• Friends describe me as a good listener
• I am sensitive to noise
• I can tell when someone is singing off-key
• I can sing on key
• I listen to jazz or classical music regularly
• I can distinguish the melody for the bass line in a piece of music
• I know what all the controls on my stereo system are for and can
  hear the difference when I adjust them
• I enjoy silence
• I am attuned to subtle changes in a speaker’s voice tone,
  volume, and inflection


                                                                 138
     Self-Assessment: Smell
• I have a favorite scent
• Smells affect my emotions strongly, for better
  or worse
• I can recognize friends by their scent
• I know how to use aromas to influence my
  mood
• I can reliably judge the quality of food or wine
  by its aroma
• When I see fresh flowers, I usually take a few
  moments to breathe in their aroma
                                                139
       Self-Assessment: Taste
•   I can taste the “freshness” of fresh foods
•   I enjoy out unusual taste experiences
•   I seek our unusual taste experiences
•   I can discern the flavor contributions of different
    herbs and spices in a complex dish
•   I am a good cook
•   I appreciate the pairing of food and wine
•   I eat consciously, aware of the taste of my food
•   I avoid junk food
•   I avoid eating on the run
•   I enjoy participating in taste tests and wine testing
                                                            140
    Self-Assessment: Touch
• I am aware of the “feel” of the surfaces that
  surround me daily, e.g., the chairs, sofas, and
  car seats I sit on
• I am sensitive to the quality of fabric that I
  wear
• I like to touch and be touched
• I give great hugs
• I know how to listen with my hands
• When I touch someone, I can tell if he or she
  is tense or relaxed
                                               141
Self-Assessment: Synesthesia
• I enjoy describing one sense in terms of
  another
• I intuitively understand which colors are “cold”
  and which are “hot”
• My response to art is visceral
• I am aware of the role of synesthesia in the
  thinking of great artists and scientists
• I can sense which these sounds -
  “ooooohhhlaaa,” “zip-zip-zip,” “ni-ni-ni-ni” -
  are reflected in the following shapes: ~, ^^^,
  vvv
                                                142
      Synesthesia and
   Conceptualisynesthesia
• Not a coincident that we talk about it
• Our course should create
  “conceptualisynesthesia” of
  your minds and your new talents and
  skills
• A synesthesia of heuristics, AI,
  decision science, computer science,
  etc. in the context of
  conceptualization of design concepts
  (transdisciplinarity)                  143
        Vision:
  Looking and Seeing


“the eye encompasses
      the beauty of
   the whole world”
                       144
      The Eye-Palming Exercise
• Sit at a desk in a quiet, private place
• Keep your feet squarely on the floor, be supported by
  bones at the bottom of your pelvis
• Take off glasses
• Rub your palms vigorously for 20 s
• Cup your palms and place them over your closed
  eyes (do not touch the eyeballs)
• Breath deeply and relax for 3-5 m
• Take your palms away from your eyes but keep eyes
  closed for 20 s
• Open gently and look around
• Do it once or twice a day                           145
        Focus Near and Far
• Look at something close to you (a book in
  your hand)
• Change the focus to the farthest horizon
• Pick out a specific element of the farthest
  horizon and focus on it for a few seconds
• Come back to your hand
• Again, look out to the farthest horizon, a
  different element
• The exercise expands your perspective,
  enlivens your eyes
                                                146
                  Soft Eyes
• Allow a few deep exhalations
• Place your index fingers together at eye level about
  12’’ from your face
• Looking straight ahead, move your fingers slowly
  away from each other on the horizontal plane
• Stop moving them when you can no longer see them
  with your peripheral vision
• Bring fingers back to the center
• Repeat the same exercise with the vertical plane
• Relax muscles of your forehead, face, and jaw
• It affects your mind and body!!!
                                                    147
     Describe a Sunrise or Sunset

• Find the exact time of the sunrise or sunset
• Find a quiet place with a good view
• Wait for at least 10 m
• Quiet your mind and body with a few deep
  breaths, extended exhalation
• Do the palming exercise for 3 m
• Focus near and far
• Describe your experience in your notebook
                                                 148
    Study Lives and Work of
        favorite Artists
• Make a list of 10 favorite painters
• Study their lives and work for devoted
  time period:
  – Read
  – Visit museums
  – Have reproductions
• Try to understand key characteristics
• Learn how to use the experience
                                           149
  Saper Vedere and Museums
• Deeper appreciation of art that enhances your saper
  vedere
• Visit museums with a proper strategy:
   – Audio tour
   – Go with a friend
   – Decide in advance what to see
   – In each room, split up, meet at a set time
   – Suspend judgments
   – Avoid looking at the name of the artist and the title until you
     develop appreciation
   – Try to identify your feelings, impressions, conclusions
   – Make notes in your journal
   – Meet with your friend and share impressions
                                                                   150
              Practice
        “Subtle Speculation”
• It sharpens your senses and improve your
  memory
• Essential element of learning and creating
• Optimal conditions (when you are relaxed):
  – In the morning upon waking, on a train, boat,
    during a break, after meditation
  – Visualization creates complex psychological
    mechanisms helping to realize your visions
• Guidelines:
  – Keep it positive
  – Distinguish between fantasy and visualization
                                                    151
  – Make it multi-sensory
         Multi-sensory Visualization
                Enhancement
• Enjoy some deep full breaths
• Close your eyes
• Create a picture of your favorite place (real or
  imaginary)
• For example: a beach
   –   Sound of waves
   –   Smell of iod (salty air)
   –   View of XXX
   –   Texture of wet sand
   –   Warm rays of sun
• Enjoy your visit relishing every sensory detail
                                               152
      Your Internal Theater
• Try visualization of art
• Select your favorite piece of art
• Hang a reproduction and study it > 5
  minutes every day for a week
• When drifting to sleep, recreate the art
  in your mind’s eye
• Visualize the details
• Bring all your senses
• Record changes in your impressions
                                           153
  from day to day
                Drawing


• Learn to paint or at least to draw
• The best to see and create
• See Drawing Course in the book



                                       154
Listening and Hearing Section




                                155
         Layered Listening
• Once or twice each day pause for a few
  moments
• A few deep exhalations
• Listen to sounds around you
• 1st layer - sounds of the building
• 2nd layer - your breathing, footsteps
• 3rd layer -
• nth - the soft, rhythmic beating of your
  heart                                    156
         Listen for Silence

• Practice listening for the spaces
  between sounds
• Make silence a theme for a day and
  record your observations
• Find a perfectly quiet place
• Describe your feelings in such place
                                         157
           Practice Silence

•   A whole day experiment with silence
•   Don’t talk, just listen
•   Spend the day in nature
•   Immerse yourself in nature’s sounds
•   It refreshes your spirit!!!

                                          158
      Study Lives and Works of
      Composers and Musicians


• Shaping the invisible
• Make a list of your 10 favorites in your
  chosen style of music
• Choose one and immerse yourself in his
  work for a day month, a year


                                        159
  Learning Major Movements
Learn about major movements in western
  music including:

  – Medieval music
  – Renaissance
  – Baroque
  – Classical
  – Romantic
  – Modern
                                     160
Active Listening Development
• Listen for patterns of tension and
  relaxation
• Appreciate your favorite music in terms
  of elements:
  – Earth
  – Fire
  – Water
  – Air

                                        161
      Learn to Discriminate
• Learn to discriminate between R&B and
  country
• Learn to differentiate between subtypes
• Learn to recognize composers
• Learn to recognize soloists
• Listen the same music played by
  different orchestras (good, bad)
• Listen to different musicians playing the
  same instrument                         162
       Listen for Emotions
• Find justification for individual
  instruments
• Find the emotional quality of human
  voices
• Listen to transitions between 2rd and
  4th movement of Beethoven’s Fifth
  Symphony

                                          163
        Listen for Cultural
       & Historical Imprints

• Choose your favorite composers and
  understand the context of their music
• Understand rap music and the black
  culture of the inner cities



                                          164
         Orchestrate Your Life
• Take the time to listen deeply without any
  distraction
• Focus your full attention on your piece, listen
  from beginning to end
• Listen again
• Observe the impact on:
   –   Mood
   –   Emotions
   –   Alertness
   –   Receptivity
   –   Changes in your brain-wave patterns
                                                165
• Coordinate your music with your activities
AROMATIC AWARENESS



                     166
    What do you smell right now?

• Describe as vividly as you can
• Explore your immediate environment
  with your nose
• Breath in the smell of a book, a cup of
  coffee, the palm of your hand
• Describe your experience in your
  notebook

                                            167
  Make “Smells” a Theme for a Day

• Record what you smell and how it affects your
  through a day
• See out unusual or intense aromas
• Visit a cheese department of your gourmet store
• Drive to the country and walk through a barnyard
• Record how smells affect your moods and your
  memory
• Recall specific examples of aromas affecting your
  emotions

                                                      168
      Olfactory Cornucopia
• Best to be conducted with a friend
• Assemble a range of items with
  distinctive aromas (a rose, a piece of
  cedar wood, a worn T-shirt of a friend)
• Put on a blindfold
• Ask a friend to hold each item for 30
  seconds
• Describe each smell and your reaction
                                            169
    Make your own Perfume
• Buy samples of essential oils:
  – Lavender
  – Patchouli
  – Clove
  – Rose
• Experiment with various combinations
  and make your favorite scent


                                         170
      Study Aromatherapy
• Buy books on the subject
• Study the area
• Develop understanding of the major
  concepts
• Consider using these concepts in your
  life


                                          171
TASTE


        172
    Develop Comparative Testing
•   Pause for a few moments before eating
•   Reflect on the origins of the meal
•   Be 100% present as you taste the first bite
•   Buy 3 kinds of honey
     – Open jars
     – Smell for 30 seconds
     – Record your impression
     – Taste each one: hold a teaspoon in your mouth and swirl it around
       with your tongue
     – Take a sip of spring water between bites to clear your palate
     – Describe the differences in aroma and taste
• Try the same with 3 kinds of apples, smoked salmon, ice cream,
  etc.
                                                                      173
        Touching and Feeling

•   Learn to “listen” deeply with your hands
•   Study Leonardo’s portraits
•   Imagine the quality of touch
•   Touch the objects around you
•   Bring the same touch quality to your
    “love life”
                                           174
           Fine Wine Vocabulary
• Amabile:
    –   Friendly
    –   Gentle
    –   Slightly
    –   Sweet
• Aristocratico:
    – From finest grapes
• Balanced;
    – A perfect harmony
• Buttery:
    – Texture
    – “mouth feel”
• Carezzevole:
    – Caressing
    – Flowing
    – Like the hair of St. Anne   175
              Blindfold Touch
• Invite a friend
• Assemble as many of the following objects as
  you can:
  –   A rubber ball
  –   A silk scarf
  –   A Velcro fastener
  –   A leaf
  –   A bowl of ice
  –   A velvet sweater
• Put a blindfold on a explore your items only
  with your hands                                176
            Touch Nature

• Go outside
• Explore the texture of nature
  – Bark
  – Leaves of different trees
  – Grass
  – Fur of a dog
• Describe your feelings and impressions
                                       177
          Make “Touch”
        a Theme for a Day
• Notice the quality of different people’s
  touch:
  – Firmness of a handshake
  – Softness of a kiss
• Think about your most enjoyable touch
  you have ever felt, why?
• Give a friend a foot massage

                                             178
SYNESTHESIA



              179
            Draw Music

• Listen to your favorite music
• Draw related shapes and colors
• Reflect on the results




                                   180
     Make Sounds of Color

• Look at a reproduction of your favorite
  painting
• Vocalize the sounds inspired by the
  colors, shapes, and textures
• Reflect on the results


                                            181
        Shape the Invisible

• Try imaginary multi-sensory sculpting
  exercise
• Use at least 2 of your favorite pieces of
  music
• Reflect on results


                                          182
      Make Transpositions

• Review your list of painters and
  composers
• Imagine transposing their work: Mozart -
  Raphael
• Do it again with friends
• Explain your choices
                                        183
    Synesthetic Problem Solving

•   Identify a problem
•   Give it a shape, color and texture
•   Imagine its smell and taste
•   Imagine shapes and colors of solutions



                                         184
Make Synesthetic Minestrone

• Favorite Leonardo’s soup
• Use old recipe
• Enjoy textures, smells, colors, etc.




                                         185
              Create your own
•
             Da Vincian Studio
    Create your own creative environment supporting
    balance and creativity
•   Room - call it “creativity center”
•   Light - a lot of, natural
•   Sound - good quality stereo
•   Aesthetics - art on the walls, a mobile, green plants
    and flowers
•   Furniture - comfortable sofas and puffs
•   Feng Shui - Chinese system of mirrors, screens,
    fountains, and furniture to balance yin and yan to
    create a perfect harmony with nature
•   Air - perfect ventilation, AC, aromas
                                                            186
Sfumato
          187
             Sfumato
       (going up in smoke)

…a willingness to embrace ambiguity,
 paradox and uncertainty

(approximate approaches, utilization of
  fuzzy or rough sets, Synectics, utility
  theory, etc.)
                                            188
                     Sfumato
• Coming face to face with the unknown
• Keeping your mind open in the face of
  uncertainty - most powerful secret of unleashing
  our creative potential
• The principle of Sfumato - the key to openness
• Sfumato:
   – Turn to mist
   – Going up in smoke
   – Smoked
• Art - a mysterious quality, distinctive characteristic of
  Leonardo’s paintings
• Holding the tension of opposites (Synectics)
                                                         189
      Beauty and the Beast

• Search for beauty leads to explore
  ugliness in many forms
• Contemplation of opposites and
  paradoxes
• Fascination with the infinity shape


                                        190
 Study of a Nutcracker and a Beautiful Youth


• Page 145 figure




                                               191
Sfumato: St. John the Baptist
• Page 147 figure




                            192
  Mona Lisa and Self-portrait
• Page 148 figure




                                193
        Sfumato and You

• Past: only great geniuses had a high
  tolerance for uncertainty
• Today: everybody with proper
  training can improve his/her
  tolerance for uncertainty


                                         194
                   Sfumato:
               Self-Assessment
•   I am comfortable with ambiguity
•   I am attuned to the rhythms of my intuition
•   I thrive with change
•   I see the humor in life every day
•   I have a tendency to “jump to conclusions”
•   I enjoy riddles, puzzles, and puns
•   I usually know when I am feeling anxious
•   I spend sufficient time on my own
•   I trust my gut
•   I can comfortably hold contradictory ideas in my mind
•   I delight in paradox and am sensitive to irony
• I appreciate the importance of conflict in inspiring creativity
                                                                    195
  Curiosita equals Uncertainty
• Return to your list of your ten most important life
  questions
• Which one cause you the greatest sense of
  uncertainty?
• Are the paradoxes at the heart of any of these
  questions?
• Try abstract art
• Sketch a feeling of uncertainty generated by a
  particular question from your list
• Experiment with gestures and dance to express your
  feelings
• Select related music                                196
 Make Friends with Ambiguity
• Describe (briefly) 3 situations from your
  life where ambiguity reigns
• Describe the feeling of ambiguity
• Where in your body do you experience
  it?
• Its shape, color, sound, taste, smell?
• How ambiguity and anxiety are related?

                                         197
         Observe Anxiety
• To thrive with uncertainty and ambiguity
  we must know when we are anxious
• Describe the feeling of anxiety
• Where in your body do you experience
  it?
• Its shape, color, sound, taste, smell?
• Make it a theme for a day
• Record your observations
                                        198
Monitor Intolerance for Ambiguity
• Count the number of times per day that you
  use an absolute:
  –   Absolutely
  –   Totally
  –   Always
  –   Certainly
  –   Must
  –   Never
• Note the way you close conversations: a
  statement or a question?
                                               199
       Cultivate Confusion
            Endurance

• Capacity for joy is born in sorrow
• Nurture “confusion endurance”
• Conduct “Contemplation Exercise”




                                       200
       Contemplation Exercise
• Joy and sorrow:
   –   Saddest moments of your life?
   –   Most joyful?
   –   Relationship between them?
   –   Parallelism between them?
• Intimacy and independence
• Strength and weakness: 3 examples for each?
  Relationship between them?
• God and Evil: can you be good without
  acknowledging your impulses toward evil?
• Change and constancy - 3 most important lifetime
  changes, 3 things remaining constant:
   – “the more things change, the more they remain the same”
                                                               201
      Contemplation Exercise
• Humility and pride: proudest moments of your life,
  times you felt most humble, recreate your feelings,
  differences, similarities, opposites?
• Goals and process - an important accomplished
  goal? Any success without experiencing fulfillment?
  Their relation?
   – Does the end justify the means?
• Successful and fulfilling life:
   – 100% commitment
   – Recognition that we live every day, the daily quality of
     life is of greatest importance
• Life and depth - make up your own exercise

                                                                202
     Meditation on Mona Lisa


• Sit with Mona for a while
• Wait for your analytical mind to calm
  down and breath in her essence
• Note your responses



                                          203
     Embody Mona’s Smile
• Experiment with her facial expression
  (smile)
• Go back to the most anxiety-producing
  questions from your list
• Consider questions with Mona’s smile
• Does your thinking change when you
  look from Mona’s perspective?
• Record your observations
                                      204
      Incubation and Intuition
• Art comes to life in spaces between notes
• Space around sculptures is the secret of art
• Spaces between your conscious efforts
  provide a key to creative living and
  problem solving
• Space allows perceptions, ideas, and feelings to
  incubate
• Leonardo, the Last Supper, the prior of Santa Maria,
  the duke: “the greatest geniuses sometimes
  accomplish more when they work less,” missing face
  of Judas inspired by the head of the prior
• Neuroscience and subconscious
                                                    205
      Solitude and Relaxation
• Where and when you get your best ideas?
  –   Resting in bed
  –   Walking in nature
  –   Listening to music while driving
  –   During a workout
  –   Never at work!!!
• Best ideas = solitude + relaxation
• Nurture Sfumato by taking time for solitude, at
  least once or twice a week

                                               206
    Take a Little Relaxation
• Most of the day - focused, left-brained
  activities
• Increase enjoyment and effectiveness
  taking breaks every hour or so (10
  minutes)
• Create the Reminiscence (revival)
  Effect
• Listen to music, stretching exercises
• Enjoy weekly “Sabbath”                    207
           Trust your Gut
• Bring more attention to your hunches
  and intuitions
• Write them down and check your
  accuracy
• Hone/improve their accuracy
• When taking solitude - listen to your
  bones
• Simple exercise:
  – Enjoy a few deep exhalations
  – Soften your belly                     208
  – Be receptive
Arte/Scienza

               209
          Arte/Scienza
…is the development of the balance
 between science and art, logic and
 imagination, “Whole Brain” thinking

(balance between conceptual and
  detailed design, heuristics and
  mathematical modeling, etc.)
                                     210
              Self-Assessment
•   I like details
•   I am almost always on time
•   I am skilled at math
•   I rely on logic
•   I write clearly
•   Friends describe me as a very articulate
•   Analysis is one of my strengths
•   I am organized and disciplined
•   I like lists
•   I read a book starting at page one and go through in
    order

                                                       211
             Self-Assessment
•   I am highly imaginative
•   I am good at brainstorming
•   I often say or do the unexpected
•   I love to doodle
•   In school I was better at geometry than
    algebra
•   I read a book by skipping around
•   I prefer to look at the big picture and leave
    the details to someone else
•   I often lose track of time
•   I rely on intuition                             212
           Brain Divisions
• Left and right hemispheres of the cerebral
  cortex have different functions
• Usually, one hemisphere is dominant (“brain
  dominant profile”)
• Right hemisphere thinker - artistic,
  imaginative, big-picture, intuitive,
  spontaneous (right-brained)
• Left hemisphere thinker -step by step logic
  (left-brained), analytical thinker

                                            213
            Brain Divisions
• “Our education system, as well as science in
  general, tends to neglect the non-verbal form
  of intelligence, our modern society
  discriminates against the right hemisphere”
  (Sperry)
• Learning disabled
• Seeking balance, “whole brain thinker”
• Leonardo - the entire spectrum of specific
  interests created a new understanding of the
  world through synesthesia

                                              214
            Art and Science
• They are indivisible
• Science predicated art
• Championing rigor, attention to details, logic,
  and practical analysis, Leonardo urged
  students to awaken the power of imagination
• Staring at stones, smoke, clouds, and mud,
  cultivating our ability to see everywhere “the
  likeness of divine, landscapes…and the
  infinity of things”
• It is a breakthrough in the evolution of human
  thought, foundation of brainstorming and
  Synectics                                      215
            Mind-Mapping
• A method for cultivating a synergy between
  art and science in everyday activities
• A whole-brain method for generating and
  organizing ideas
• Originated by Tony Bazan, inspired by Da
  Vinci’s approach to note taking
• Use it for personal goal setting, daily
  planning, problem solving, etc.
• It trains you to be a more balanced thinker

                                                216
    Traditional Mind-Mapping
• Outlining: gradually building a traditional
  outline: .1.1, 1.2, 1.3
• It imposes a strict format
• It is linear
• It excludes color, dimensions, rhythm, image,
  etc.
• Instead, try to use the right hemisphere (day
  dreaming) to create a “mess”
• Use outlining only after the real thinking has
  been done
                                                 217
• Start from scratch
             Mind-Mapping
• It frees you from the “tyranny” of premature
  organization
• Liberates your conceptual power encouraging
  the full range of mental expression
• Think about a book you recently read, recall a
  specific information. Does your mind
  reconstructs whole paragraphs and book
  outline? NO!!!
• You recall impressions, key words, and
  images
• Mind mapping is a method for doing it in a
  more structured way                          218
             Mind-Mapping
• “Go straight to nature” - fly a helicopter to see
  a city
• Consider your objects as complex adaptive
  systems of hierarchical nature
• A mind map is a graphic expression of natural
  patterns occurring in brain
• See discovery class - a thought is a current
  in a synaptic pattern
• Note taking - texts, branching, structures,
  sketches, create doodles, and key words
  (ontologies?)
                                                 219
    Mind-Mapping Heuristics
• Begin with a symbol or a picture at the
  page center
• Write down key words
• Connect the key words with lines
  radiating from your central image
• Print your key words
• Print one key word per line
• Use colors, dimensions and codes
                                            220
             Example


Page 182 or 183




                       221
      Practicing your Skills

• Mind mapping is really useful for
  complex projects
• Start with simple exercises:
  – Mind map your next day off: smiling face,
    print key words and draw images
  – Mind map your dream vacation
  – A perfect evening with a friend

                                                222
             Example
• Page 186




                       223
           Mind Map on
           Mind Mapping

• Consider all possible uses of mind
  mapping
• Aim to generate at least 20 specific
  applications
• Highlight the most valuable applications


                                        224
         Memory Mind Map
• Leonardo’s concept of “learning by heart”
• Conduct observation from multiple
  perspectives
• Draw a visual image of your subject
• Late at night, review and vivify the image in
  your mind’s eye
• Compare the mental image to your best
  drawings until you can hold the perfect image
  in your mind

                                             225
      Memory Mind Mapping Exercise
• Think of something you would like to remember - a
  presentation to give
• Make a comprehensive mind map of your subject
  with vivid images of your most important points
• When “master mind map” is complete, put it aside
• Attempt to recreate your master from memory
• Do this until you can recreate your original in detail
• When in bed, picture your master plan in your mind’s
  eye
• Give your talk with a perfect recall of your material

                                                      226
       Creativity Mind Map
• Mind mapping is a powerful tool for
  awakening your creativity “quickening
  the spirit of invention”
• Use mind mapping to improve your
  ability to generate creative solutions
• Follow the process provided in the next
  transparency

                                        227
  Creativity Mind Map Procedure
• Get a large sheet of paper
• Draw in the center an abstract image of your topic
• Free-associate with your abstract image, record your
  associations on the branches of your map
• Even ideas “off the wall” should be put in your mind map
• After generating an abundance, take a break for incubation
• Come back to you map, generate another wave of associations
• After another break, review the big picture looking for
  connections and emerging themes
• “Reduce them to their complete and proper forms” (pare your
  map down to express your most cogent insights, reorder the
  branches to reflect a new organization of your thoughts)


                                                           228
Corporalita

              229
            Corporalita


…is the cultivation of grace,
 ambidexterity, fitness, and poise

(optimization?)


                                     230
          Image of a Genius
• “Handsome and with splendid physique, he seemed
  a model of human perfection”
                                   Goethe on Da Vinci
• With a few exceptions, the great geniuses of history
  were gifted with remarkable physical energy and
  aptitude
• Passion for anatomy was a reflection of Leonardo’s
  own extraordinary physique
• “a unique genetic mutation”
• “learn to preserve your health”

                                                   231
                Self-assessment
•   I am aerobically fit
•   I am getting stronger
•   My flexibility is improving
•   I know when my body is tense or relaxed
•   I am knowledgeable about diet and nutrition
•   Friends would describe me as graceful
•   I am becoming more ambidextrous
•   I am aware of the ways in which my physical state affects my
    attitudes
•   I am aware of the ways in which my attitudes affect my physical
    state
•   I have a good understanding of practical anatomy
•   I am well coordinated
•   I love to move
                                                                 232
     Your Fitness Program

• “mens sana in corpora sano” - a sound
  mind in a sound body
• A personal fitness program is a
  cornerstone of physical health, mental
  acuity and emotional well-being


                                       233
       Aerobic Conditioning
• Arteriosclerosis is a cause of premature aging
• It can be prevented by regular exercise
• It strengthens your cardiovascular system
• Aerobically fit, you double your capacity to
  process oxygen
• Regular aerobic exercise improves alertness,
  emotional stability, mental acuity, and
  stamina
• Six weeks, four times a week, 20 minutes is a
  minimum to yield improvements
                                              234
         Strength Training

• Moderate strength training is part of
  balanced approach to fitness
• It prevents muscle wasting and
  osteoporosis, a good way to burn fat



                                          235
       Flexibility Exercises

• Flexibility can be improved with regular
  training
• Practice stretching exercises before and
  after aerobic and strength workouts and
  upon arising


                                        236
          Body Awareness
           Development
• It is a missing link in your fitness regimen
• 3 elements: body awareness, poise, and
  ambidexterity
• Where am I? Body image and body
  awareness are parts of our self-image and
  self-awareness
• Cultivation of body awareness begins with
  honing the 6th sense: kinesthesia
• Kinesthesia; your sense of weight, position,
  and movement
                                                 237
       Kinesthesia Exercises
Mirror observation:
• Stand naked in front of a full-length mirror
• Be objective
• Does your head tend to tilt to one side or the
  other?
• Is one shoulder higher than the other?
• Does your pelvis rock forward or is it held
  back?
• Is your weight distributed evenly?
• What parts of the body appear to be overly
  tense?                                        238
• Record your observations
          Draw your Body
• Produce a five-minute rendering
• Color red the places where you feel the
  most tension and stress
• With black marker delineate the points
  where your energy seems blocked, the
  least feeling
• Use green color to show parts most
  alive
                                        239
     Explore your Body Map
Return to the mirror and with the index finger
  point to:
• The place where your head balances on your
  neck
• Your shoulder joints
• Your hip joints
• Clarify your body map determining the correct
  locations of all important points (as identified
  above)

                                                240
        Know your Spine

• Refine your body map by exploring your
  assumptions about your spine
• How wide is your spine?
• Think about its width
• Sketch the shape of a healthy spine

                                      241
         Heavy Thoughts

• How much does your head weight? (15
  pounds)
• Do you know that 60% of receptors for
  kinesthetic awareness are located in the
  neck?
• Head balance is a top priority

                                        242
Connessione


              243
          Connessione


…is a recognition of and appreciation
 for the interconnectedness of all
 things and phenomena

(systems engineering)

                                   244
               Principle

• When you toss a stone into a pond, the
  water ripples out in a series of widening
  circles
• The ever-expanding circle is a metaphor
  for the principle of connessione


                                         245
 Leonardo, Connessione and Chaos

• If a butterfly flaps its wings in Tokyo,
  does it affect the weather in New York?
• Leonardo: “The earth is moved from its
  position by the weight of a tiny bird
  resting upon it”
• Leonardo never categorized his notes
  because he believed that they were all
  interconnected and equally valid

                                         246
  Connessione and Creativity
• Lifelong practice of combining and connecting
  disparate elements to form new patterns
• “make dragon looking naturally- take for its
  head that of a mastiff or setter, for its eyes
  those of a cat…”
• A metaphor for his creative recipe of
  combination and connection
• Freud: “Indeed, the great Leonardo remained
  like a child for the whole of his life…Even as
  an adult he continued to play…”

                                              247
  Connessione and Anatomy
• It starts with love of nature
• Intensifies through his investigation of
  human and animal anatomy
• Studies of anatomy lead to
  holistic/systems understanding of living
  organisms


                                         248
    Connessione and Self-Assessment
•   I am ecologically aware
•   I enjoy similarities, analogies, and metaphors
•   I frequently make connections that other people don’t see
•   When I travel, I am struck more by people’s similarities than
    their differences
•   I seek a “holistic” approach to diet, health, and healing
•   I have a well-developed sense of proportion
•   I can articulate the systems dynamics - the patterns,
    connections, and networks - in my family and workplace
•   My life goals and priorities are formulated clearly and integrated
    with my values and sense of purpose
•   I sometimes experience a sense of connectedness with all
    Creation


                                                                    249
    Connessione and Applications:
      Contemplate Wholeness
• Experiment with expressing your concept of
  wholeness in a drawing, gesture, or dance
• Do you experience wholeness in daily life?
• Do a stream of consciousness writing
  sessions on leonardo’s observation that
  “every part is disposed to unite with the
  whole, that it may thereby escape for its own
  incompleteness”


                                              250
               Family Dynamics
• Contemporary psychology: importance of systems dynamics of
  your family to better understand yourself
• Contemplate the following questions:
   – What roles does each person play?
   – How are the roles interdependent?
   – What are the benefits of the distribution of family roles? What are
     the costs?
   – What happens to the dynamics under stress?
   – What patterns have been handed down over generations?
   – What are the primary outside forces that affect the family
     dynamics?
   – What were the dynamics one year ago? Seven years ago? How
     have they changed? What will they be like in a year? In seven
     years?
   – How do the patterns of functioning you learned in your family affect
     the way you participate in other groups?
   – As you generate insights based on the questions above, try         251
     drawing a diagram that represents your family as a system
            The Body Metaphor
• Use Leonardo’s favorite metaphor - the human body - to further
  explore the dynamics of your family system
• Ask:
   –   Who is the head?
   –   Who is the heart?
   –   Is the head in balance with the body?
   –   What is the quality of our nourishment?
   –   How well do we digest and assimilate nourishment?
   –   How effectively do we process waste/
   –   How is our circulation? Are our arteries sclerotic?
   –   What is our backbone?
   –   What are our sharpest senses? Our dullest?
   –   Does the right hand know what the left hand is doing?
   –   What is our state of health?
   –   Are we working to become more fit, strong, flexible, and poised?
                                                                          252
           Make Dragon
• Core of creativity: the ability to see
  relationships and patterns and make
  unfamiliar combinations and
  connections
• Exercise:
  – A bullfrog and the Internet
  – An oriental rug and psychotherapy
  – A bowl of minestrone soup and the USA

                                            253
         Imaginary Dialogs
• Talking with an imaginary role model is a very
  effective way to gain insight and perspective
  (Hilary and Eleanor Roosevelt)
• Recommended by Petrach and widely
  practiced during the Renaissance
• Imagine dialogs between:
  – Bush and Osama
  – Christ and Buddha

                                              254
         Origin-all Thinking
• Before eating, reflect on the origins of
  all components of your meal
• Picture - page 236




                                             255
 Microcosm/Macrocosm Contemplation

• Appreciation of the relationship between
  micro and macrocosms
• Part of many cultures, “As above, so
  below”
• Fractals (see the definition)
• A human body and its individual organs,
  organs and cells, etc.
• A structural system and its members
                                        256
     Connessione Meditation
• Find a quiet place and sit down with your feet
  squarely on the floor, spine lengthening up
• Close your eyes, relax and focus on
  breathing
• Be aware of the flow of air
• Exhale through your nose
• Sit for 10-20 minutes just following your
  breath
• It produces a significant experience of calm
  and well-being
                                              257
      Time Line River of Life
• Make a time-line for your life for seeing the
  big picture of your life
• Imagine your life as a river
• A source: the snow crystals on a mountain,
  destination - the ocean
• Describe the dams, levees, whirlpools,
  rapids, …
• What are the major confluences with other
  rivers and bodies of water?

                                                  258
         Think well to the End
• Importance of setting clear goals and following
  through to completion
• Think well to the end
• Consider first the end
• Use SMART:
   – S - Specific, define exactly what you want to accomplish
   – M - Measurable, decide how you will be measuring your
     progress and final results
   – A - Accountability, make a commitment to be personally
     responsible for achieving your goals
   – R - Realistic and relevant, set feasible goals
   – T - Time Line, create a clear time line
                                                                259
Make a Master Map of Your Life
• Live your life as a work of art
• Consider your life from connessione
  perspective
• Advantages:
  – See the connession in your life
  – Being able to deal with inconsistencies
  – Bring together your powers of Arte and
    Scienza to energize your creative vision

                                               260
             7 Days Process
•   Minimum 1 hour per day
•   1st: Sketch the Big Picture of Your Dreams
•   2nd: Explore your Goals
•   3rd: Clarify your Core Values
•   4th: Contemplate your Purpose
•   5th: Assess Current Reality
•   6th: Look for Connections
•   7th: Strategize for Change
                                                 261
  1st Day: Sketch the Big Picture of
            Your Dreams
• Create your own “impreza” (logo, symbol).
  Allow a resonant image to emerge from within
  to become the central image of your life mind
  map
• Make a “Sprezzatura” map of your goals. Put
  your impreza in the center and on lines
  radiating out from this central image, print a
  key word, or a symbol, for each of your life’s
  major areas. (It should be a nonchalant
  sketch from your soul)
                                              262
       2nd Day: Explore your Goals
• Redraw the map of your goals
• Do a more organized map
• Explore:
   –   People
   –   Career
   –   Finances
   –   Home
   –   Possessions
   –   Spirituality
   –   Health
   –   Fun
   –   Service
   –   Travel
   –   Learning
   –   Self
• Create a vivid image               263
    2nd Day: Explore your Goals

• Picture from page 248




                                  264
3rd Day: Clarify your Core Values
• Question “What do you want?”
• Leads to “Why do I want it?”
• Consider your all goals
• Also, “Why is it so important?”
• What will the realization of this goal bring to
  my life?
• Identify your core values (next transparency)
• Select your 10 values and reflect on them
• Create symbols for each of your core values
                                                265
3rd Day: Clarify your Core Values
•   Achievement
•   Advanture
•   Authenticity
•   Awareness
•   Beauty
•   Charity
•   Community
•   Compassion
•   Competition
•   Creativity
•   Discipline
•   Diversity                  266
•   Honesty
4th Day: Contemplate your Purpose

• Leonardo: quest for truth and beauty
• Do a stream of consciousness writing
  session on “What my purpose is NOT,”
  define your negative space
• Experiment with writing a “statement of
  purpose” in 25 words or less
• You know you’ve got it when all your
  cells say YES
                                        267
 5th Day: Assess Current Reality
• Review the major areas of your life, assessing your
  current status
• Ask about:
   –   People
   –   Career
   –   Finances
   –   Home
   –   Possessions
   –   Spirituality
   –   Health
   –   Fun
   –   Service
   –   Travel
   –   Learning                                         268
   –   Self
 6th Day: look for Connections
• Make a new mind map with goals and branches for values and
  purpose
• Draw your impreza and other images with case
• Contemplate the questions:
   – Are there any key words that appear repeatedly in my mind map?
     Do they suggest a theme?
   – Are my goals relevant to my purpose and values?
   – Is my life in proportion to my goals and values?
   – What are my priorities?
   – Does my current mode or operating contribute to the achievements
     of my goals and the fulfillment of my purpose?
• Am I willing to hold the creative tension between my ideas
  and my current reality?

                                                                  269
 7th Day: Strategize for Change


• 1st contemplate the question “What do I
  want”
• 2nd Clarify your values “Why do I want
  it”
• 3rd craft a strategy “How will I get it”


                                        270
  7th Day: Strategize for Change
Specific steps:
• Translate your life mind map into a 5-year plan
• Prepare a 1-year plan
• Review your goals and make sure that they are SMART
• Decide about the steps to take this week and today.
• At the beginning of each week, spend 20-30 minutes and make
  a mind map of your weekly goals, priorities and plans.
• Look at the whole picture of your weekly plan. Is a balanced
  rainbow or a monochromatic blur?
• Survey your map and determine cross dependencies and cross
  support of various activities
• Each day make a mind map of your activities

                                                            271
              Da Vinci Review
Look at your mind map from the perspective of the MASTER and
  his 7 principles:
• Curiosita - Am I asking the right questions?
• Dimonstrazione - How can I improve my ability to learn from
  mistakes?
• Sensazione - What is my plan for sharpening my senses as I
  age?
• Sfumato - How can I strengthen my ability to hold creative
  tension to embrace the major paradoxes of life?
• Arte/Scienza - Am I balancing Arte and Scienza at home and at
  work?
• Corpolita - How can I nurture the balance of body and mind?
• Connessione - How do all the above elements fit together?
                                                             272

				
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