Māori Culture By Jennifer Baker, Emily Bruce, Céleste Gagnon, Samantha Gardiner, Aubrie Graham, Katie Otter, Bonnie Palmateer, and Lori Simeone. The Māori • The Māori people are the indigenous people of New Zealand. • Māoritanga is the native language which is related to Tahitian and Hawaiian. • The present Māori population has increased to about 250,000 and the Māori live in all parts of New Zealand, but predominately in the North Island where the climate is warmer. • The Māori have adapted well to living in 21st century New Zealand, yet they have retained their unique culture, and this rich culture contributes much to New Zealand as a whole. Population Distribution • http://www.tpk.govt.nz/Māori/region/map1.pdf • http://www.tpk.govt.nz/Māori/region/map7.pdf Māori Demographics • They are Polynesian and comprise about 15% of the country's population. • 1 in 7 people are of Māori ethnicity • The median age of the population is 22, in 1997 it was 20 90% of the Māori people live in the North island History and Background • It is believed that the Māori migrated from Polynesia in canoes about the 9th century to 13th century AD. • Dutch navigator Abel Tasman was the first European to encounter the Māori. Four members of his crew were killed in a bloody encounter in 1642. • In 1769 British explorer James Cook established friendly relations with some Māori. By 1800, visits by European ships were relatively frequent. • At this time, the Māori population was severely reduced with the arrival of European settlers. War & disease took their toll till eventually the population dropped to about 100,000. Māori and the Land • In 1840 representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi. This treaty established British rule, granted the Māori British citizenship, and recognized Māori land rights. • 1860s brought Māori land wars • 1890s a parliamentary government was commenced establishing democratic lines • Māori eventually regained their numbers in their population through intermarriages and such • Today many of the treaty's provisions are disputed and there has been an effort from the New Zealand government to recompense Māori Tribes for some land that was illegally confiscated. Māori and Politics • The first Māori inhabitants of New Zealand are now a minority • In 1985 the government amendment the treaty of Waitangi • In 1988 the government created the Treaty of Waitangi Act • Te Ture Whenua Māori Act Māori People and Culture Numbers • In 2001 Māori comprised approximately 15% (526,281 people) of New Zealand‟s population. This figure is forecast to reach 16.6% (750,000) in 2021. Location • In 2004 the Māori people were more diverse and dispersed than at any other time in their history. Some continued to live in their traditional tribal areas. Most, however, lived elsewhere, usually in urban centres. In 2001, 64% of Māori were living in the main urban areas, and only 16% in rural areas. Many also lived in other countries, with over 70,000 in Australia and up to 10,000 in Britain. Māori People and Culture Culture • The Māori culture is going through enormous change, with the establishment of new institutions and organizations. These include: • The creation of institutions where teaching and learning is conducted substantially in the Māori language. In 2001 there were over 500 kōhanga reo (language nests), teaching over 10,000 preschool children; over 50 kura kaupapa Māori (teaching schoolchildren in full Māori-language immersion programmes); and three whare wānanga (tertiary institutes). Māori People and Culture Culture Continued • The rearrangement and strengthening of tribal structures and councils • The recapitalization of tribally owned assets • The establishment of over 20 Māori radio stations and a television channel • Political representation, with 16 MPs of Māori background in Parliament in 2004. Māori People and Culture Language • The Māori language is an official language of New Zealand, and in recent years has undergone a revival. However, it is still threatened and, according to the 2001 census results, was spoken by only one in four Māori. Approximately 30,000 non-Māori could speak the language. Prominent People • In early 2000 a number of Māori individuals were regarded as major national figures or had international reputations in their chosen fields. Among them were the opera singer Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, film director Lee Tamahori, child actor Keisha Castle-Hughes, golfer Michael Campbell, artist Ralph Hotere, and writers Patricia Grace and Witi Ihimaera. Language • The vast majority of place names are of Maori origin. Maori has a logical structure and unlike English, has very consistent rules of pronunciation. • Maori consists of five vowel sounds: a e i o u ('a' as in 'car', 'e' as in 'egg', 'i' like the 'ee' in 'tee', 'u' like an 'o' in 'to'). • There are eight consonants in Maori similar to those in English - 'h', 'k', 'm', 'n', 'p', 'r', 't', and 'w'. • There are also two different consonants - 'wh' and 'ng'. Many Maori pronounce the 'wh' sound similar to our 'f'. The 'ng' is similar to our own 'ng' sound in a word like 'sing', except that in Maori, words can start with 'ng'. Māori Greetings • Tena koe: hello (one person) • Tena Korua: hello (to two people) • Hei Konei or Kei Knoa: Bye • Kei te peblea koe: How are you? (Southern dialect) • Pehea ana: How are you (northern dialect) • Pai ahw: I‟m well (northern dialect) • Māori language day is celebrated annually in the last week of July. The traditional Māori welcome is called a powhiri, this involves a hongi which is a greeting that involves pressing noses as opposed to a kiss. The Māori Family In the early 19th century, when British settlers arrived, the Māori people were living with their extended families in tribal groups. • The land was owned by tribes and sub-tribes, rather than individuals. • Since then, there have been many changes and challenges for the typical Māori family. Today most Māori people live in family units • 82.4% of Māori people live in a family situation • Extended families are still common. • Extended families typically consist of grandparents, children, and grandchildren. • Relatives (called whanau) are very important. Family Roles • Long ago, males and females had both significant roles in the Māori culture. • Males were responsible for speaking to the tribe and even today, many elders still believe this should continue. • The roles of both males and females have changed over the years. • Some Māori women hold jobs outside the home. • There is a greater incidence of domestic violence among Māori compared to non-Māori people in New Zealand. View of Elders •Traditionally elders were viewed with respect and held positions of authority. • Today the Māori continue to have a very positive attitude toward aging and the elderly. •Older people (called kaumatua) are considered wise and experienced, and their opinions are respected. • Māori ancestry and age are of much greater importance than professional status. • To some more elderly and conservative Māori the male head of family of a female prime minister would have the greater status and right to be heard first. • The approach is often more flexible now and doctors, priests and even senior politicians are accorded additional rank over age alone. • Powers of oratory are also recognized and can overcome many of the limitation of age or breeding. Tapu (Conduct/Basic Beliefs) • Tapu was one of the strongest forces in Maori life and had numerous meanings and references. • Tapu can be interpreted as "sacred", and contains a strong imposition of rules and prohibitions. Certain people and objects contain mana- spiritual power or essence therefore a person, object or place, which is mana and considered tapu, may not be touched or even in some cases approached. • For example, in earlier times, tribal members of a higher rank would not touch objects which belonged to members of a lower rank. Similarly, persons of a lower rank could not touch the belongings of a highborn person. • Certain objects were particularly tapu, so much so that it was a dangerous act to even touch them, apart from suitably qualified priests. A breach of tapu could incur the wrath of the Gods and death was the penalty for serious infringements. Noa (Conduct/Basic Beliefs) Continued) • Noa, on the other hand, is the opposite to tapu and includes the concept of common. • Noa also has the concept of a blessing in that it can lift the rules and prohibitions of tapu. Traditional/Historical Rituals for Barren Women • A rite, known as whakato tamariki, translated as child implanting was performed by priests. • The priest asked which sex was desired by the parents, then procured a leaf which he cut into the outline of a human figure. He then conducted the woman to a tapu place and bade her lie down on a mat. • A purification ritual followed in order to remove all evil and harmful influences. Traditional/Historical Barren Rituals Continued • The priest then intoned an invocation to Io the Supreme One, asking him to endow the woman with the powers of the Earth Formed Maid, the power to produce children. • He then places the leaf image on the body of the woman, just above the navel. • The next act is the lifting of the tapu from them both, after which the woman is free to return to her home. •The priest preserved the leaf image, which was afterwards placed under her pillow when she was about to confined. • A less ritualized processed was piki whenua, a woman stands over a birth site in hopes of becoming fertile. Childbearing Beliefs • Goddesses presiding over birth were Hina-te-iwaiwa or Hine- te-iwaiwa, and Hine-korako. • The first-born male and female child is highly honoured. Later-born sons and daughters were not. • In the case of a high-born woman, laborious work would not be expected of her when it was known that she was with child. • During pregnancy, if a woman developed a desire for any particular food, it was said that the child craved it, and that food was called a whakawaiu, a producer of milk. • The Māori believed that the unborn child receives sustenance from the mother through the fontanelles, or rua kai (food apertures). • Sometimes a pregnant woman was not allowed to have her hair cut because it might stunt the child‟s growth in utero. More Childbearing Beliefs • If the dark parts of a woman's breasts are large, then the child is considered to be female, it is the reverse for a male child. Also, if a woman has a flushed face then the child is a female. • A male child is never born during an easterly or northerly wind, and a female child during a southerly or westerly one. • The Māori do not like to see an infant held much or frequently by people other than its parents. • If a first-born child died in infancy the parents would get a priest to perform the Tuora rite over the next child born, so as to preserve its life. • Cases of premature birth were supposed to have been brought about by the mother having infringed some law of tapu. Birth Process • Childbirth could not take place within the ordinary dwelling house, it was considered tapu. • During the last few weeks of her pregnancy, a pregnant woman who was said to be tapu was segregated from the community and gave birth either in the open or in a temporary shelter which was erected for the purpose and later burnt. This was called the whare kohanga, literally, the nest house. It was only usually built for high- ranking women and only for their first delivery. • Karakia (prayers) to Hineteiwaiwa, were recited to ease the pain during birth. The karakia would differ depending on whether the labour was going normally or was particularly difficult. • The iho (cord) was cut with a chip of obsidian, tied with flax fibre and the stump rubbed with titoki oil before being bandaged. The whenua (placenta) was taken away by the mother's mother, aunt or other close relative to be buried in a secret place. When the dried naval cord eventually came away, it too was hidden. Tua/Tohi Ritual • The most important ceremony occurred when the iho (umbilical chord) falls off. resembled a traditional Christian baptism. • The object of which was not so much the naming of the child as its dedication to the and placed in their care. It is also a purificatory ritual one, intended to remove the tapu pertaining to birth. • Speeches were given by the relatives and both parents welcoming the newborn child into the world. A sort of baptism took place in a river. • The two most important charms recited over the child during the ritual were known as the Tua of Tu and Tua of Rongo. The former was connected with the art of war, while the latter was for the purpose of endowing the child with energy and ability in the arts of peace. • The child might be given a tapu name at birth, if of a high-class family, but this name was discarded at or after the Tua rite, and a new one was then given tothe infant. The first name is described as an ingoa whakaii or ingoa whakarare. Māori View of Time • The Māori cultural concept of time is also different from the frequent western conceptualization. • As a part of the Māori belief system, time is considered to be a circular process. • The “traditional” Māori notions of time are highly localized, in the sense that it differs from region to region, family to family. It is not possible to define one composite singular “Māori perspective” of time, just as it is impossible to isolate and identify absolute agreement on any universal truth from any culture. • This is very much a part of their concept of whakapapa, which can be loosely translated as family tree, but is much more complicated than our notion of a family tree. • Everything in the universe is connected in whakapapa, and this lends itself to a heightened feeling of connection between the past present and future. Whakapapa • Whakapapa is strictly the actual recital of genealogy, and a genealogical stave is used when the whakapapa recital is taking place. • These are wooden sticks, called whakapapa rakau, with knobs running down the shaft. The knobs on the genealogical stave serve to help the memory when a person is reciting the whakapapa, the knobs representing the different ancestry. • A genealogical stave may count up to 18 successive generations in its carvings, and most original whakapapa rakau averaged over a meter in length. • The whakapapa is also often retold in intricate carvings on the Whare (the meeting house on the Marae) paying tribute to the ancestors. Māori View of Time • Decisions made by those in charge were heavily affected by considerations for future generations. Those in the present considered themselves as stewards of resources for future generations. • Concept of time is not fixed and is subject to constant amendment and modification. There is a constant move in between past and present. The cycle of traditions about the people, land, and events is dynamic and fluid. • A way of describing how they see time is like a thread in something woven, it starts, stops, interacts with other threads in the woven material, and can be picked up again later. All of it complements each other to help build something large and tangible. Māori View of Space • Māori people tend to use minimal eye contact as it is a form of respect in their culture. It shows that the individual has respect for other peoples individual or personal space in formal situations. This is said to be very important when individuals are visiting another individual‟s home. • Māori people also think that invading the space of ones head by stepping over it, is rude and they feel as though the individual who stepped over the other individuals head is invading or taking over their power, showing them no respect. It is bad for their mana (personal authority/power). • Therefore personal space in the Māori people is very important and even though it may not be that way in our culture, it is very important to consider it when interacting with the Māori people. Features of the Māori People A prominent feature of Māori culture are the striking tattoos that were worn. Full faced tattoos or moko, amongst the Māori tribes was predominantly a male activity. Female forms of moko were restricted to the chin area, the upper lip, and the nostrils. Ta Moko represents a history of a person's achievements and represented their status in their tribe. It was like a resumé. It also served as a reminder to people about their responsibility in life. It was a huge honour for people to have Ta Moko. There were no set patterns to the Ta Moko and the meaning of the Ta Moko was dependent on its placement on the face. The left side of the face related to the father's history and the right side to the mother's history. Occasionally women would put small markings over their faces or shoulders as a sign that someone close to them had died. Origin of Ta Moko Originally, Ta Moko was chiseled into the skin using an albatross bone. The pigmentations used were Carui gum and dye from other vegetation that was rendered to a soot and then mixed with oil. Each tribal area used different pigments. Traditional Dress • The Māori made their clothes out of flax. Both Māori men and women wore much the same sort of clothes. • Men wore a type of kilt around their waists the Māori, secured by a belt. Over their shoulders they threw a rectangular-shaped cape. Men wore their hair long. It was tied into, a knot on the top of the head and adorned with feathers or with a comb of bone or wood. • Women and girls sometimes added a kind of apron round their waist. Women, cut their hair short. • Both sexes wore neck or ear pendants of greenstone, human or shark‟s teeth, and bunches of feathers. • Children usually did without any clothing until they were about ten years old. • A headband kept feathers in place for dress occasions. • Sandals covered the feet only as a protection against the cold or when walking over rough stony places. Traditional Dress The Haka/ Traditional Dance • To most people, the haka is perceived as a war dance. The haka is performed as a pre-battle challenge to opposition. • The word haka simply means a dance, or a song accompanied by dance. The terms do not do justice to the life force, the actions, words, rhythm, themes, meaning, style or history that are the haka. • In early contact times, the haka was used as a part of the formal process when two parties came together. There was a challenge from the tangata whenua or tribe in their own territory, followed by a response from the manuhiri or visiting party.The encounter concluded with a tangata whenua performing a haka peruperu. The visitors would then respond with their own haka. Following speeches by both parties, they each moved together to hongi, the traditional greeting of pressing noses. • It is now mostly reserved for special occasions such as visits by senior dignitaries. The principles that underpin the traditional rituals are still retained in a modern form. Traditional Dance Māori Religious Views • The Māori believe that in the beginning, man began through an offering by their god Tane, in which all mankind was offered three baskets of knowledge called Nga Kete-o-te-Wananga. Within these baskets were the stories of creation, instructions concerning magic, and so on. • The Māori believe that all living things are descended from the gods, embodied within certain mountains, rivers and lakes. All things have a type of soul in which they label the Wairua. • Most things contain mana - spiritual essence. Mana is within man himself, land, nature, and also man-made objects. Contact with mana contained objects or beings by non-authorized persons or objects could cause the mana to be drained away. • Extremely strict rules of tapu protected ceremonial objects, much filled with mana. Beginning of Creation • The Māori people are polytheistic because they worship multiple gods although they believe in one supreme god that controls all the other gods. They call this god Io. • The power of Io moved amongst the elements of chaos, and from chaos came eons of darkness, from which light was emitted. From these forms of energy, light and darkness, evolved Ranginui (Sky Father) and Papatūānuku (Earth Mother). • The power of the real God is manifested as sound, celestial music, so He is said to have sung the Creation into existence. • Ranginui lay with Papatuānuku and their children became the gods of this world. When they were released, they were responsible for the creation of the universe: the planets, stars, the sun, and every living thing on the earth, including mankind. Māori Gods The children of Ranginui and Papatuānuku were: • Tangaroa, god of the sea, lakes and rivers with dominion over all the creatures that live in them. Tangaroa possesses several gifts, chief of this being the art of carving. • Tāne, the god of forests and its inhabitants, especially the birds. • Tāwhirimātea, god of the winds, storms and tempest. • Rongomatāne, the god of kumara and all cultivated foods. He is also the god of peace. • Haumia, god of fernroot and nutritious wild herbs. • Rūaumoko, god of volcanoes and earthquakes. • Tūmatauenga, god of man and war. • Whiro, god of evil. Māori God Tangaroa • Tangaroa is the sea god who separated the sky from the earth. He is a son the earth-goddess Papatūānuku, who had so much water in her body that it swelled one day and burst forth, becoming the ocean. • He may appear as a huge fish giving birth to all the sea creatures, including mermen and mermaids. From the latter sprang humanity, according to certain myths, so people are really fish who have lost their fish-like appearance. • Others say also that human beings were once aquatic, hence their hairlessness. Tangaroa changes regularly into a green lizard, signifying fine weather. • He only needs to breath once in 24 hours, so huge is he (this breathing explains the tidal movement). Māori God Whiro • Whiro is the lizard-god of the dead, evil and darkness. He lives in the dark misty underworld and is accompanied by a group of evil spirits. • He inspires evil thoughts in the minds of people. Godsticks • Maori gods were sometimes represented by carved godsticks bound with cord. • A godstick was frequently used in the ritual acts sanctifying the planting, tending and harvesting of sweet potato. Tikis • In New Zealand, however, tiki (full name is hei-tiki) is usually applied to the human figure carved in pounamu (greenstone, a stone similar to jade) as a neck ornament, but can be made from whale bone or teeth. • They are highly valued treasures to their owners. Some individual tiki have names and traditional histories extending well back into the past. • Tiki are worn around the neck - the hei part of the name carries this implication • Significance of these ornaments has been lost, however it has been suggested that this ornament is a fertility charm representing the human embryo, and that it should be worn only by women yet early European visitors saw men wearing the hei-tiki and it is probable that the squat shape of the figure was influenced by the hardness of the material and that it was later likened to an embryo. Tikis Continued • Suspension is usually vertical but some are suspended on their side. • There is some variety in the forms of tiki but this variation has not been very fully studied in relation to region of origin. The head inclined left or right appears to have no particular significance. One clear variation is between tiki with the head upright and those with the head tilted sideways. The likely explanation for the latter form is that it comes naturally from the use of rectangular adze blades as raw material. Other variations occur in the positions of the arms. In some the arms are asymmetric with one arm on the torso rather than the legs, or up to the mouth. Marae • The Marae is absolutely central to the Maori way of life. • It is a focal point for groups who share kinship. Here they can meet to discuss and debate, to celebrate, to welcome the living and bid farewell to those that have passed on. • It is the open space and buildings in a settlement or pa (fortified settlement) where the community gathered. • There are over one thousand Marae throughout Aotearoa in rural areas and in cities. Whare • Usually facing the principal entrance to the Marae is the Whare. The Whare is nearly always situated, as in the past, between the Marae and the gateway. • The Whare may be referred to in a number of ways : the whare tipuna or whare tupuna, (ancestral house) whare whakairo (carved house), whare nui (large house), whare hui (meeting house), whare moe or whare puni (sleeping house) or whare runanga (council house). • The whare is used for funerals, religious meetings, or entertaining visitor. • No members of the local tribal community live permanently in a whare. • Apart from rare exceptions, the whare is nearly always named after an ancestor. • The Whare is usually symbolically designed to represent the chief and embody his ancestors. Whare Continued • Outside, in front of the whare and at its top is a tekoteko, or carved figure, which is placed on the roof and at the entrance to the whare. The tekoteko represents the ancestor's head. • The maihi or carved parts of the tekoteko, which slope downwards from the whare, represent the ancestor's arms- held out as a welcome to visitors. • The pole which runs down the centre of the whare from front to back represents the ancestor's backbone. This is a very solid piece of wood which is used. If the backbone is strong, the body is strong. • The rafters from the carved figures on the inside of the whare represent the ribs of the ancestor. • The smaller and larger Koruru carvings may be seen on the outside of the whare. The protruding tongue often seen is in defiance of the enemy. The glittering eyes of the Koruru are paua shells (abalone shellfish). The eyes of the Koruru represent the Ruru, the Maori name for the New Zealand native owl, a fierce fighter bird. Marae/Whare The Meaning of Food Kai (food) has always been an important part of the Māori way of life. Kai connects men and women to: • the spiritual realm through the gods • the earth, and all the elements including the sun. • the "other" men and women, as it is grown, harvested, traded, and eventually shared. • themselves as it sustains and nurtures. Specialized knowledge and skills surround all aspects of Kai. The holders of that knowledge were not only revered but were charged with the responsibility of passing that knowledge and skill on to others. Cookery and Preparation • Before the arrival of Pakeha (fair skinned people), Māori had no metal or ceramic cooking vessels. • Methods of cooking were severely limited and the only containers to hold liquid were Hue (gourds), wooden bowls, or vessels made from stone. • Māori understood the perfection of wet steam & smoke and could roast and bake in the open fire or hot ashes. • Their diet was light on protein and included no grain-food products as a carbohydrate base for cooking. Cookery and Preparation Continued • Food is often cooked in a hole dug in the ground, in a traditional style known as a Hangi (earth oven). • With this method, the food is placed on hot stones that have been heated in a fire and are covered in cabbage leaves or watercress to stop the food from burning. • Mutton, pork, chicken, potatoes, and Kumera (a sweet potato) are then lowered into the pit in a basket. The food is covered with Mutton cloth and flax. • Finally earth is placed on top to keep in the steam. The food takes about 3 hours to cook. Hangi Pictures Evolution of Preparation • Māori were very highly skilled in the art of hunting, fishing, gathering, and cultivation, and possessed great ingenuity in creating Hakari (Banquets) from limited cooking resources. • With the introduction of foreign foods and cooking equipment, Māori were quick to adapt to the ever changing needs of every day living; taking into consideration the wisdom to cherish and retain many foods and culinary methods of the past. • Yet within these limitations their cuisine was wide ranging, nutritious, and appetizing. When the Pakeha introduced different foods and equipment, Māori were quick to grasp their advantage. • During the colonial era, Māori learned to use European foods and methods, and to adapt them to their own tastes. • But at the same time retaining many of their favorite early methods such as smoking, drying, and steaming. Significant Foods and Herbs • Māori people gathered food from the forest, stream, sea, and garden. • Their diet was traditionally birds and fish together with gathered wild herbs and roots. Gardens grew root crops including potato and kumara. • Māori herbs are used that are mixed with traditional herbs and indigenous foods into contemporary cuisine. • This includes delicacies such as kuku patties (made with distinctive green mussels), puha greens or salmon flavoured manuka (New Zealand tea tree) honey, kelp and horopito leaves. • Māori potatoes of the taewa tutaekuri variety are unusual purple potatoes which were among the winners of the Slow Food 2000 awards that promotes the preservation of biodiversity. Significant Foods and Herbs • Rewena pararoa (Māori bread), is potato bread which is sold at weekend markets and some specialty bread shops. • On Stewart Island, Māori continue to harvest the mutton bird. The bird has a very distinct flavor and is an acquired taste. • Eel and puha (green leafy vegetables grown in streams) are also foods that are traditionally gathered by Māori. •Tohu wines- the first indigenous branded wine to be produced for the export market. The wine is harvested from the regions of Marlborough and Gisborne. Māori and Health • Health is not a universal concept nor are health professionals necessarily best suited to formulate the health aspirations of a people. Like other fundamental objectives, health is defined for Māori people by their elders, at traditional tribal gatherings. • Māori culture has a "whole person" view on how to look after your self. This means that paying attention to all of the key aspects of your life is important. This includes caring for soul, body, mind and whanau (family). Each of these is really important and balance is achieved when each dimension is in order. Its best explained using Te Tapa Wha model (Wellness Model): • Te Taha Wairua (a spiritual dimension) • Te Taha Hinengaro (a psychic dimension) • Te Taha Tinana (a bodily dimension) • Te Taha Whanau (a family dimension) Te Taha Wairua/ Spirituality • Acknowledged to be the most essential requirement for health. • It means acknowledging who a person is, what they believe in, where they come from, and may be achieved in the form of Karakia or prayer. • It is believed that without a spiritual awareness an individual can be considered to be lacking in wellbeing and more prone to ill health. • It may also explore relationships with the environment, between people, or with heritage. The breakdown of this relationship could be seen in terms of ill health or lack of personal identity. • When confronted with a problem Māori do not seek to analyze its separate components or parts but ask in what larger context it resides, incorporating ancestors or future generations to discussions. This may mean the discussion goes off on a tangent but the flow will return to the question. Te Taha Hinengaro/ Psychic • Thoughts, feelings and behaviour are vital to health in Te Ao Māori (the Māori world). • Māori may be more impressed with unspoken signals, eye movement, bland expressions, and in some cases regard words as superfluous, even demeaning. • Māori thinking can be can be described as being holistic. Understanding occurs less by dividing things into smaller and smaller parts. • Healthy thinking for a Māori person is about relationships. The individual whose first thought is about putting themselves, their personal ambitions and their needs first, without recognizing the impact that it may have on others is considered unhealthy. • Communication through emotions is important and more meaningful than the exchange of words and is valued just as much, for example, if Māori show what they feel, instead of talking about their feelings, this is regarded as healthy. Te Taha Tinana/ Physical • The most familiar component to all of us. The Māori consider the body and things associated with it as tapu (sacred/special). • There is a clear separation between sacred and common. For instance the head is regarded as tapu and the Māori do not pat each other on the head, nor should food be anywhere near a persons head. When this happens it can be perceived as unhealthy. Hairbrushes should not be placed on tables nor should hats. • Food is kept away from the body and so are utensils. A common thing that is observed in Māori households is that tea- towels are not placed in a washing machine but always washed by hand. Kitchen sinks/tubs should not be used to wash personal items either. When a laundry is in close proximity to the kitchen this can pose problems as well. • It is important to take into consideration the view of personal space as previously discussed. Te Taha Whanau/ Family • The prime support system providing care, not only physically but also culturally and emotionally. For the Māori, whanau is about extended relationships rather than the western nuclear family concept. • Maintaining family relationships is an important part of life and caring for young and old alike is paramount. Everyone has a place and a role to fulfill within their own whanau. • Families contribute to a person's wellbeing and most importantly a person's identity. A Māori viewpoint of identity of identity derives much from family characteristics. It is important to understand that a person carrying an ancestral name will often be seen as having the qualities of their namesake. • It is important to be aware for Māori, a persons identity is gleaned by asking "Where are you from" rather than "What is your name?" Māori identity is based upon an ancestral Waka (canoe) a physical landmark, which is usually a Maunga (mountain), a body of water Awa (river), Moana (sea) and a significant Tupuna (ancestor). Once this is known people can share a common bond. Traditional Healers The Māori traditional health care believe in the power of healers who have had the traditional medicines, knowledge and healing passed on from generation to generation. There exist many healers which have shaped Māori view of health care. These healers include: • Papa Joe is an internationally renowned Indigenous Māori Healer. He was brought into the world completely aware and already knowing the pathway he was to walk. Being raised amongst his elders from birth, Papa‟s great grandfather told his mother that the child she was carrying was to teach the old traditions of healing, star journeying, using bush medicine for healing and removal of negative entities from a persons‟ energy and so much more. The „old people‟ knew of his healing abilities well before his birth as well as the extraordinary „infinite ancient Māori knowledge‟ Papa‟s cellular memory would contain. TeAwhimate Tawhai • He has worked as a Māori healer for many years and has been a student of Papa Joe since 1995. • As part of his work TeAwhimate specializes in the preparation of traditional Māori herbal medicine and continues to prepare and provide these medicine to people who require them. • TeAwhimate‟s work covers deep tissue massage, covering all aspects of the anatomy as well as counseling. He has incredible insight & intuition and a wicked sense of humor. He also covers ground and house clearing. • The philosophy that he works under is, “Acknowledging my connection to my ancestors accentuates and affirms the teachings and ethnical values by which I live. My ancestral beginnings formulate my present being, encompassing the understandings of yesteryear and nurturing the holistic wellbeing of tomorrow”. Health Care Any wide scale intervention aimed at promoting health among Māori people must involve elders and may need to accept alternate goals and methods, relevant to current Māori thinking, though possibly peripheral to established Western health concerns. Death and Dying Beliefs • On death, the Maori believe that the spirit travels to the pohutukawa tree which sits on the very tip of Cape Reinga, at the top of the North Island - as far anybody may go in New Zealand. • The spirit then slides down a root of the pohutdukawa, after removing his or her clothes, to the sea below. This is called Rerenga-wairua (spirit's-leap). • The spirit emerges onto Ohaua, which is the highest tip of the Three Kings Islands, for a final farewell before greeting the ancestors. The spirit waits for a break in the seaweed in the ocean and then jumps in. • The spirit is called and welcomed by his/her ancestors, and eats the food of the dead and can never return to the realm of the living. Maori Beliefs About Death • When a Maori is near his/her death, he/she may be heard to say: “--- is calling me,” mentioning the name of an ancestor because the spirits of his/her forbears are calling to him/her to join them in the spirit world. • When very near his/her end cries of farewell might be heard from the assembled folk, sending off the dying person to the spirit world. • If possible a Maori prefers to die out of doors, that he/she may see the world one last time. Funeral Rites • When someone dies, the first task after the death of a person is to wrap the body and bind it to a stake to keep it in a sitting position. • A special funerary cloak is secured around it and the face was painted with a preparation of red ochre and oil. The hair is oiled, dressed and adorned with feathers. Weapons of the deceased and any special articles he might have possessed are placed beside the body. • The body was then placed in a sitting position in the porch of the principal house of the village with its face towards the sun as it rises from its cave. The house is intensely tapu so long as the body remained there. • The lying in state continued for days. Eventually the body was taken away and buried, which was often performed at night. Cremation was not unheard, however, during times of war and a speedy disposal was needed. • The clothes of the deceased are placed in a carved chest which is preserved by the family and descendants as a sacred relic. Funeral Rites Continued • If a man died, his canoe would be rendered tapu and would be cut in half. One of these halves would be decorated as described above and set up in a vertical position, the wide end embedded in the earth. These memorials, were erected within the limits of the fortified villages. • The urupa (graveyard) is generally within the Marae complex, and this area is particularly tapu. When leaving the urupa, the tapu may be removed by washing the hands in water. For this purpose, a water container may often be found just outside the gate of the urupa. • The carved figures along the inside walls of the whare represent ancestors of the local marae people, as well as those of other tribes. • In earlier times, the head of a loved chief or warrior leader would be removed and preserved, in order to always be with the bereaving family and tribe. Mourning • When a person dies, the village comes to lament, the women in front and the men behind them. Their clothes typically wrapped about their waists. Close relatives also cut their hair. • The potae taua, or mourning cap, was also worn. It was crownless, composed of a fillet or band to encircle the head from which were suspended strings of seaweed, some fibrous plant or the tail feathers of a bird. Mourning Continued • The close relatives of a dead person are said to be in the “house of mourning” during the period of mourning. It is not a physical house, but a metaphorical one. • During the first days of mourning relatives are not supposed to eat food during the day. Not until the abolition of the tapu of the “house of mourning” will they eat. That function was formerly marked by a rite performed over the mourners at a stream, in which their grief and mournful longing for the dead were horoia atu, or effaced. After Burial • Persons who handled bodies of the dead were extremely tapu, and that tapu had to be lifted from that burial party on its return to the village home. • This rite was performed in water, in which the tapu persons had to immerse their naked bodies.The officiating priest intoned the necessary ritual to remove all restrictions. • A funeral feast followed this performance, and some special and tapu food, termed popoa, was consumed by the ariki and tohunga of the community. • Food was sometimes offered to a dead person prior to the burial. A priest would put it to the mouth of the corpse and withdraw it, or simply wave it towards his mouth. The ahua, or semblance, of the food was supposed to be consumed by the deceased. • A part of the tapu lifting ceremony described above was the ceremonial cutting of the hair of the chief mourner.