NATIONAL ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH MANAGEMENT
HYDERABAD, AP, 500407
Maize Products is one of the largest corn wet milling Company in India. It manufactures Products such as Maize Starch, Modified
Starches, Liquid Glucose, Dextrose Monohydrate, Anhydrous Dextrose, Sorbitol and by-products like Corn oil, Corn Gluten, Oil Cake
Maize Starch is a cereal starch, which has a low ash and protein content. It does not thin down during the process of sizing, whereas
tapioca starch breaks down substantially on cooking. These results in an uneven pick up on the yarn. Unlike Tamarind Kernel Powder,
which requires steeping and long cooking time, Maize Starch is transformed into a smooth paste within an hour or in even lesser time
under pressure-cooking. The uniform viscosity, from lot to lot, ensures uniform pick up and penetration into the interstices of yarn to
ensure good weaving performance. As foaming is usually associated with high pH, it is not necessary to add any of the antifoaming
agents while working with maize starch, as the pH of Maize Starch paste is always maintained in the neutral range. In addition to these
advantages, the starch is easily removed during the normal process of desizing.
% Moisture (Max) 14
% Ash (Max) 0.25
% Soluble (Max) 0.50
% Ether extract (Max) 0.25
Acidity (5 grams in 100 ml alcohol) Not more than 1 ml. of 0.1 N NaOH
% Protein 0.50
Viscosity of 3% paste by Ostwald Viscometer at 75°C. 38 to 42 seconds
pH of 10% suspension 4.5 to 7
Starch plays a leading role in determining the texture of many foods, which is vital to both the consumer and the food
manufacturer, as a major factor that governs the acceptability and palatability of most food products. Maize Starch, because of
its abundance and low cost, is used wherever its properties are applicable. Maize Starch takes a relatively short time to form a
viscous and opaque paste, which has a typical cereal flavour and is widely used for thickening sauces, gravies, puddings and
pie fillings. Cornstarch finds numerous uses in the baking industry. Addition of starch makes hard wheat flour preferred for
Cornstarch is used to give proper strength to ice cream cones and sugar water shells. In addition to the above mentioned uses,
it finds numerous uses in "dusting" to facilitate certain baking operations. Starch is also used as an inert ingredient in baking
powder and also in salad dressing.
The addition of starch to the wet end of the paper is generally referred to as beater sizing. Here, the primary function of
starch is to increase paper strength, to lay surface fuzz and to increase stiffness and rattle of the paper. Practical experience
has shown that adding 1% to 2% starch, on the dry weight of the fibre, is quite sufficient to achieve the desired result. Size
press application of starch in the paper industry is often referred to as tub sizing or surface sizing. The purpose of size press
application is to improve appearance and erasability, inhibit ink penetration and form hard firm surface for writing or
printing and to prepare the sheet for subsequent coating. The size press is chiefly used to improve the writing and printing
characteristics of sheets such as bond, ledger, tablet, envelope, chart and business grade. The second important use for
surface sizing of paper products is for calender stack and here its main purpose is to enhance surface characteristics such as
scuff resistance and printability. Native starches are generally used at concentrations ranging from 2% to 5%.
Cornstarch is used as an adhesive in pigment coating for paper and paperboard. The most commonly used pigments are clay,
calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide. The primary purpose of coating is to enhance the printability and appearance of the
In short starch is used by the textile industry in a number of different ways:
As an adhesive in the size mix to strengthen warp yarn and improves its resistance to abrasion during weaving.
In finishing, to change the hand and appearance after it is bleached, dyed and printed.
In printing, to increase the consistency of the printing paste.
As a compound in finishes to glaze and polish sewing thread.
Liquid Glucose, Corn Syrup or Glucose Syrup are synonyms and are usually manufactured by subjecting starch to high
temperature in the presence of acid. However, Liquid Glucose of same Dextrose Equivalent can be manufactured by
enzymatic conversion but the spectrum of saccharides will differ and so also the properties, in comparison to acid converted
Liquid Glucose. Generally known as Liquid Glucose or Corn Syrup it is a mixture of mono, di, tri, tetra, penta & higher
Typical, physical and chemical data of Liquid Glucose (Acid converted)
% Moisture content
13 to 15
(percent by weight )
% Solid 85 to 87
% Sulphated Ash ( Max ) 0.3
pH of 50% solution at 25ºC 4.5 to 5.5
Reducing sugar % by weight (DE) 40 to 45
SO2 (Max) 450 ppm
Arsenic (Max) 1.00 ppm
Copper (Max) 5.00 ppm
Liquid Glucose contains dextrins, which retard the process of crystallisation. This is an advantageous factor in
number of applications in manufacturing food products like jam, jellies, chewing gums, canned fruits etc. The
primary purpose of using glucose in making jams and jellies is to prevent their cane sugar ingredient from
crystallising, which is ensured by the presence of dextrins in the glucose syrup. In addition to this, glucose syrup
prevents spoilage of the product without unduly increasing its sweetness. In confectionery, the addition of cane
sugar presents two main disadvantages. Firstly it lacks good keeping qualities, being susceptible to crystallisation
and consequent hardening. Secondly, it has the excessive sweetness of an all-cane confection. Corn syrup being a
non-crystallising substance with less sweetness, very successfully produces a homogenous and palatable
confection. Depending upon the character of the goods involved, 20% to 50% of the cane sugar can be replaced
with corn syrup. In India, hard candies are often made entirely out of the glucose syrup, without adding cane sugar.
In ice-cream, the use of corn syrup has definite advantages. It not only prevents cane sugar crystallisation but also
imparts a smoother texture. Cane sugar can be replaced upto 25%, without materially changing the properties of
the ice-cream. Corn syrup is used extensively for manufacturing various syrups, either as a base or an ingredient. It
is used in the preparation of number of household syrups and for artificial honey. Corn syrup is used in
commercial bakeries for pie and cream filling in large quantities. Here, Corn syrup gives body, bulk and
sweetness, Its non-crystallising and hygroscopic qualities help to keep the finished product in soft condition. Corn
syrup is used in the preparation of chewing tobacco to impart flavour and to promote desirable texture and keeping
qualities. It is also used for flavouring and dressing tobacco for cigarettes. Adding 5% to 10% corn syrup to shoe
polish prevents caking and also results in a quicker and better shine. The action of glucose in tanning gives
pliability and weight to the leather. In the chrome process glucose syrup is used because of its reducing action.
This causes the chrome to be precipitated into the body of the leather. Approximately 5% of the weight of the
finished leather is introduced in the form of sugar.
High Maltose Syrup(Maize-O-Sweet) is manufactured by dual enzymatic conversion of starch under controlled
conditions. ln this process, starch slurry is subjected to liquefaction and dextrinisation in the presence of an
enzyme. Subsequently dextrinised product is treated with another enzyme to make maltose syrup having desired
Typical physical and chemical data of High Maltose corn syrup.
Appearance Clear, colourless
Taste Sweet, Blend
% Dry Solids 74-80
% Dextrose Equivalent (% DB) 30.0-47.0
pH (50% w/v solution) 5.0-5.5
SO2 (ppm) 200 ppm max
Total Ash (%DB) 0.30 Max
Starch Test Neqative
Dextrose(DP1) 3.0 MAX
Maltose (DP2) 48 MAX
Maltotriose & Higher Saccharides BALANCE
High Maltose Corn Syrup contains maltose maltotriose and dextrins with very low amount of dextrose. This sugar
spectrum retards crystallisation. This is an advantageous factor in manufacturing food products like jam, jellies,
chewing gums, canned fruits etc. High Maltose Corn Syrup is less viscous than liquid glucose of same Dextrose
Equivalent. Hence it can be handled with ease. Most of the high-speed confectionery moulding lines use High
Maltose Corn Syrup due to its low viscosity. Candies produced with High Maltose Corn Syrup are bright,
transparent and smooth in texture. In addition to this, High Maltose Corn Syrup prevents spoilage of the product.
In confectionery, the addition of cane sugar causes two main disadvantages. Firstly it lacks good keeping qualities,
being susceptible to crystallisation and consequent hardening. Secondly, it has excessives weetness of an all-cane
confection. High Maltose Corn Syrup being a non-crystallising substance with less sweetness successfully
produces a homogenous and palatable confection.
ln ice cream, the use of High Maltose Corn Syruph as definite advantages. lt not only prevents crystallisation but
also imparts a smoother texture.
Dextrose is commercially prepared by hydrolysis of starch, employing acid or the modern method of enzymatic
hydrolysis. It is used in pharmaceutical & food industries and also for preparing ice-cream as it lowers the freezing
point more than that of sugar. It is also used for producing quality yeast for bakery products.
Typical Chemical & Physical Data of Dextrose Monohydrate
Whiteor Cream coloured crystalline or granular,
powderodourless, sweet in taste.
%Moisture at 105ºC 7.5to 9.5
%Sulphated ash (Max) 0.1
Acidityfor 5 grams (Max) 0.125ml of 0.1N NaOH
Specificrotation 10% w/v at 25ºC +52.50to 53.20
Dextrins& less soluble sugars passesthe test as per IP/BP/USP
Chlorides Notmore than 125 ppm
Arsenic Notmore than 1 ppm
Heavymetal Notmore than 5 ppm
Sulphates Notmore than 200 ppm
ICE-CREAM AND SHERBETS:
Dextrose is less sweet than sugar. In ice-creams, sherbets, etc. large amount of dextrose can be used to increase the
solid substance without unduly increasing the sweetness. Moreover, solutions of dextrose have a lower freezing
point than that of cane sugar resulting in ice-cream with smoother and creamier texture.
A yeast substrate is an important ingredient in making dough for bread or other non-sweet items. Without a
suitable yeast substance, there is a long delay in the yeasting process, during which the yeast germs attach
themselves to the flour causing the starch and gluten to break up and weakening the dough. As a yeast substrate,
dextrose is far superior to cane sugar. When sugar is used, the yeast must first convert it to dextrose before
assimilating it. Larger amounts of yeast have to be used. Also, the resulting loaf is pale and lacks bloom, due to
long standing before baking. When dextrose is used, the yeast immediately assimilates it. Being completely
fermentable by yeast, dextrose ensures the maximum efficiency of both yeast and sugar. Entirely free of
unfermentable carbohydrates, dextrose is the most economical source of carbon dioxide.
CANNED AND READY-MADE FOODS:
Dextrose is widely used in preference to cane sugar for canned and ready-made foods, confectionery, dairy
products, carbonated beverages, canned fruits, meat products, jam and jellies etc. The main advantage of dextrose
over sugar is that its moderate sweetness does not obliterate the finer flavor, yet dextrose is as powerful a
preservative as sugar.
Dextrose does not require inversion like cane sugar before assimilation into the system. Being easily assimilated, it
acts as a quicker energy-giving agent than sugar. Doctors in general recommend dextrose for infant feeding, for
counteracting insulin shock in diabetic, in the treatment of obesity, and for keeping up the blood sugar level when
work or play requires unusual exertion. Because of the above properties, dextrose monohydrate may be formulated
with vitamins and minerals and sold in packets or containers as a ready formulation for use during convalescence,
period of physical stress, etc.
In the chemical and fermentation industries, dextrose is used extensively, as raw material. When dextrose is
processed by the electrolytic or fermentative method, calcium gluconate is obtained. Hydrogenation of dextrose
leads to Sorbitol, a base for Vitamin C. In manufacturing antibiotics dextrose is used as an important ingredient of
the media. In the pharmaceutical industry, dextrose is used for intravenous injections, and as a binder in the
compounding of tablets.
Maize Products brings you India's first injectable grade of Anhydrous Dextrose IP/BP/USP for the manufacture of
Description A white crystalline powder, odourless
and sweet in taste
% Moisture (Max) at 105ºC 0.5
% Sulphated ash (Max) 0.10
Acidity for 5 g (Max) 0.125 ml of 0.1 N NaOH
Specific rotation 10% w/v at 25ºC +52.50 to 53.20
Complies with limit tests as per
Dextrins & less soluble sugars
Chlorides Not more than 125 ppm
Arsenic Not more than 1 ppm
Heavy metal Not more than 5 ppm
Sulphates Not more than 200 ppm
In addition to IP/BP/USP test parameters, each and every lot of Anhydrous Dextrose
manufactured by Maize Products is tested for filtration (properties in 25% solution through 0.80
micron, 47 mm dia. filter membrane at 20 lbs. Pressure to imitate the condition of plant filtration)
and to check for invisible impurities of solution. Random checks are also carried out for HMF,
pyrogens and HPLC analysis.
A noteworthy contribution to the field of medicine, the IP/BP/USP grade Anhydrous Dextrose is used in
intravenous injections vital for preventing dehydration. In many critical conditions, especially during comas,
operations, excessive blood loss due to injuries, wherever oral administration is not possible and is very useful in
cases of Diarrhoea & Heat strokes. Dextrose 5%, 10% or 20% helps restore fluid energy equilibrium while a
normal saline solution is for prompt compensation of primary water electrolyte deprivation.
As a hexahydric alcohol, Sorbitol is a member of the polyhydric alcohol family, the lowest of which are ethylene
glycol and glycerol. The close chemical relationship between Sorbitol and the lower alcohols (like glycol and
glycerol) is responsible for the similarity in their general physical properties and applications in industrial
Sorbitol is soluble in water to approximately 83 parts Sorbitol in 100 parts of water by weight.
Viscosity as well as specific gravity of Sorbitol 70% solution is higher than that of glycerine at the same
concentration as can be seen in figure1 and Table1. Sorbitol is extremely useful as humectant. Because it is stable
and non-volatile even with water vapour, there is no loss during heating or cooking or by evaporation. Unlike
ethylene glycol, Sorbitol is non-toxic and non-irritant. The taste of Sorbitol is mild, sweet, cooling, and
unobtrusive. Sorbitol is more resistant to bacteriological degradation than sugar. This resistance also makes it less
vulnerable to mould growth than most other humectant plasticising material. Sorbitol is chemically inert and
compatible with many chemical substances. In general, the hexitols and particularly Sorbitol have the ability to
chelate iron, copper and aluminium ions in aqueous solutions. Sorbitol undergoes several chemical reactions like
oxidation, reduction, esterification and etherification, yielding such important products as ascorbic acid (Vitamin
C), Sorbitan sorbides etc.
SOLUTION IN WATER TEMP. 20ºC
Percentage Viscosity cp
Gravity Glycerol Glycerol
5 1.020 1.010 1.230 1.143
10 1.040 1.020 1.430 1.212
15 1.060 1.035 1.777 1.311
20 1.075 1.050 2.060 1.517
25 1.100 1.060 2.690 1.77
30 1.120 1.070 1.060 2.1
35 1.140 1.085 3.800 2.5
40 1.160 1.100 5.200 3.2
45 1.090 1.115 7.000 4.1
50 1.210 1.130 11.000 5
55 1.230 1.140 18.000 6
60 1.260 1.150 32.000 8
65 1.280 1.170 62.000 11
70 1.305 1.185 140.000 18
75 1.330 1.200 350.000 28
80 1.370 1.220 1.5000 50
Appearance Colourless to faint
D Sorbitol in 100 gms Yellow Syrupy liquid
Refractive Index at 20ºC More than 64 Gms.
Specific Gravity at 20ºC 1.445 to 1.465
% Sulphate ash by weight (Max) More than 1.285
% Reducing Sugar 0.1
(As Glucose ) by weight (Max) 0.2
pH 6 to7
Arsenic part per million (Max) 3 ppm
Heavy metal (as lead) parts per
Chloride (Max) 50 ppm
Sulphate (Max) 100 ppm
In general, hexitols and their derivatives particularly Sorbitol, are used in diverse industries viz. pharmaceuticals,
cosmetics, toothpastes, cigarettes, foods, textiles, adhesives, confectionery, printing ink, etc. One of the major uses
of Sorbitol is as a humectant and conditioning agent. Many products under day-to-day atmospheric changes
require the addition of a humectant to assist them to retain their freshness, softness and flexibility and to maintain
ideal manufacturing conditions.
To summarise, the principal advantages which Sorbitol exhibits over other polyols are
Sorbitol GIVES UP water very slowly to dry atmosphere
Sorbitol TAKES UP water very slowly from a humid atmosphere
In candy manufacture, Sorbitol is used together with sugar to increase shelf life. The function of Sorbitol is to
retard the solidification of sugar often associated with staleness in candy. It also helps to improve softness, taste
and texture. In butter creams additional benefit is enhanced flavour. Sorbitol may be used in diabetic chocolates.
Sorbitol is used as humectant and softener in shredded coconut, its decided advantage over invert sugar being that
the darkening of the product does not occur. Sorbitol 70% added to peanut butter has been shown to reduce
dryness and crumbliness and improve spreadability.
Sorbitol functions in textile applications basically as a dispensing agent, humectant bodying agent and
sequestering agent. In printing, a paste of 2% to 3% Sorbitol solution 70% (on the weight of the gum in the dye
paste) prevents levering of the paste, improves brightness and intensity of colour, assists penetration, prevents
bleeding and promotes leveling.
In textile sizing, Sorbitol acts as a humectant and especially in winter it preserves the film of adhesive from
becoming dry and maintains its plasticity. In finishing, it gives a soft feel, good drape and proven dimension
stability to the fabric.
The moisture content of cigarettes is very important, and change in moisture content, due to change in humidity, is
minimised if Sorbitol is used as conditioner. Also Sorbitol is non-volatile and hence there is no danger of losing
the conditioner during drying and other pressing operations. Sorbitol is compatible with various ingredients used in
tobacco mixture. Because of its sweetness and cooling taste, Sorbitol contributes to the flavour of chewing tobacco
besides conditioning the product.
Sorbitol is the ideal answer since it neither loses nor absorbs any appreciable quantity of water, unlike
conventional humectants like glycerine or ethylene glycol. Sorbitol increases the viscosity of the glue composition
so that more water is needed, resulting in greater economy.
Sorbitol functions as a moisture conditioning agent and its non-volatility ensures non-cracking labels and envelops
with minimum of curling.
Sorbitol finds use as a bodying agent in pharmaceutical syrups and elixirs. The use of Sorbitol in cough syrups
reduces the tendency of the bottle caps to stick due to the crystallisation of the sugar present. Sorbitol is a good
humectants and plasticiser and these properties make it useful in emulsion ointments, non-fat soluble ointments
and gelatine capsules. Ointments, creams and pastes will show satisfactory spreading capacity with sorbitol as
Aqueous Sorbitol Solutions are not subjected to fermentative decomposition, and that is why Sorbitol finds
increasing use in the preparation of dental formulations for buckle cavity.
Sorbitol is widely used in cosmetics, both as a humectant to retard loss of water from O/W type of creams and as
Sorbitol solution 70% has proved a useful additive for improving the aesthetic appeal of glycerine carbolic soap by
imparting better transparency. Generally speaking, Sorbitol solution 70% can replace other humectants, by weight
where the humectant percentage is less than 10%.
Sorbitol effectively replaces glycerine and sugar in toothpastes imparting the required degree of plasticity and
sweetness, humectant and plasticising properties of Sorbitol.
SKIN CREAM AND CREAM FOUNDATION:
Sorbitol replaces glycerine as humectant and conditioning agent and helps to reduce the greasiness as well as the
particle size of the disperse.
Sorbitol retards the loss of water by evaporation from oil in water emulsion and is more effective than glycerine of
the same concentration when this is less than 10%.
Sorbitol imparts to frozen desserts, body and texture, as well as some sweetness. Sorbitol is used in frozen desserts
for diabetics because it is slowly absorbed from the intestine and is metabolised as fructose. In the manufacture of
sugarless chewing gum, Sorbitol provides water soluble solids; further a 70% solution of Sorbitol resists
fermentation of acids by micro-organisms in mouth and therefore it is believed not to contribute to the incidence of
dental caries. In artificially sweetened canned fruits, the undesirable aftertaste of saccharine. In low-caloric soft
drinks, sorbitol finds use as a bodying agent in addition to its use as a sequestering agent in canned soft drinks.
Extensive research has led to the adoption of Sorbitol to substitute sugar as sweetening agent in diabetic diets.
MAIZE STARCH IP/BP/USP:
Maize starch is a cereal starch having low ash and protein content. It does not thin down appreciably during the
process of sizing or any other application where thick emulsion paste is required. This has an added advantage
over a root starch such as tapioca or a potato starch. Maize starch is transformed into a very smooth paste within an
hour or even a lesser time under pressure-cooking. As the foaming is usefully associated with high pH it is not
necessary to add any of the antifoaming agents while working with maize starch, because pH of the Maize Starch
paste is always maintained in the neutral range. In addition to this the starch is easily dispersed in hydrophilic
media when the product is immersed in.
Polyhedral granules size 2.0 to 23 um.
Rounded granules size 25 to 32 um.
Color White to slight creamish
% Moisture 12 to 14
% Ash(Max) 0.25
% Solubles (Max) 0.5
% Ether extract (Max) 0.25
Acidity[5.0 gm in 100 ml. Ethyl Alcohol] Not more than 1ml 0.1N NaOH
% Protein 0.5 to 0.6
pH of 10% solution 4.5 to 7.0
Iron Less than 40 ppm.
Oxidising substance Absent
MICROBIOLOGY LIMITS: (BIOLOAD)
Total viable counts Less than 1000/gm
Total fungal counts Less than 50/gm
E.coli/10 gm Absent
Salmonella/10 gm Absent
Maize Starch (IP/BP/USP) is specially manufactured for the pharmaceutical Industry. The major use of
starch in pharmaceutical formulation is as a binder & filler for tablets and capsules, coating and dusting
media for various type of coating such as sugar and entric coating. It is widely accepted in the areas of dry
granulation techniques where the active ingredients are hygroscopic and is difficult to dry after wet
binding, Maize Starch (IP/BP/USP) has proved as an efficient dry-binder.
WHY MAIZE STARCH (IP/BP/USP) ?
Maize Starch (IP/BP/USP) is specially treated to control the bio-Load mainly Total Viable Counts [TVC],
Yeast Mould and Gram -ve bacteria.
The controled bio-Load facilitates the end user to improve their end product as the above mentioned
bacterial contamination affects the shelf life of the product, especially in the case of antibiotic and vitamin
Of all the grain commonly used in Live Stock & Poultry, Corn is by far the most important. Corn is palatable,
readily digested by human and Monogastric and ruminant animals and is one of the best source of Metabolizeable
Energy (ME) among the Grains.Corn is composed of four principal ingredients viz. Starch (Carbohydrate), Gluten
(Proteinous material), Fat (Lipids) and Fibers (Cellulosic Material) and providing valuable feed ingredients to
produce high quality Live Stock and Poultry. The Co-product of Corn refining form 25% to 30% of Corn
processed and goes into feed product. There are four main Co-products obtained viz. Corn Gluten Meal, Gluten
Feed, Corn Germ Meal and Corn steep extracts as can be seen from schemstic outline of Corn-wet milling process
Corn Gluten Meal is prepared by recentrifugation, filtering and drying of gluten slurry obtained in starch gluten
separation in the mill. It has a high protein, high nutrient density, high energy ingredient consisting of insoluble
protein in combination with minimal quantity of starch and fiber fractions. This high protein concentrate is
commonly provided at minimum 62% protein. It is highly digestible, contains ME 4131 K Cal/Kg. on D.B. for
chicks and rich source of available Carotene 49-72 mg/Kg. and Xanthophyll 244-550 mg/Kg.
Proximate Analysis of CGM (Corn Gluten Meal)
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS :
% Moisture (Max) 10.0
% Protein on D.B. (Min) 62.0
% Starch on D.B. (Max) 17.0
% Fat on D.B. (Max) 7.0
% Fiber on D.B. (Max) 2.0
% Ash on D.B. (Max) 1.7
% Total digestible Nutrient 84.0
Protein quality considerations are very complex. For non-ruminants Poultry and swine protein essential amino
acids must be present and biologically available in feed protein in sufficient quantity and in correct proportion to
meet the needs of animal. Ruminants have been shown to be responsive to protein quality in feed mixture in a less
direct way because it has a different assimilation system than non-ruminants. In formulating feed for non-
ruminants it is desirable to blend corn derived feed stuff with other protein containing feed stuffs which supply
sufficient amount of limiting amino acids of corn protein so the overall amino acids pattern in formulated feed is
balanced for particular species being fed. Corn Gluten meal is particularly valued for its high content of
methionine an essential amino acid (Approx 2%). Protein of Corn Gluten meal in contrast to other feed stuffs is
very nearly adequate in lysine, methionine and tryptophan.
FATS & FIBERS:
The Fat content of CGM* (Approx 5%) Contributes to improvement in energy value of feeds. Moreover, the high
degree of unsaturation in these fats enhances the utilization of saturated fats in other components of the feed. The
high proportion of Linoleic acid an essential fatty acid in CGM (Approx 3%) is important in Poultry feeds. The use
of feed stuff is affected by the fiber content. The lower fiber content of CGM is desirable for high nutrient density
CGM is good source of carotenoids which have Vitamin A activity and all the feed stuff from corn wet milling
will make important contribution of choline and B Vitamins in any formulation in which they are significant
ingredients.B vitamins are not added to formulated feeds for cattle, they are of considerable importance in Poultry
and swine feed.
CGM feed stuff is high in Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, Iron and Zinc, Steep water tends to concentrate
the minerals so that the trace metal content of CGM is enriched by addition of concentrated steep water to gluten
fraction. In general feeds stuff of corn wet milling make significant contribution of essential minerals and trace
elements to feed formation in which they are used.
Cattle derive almost as much energy from higher fiber lower protein Gluten feed as from Gluten Meal. Poultry
and Swine-non-ruminants can Metabolize a much higher proportion of energy in corn Gluten Feed.
Feeding requirement of Poultry is characterized by great variability in needs according to class of birds being fed.
(Chickens, Broiler, Laying hens etc.) Pigments to produce desired colour of skin and egg yolk is another special
feature of poultry feeds. Feed stuff from corn wet milling has an important place in fulfilling these requirements.
Most heavily used feed stuff is CGM. It is high in nutrient density and energy value, a good source of Vitamins
and Minerals, high in methionine and efficient source of Xanthophylls, which are valued for their skin and yoke
Corn Gluten feed and steep water are widely used for cattle and other ruminants. Because of complex digestive
system cattle can thrive on feeds relatively rich in fiber content and are less demanding of the quality of protein
Caramel color has been used for generations to improve the taste and appearance of foods and beverages.
Imparting color ranging from delicate yellow to the darkest browns, it remains a versatile and cost efficient
coloring agent. This unique color is now brought to you by Sayaji Sethness Ltd. - a joint venture Company
promoted by Sayaji Industries Ltd. (Ahmedabad) and Sethness Products Co. (U.S.A.) to manufacture Caramel
colors. Sethness Products Company is a dedicated Caramel manufacturer since 1880. Today, they have the best
technology in the world. Over the century they have developed and standardized the manufacturing process to
obtaxin a product that meets the highest standards. This rich experience combined with their R & D back-up is
available to us to bring to you the best product to meet every possible range of color, strength and hue. Sayaji
Sethness is always willing to evaluate your particular application and offer technical support to match our
products with your requirements.
Soft drinks Dark breads
Beverage products Cookies
Blended whiskey Cake Mixes Dark
Wines, Brandy, Vermouth Cake Mixes Light
Beer Malted Drinks
FLAVOR, SEASONINGS & SAUCES OTHERS
Gravy & Gravy Bases Cocoa/ Chocolate
Seasoning mix Coffee extender
Soy Sauce Textured Proteins
Flavouring Extract Candy/ Licorice
During the process of weaving, the warp threads are subjected to friction and tension. The flight of the crossing
weft shuttle, the beating of the sley and the passing of the reeds cause friction. The drawing over of the cloth beam
imposes tension, and the mechanical movements of the whole loom cause vibration, all of which bear upon the
wrap. Unless protected by some means, the thread would wear out and fray in weaving. This, in a nutshell, is the
purpose of warp sizing.
For better working in the loom shed, resistance to abrasion is of vital importance. This is achieved by
strengthening the warp yarn-by cementing fibres with certain adhesive substance which can be applied easily and
can also be removed with equal ease when the cloth goes for bleaching and subsequent processing. Much of the
success of the sizing operation depends upon the choice of the most suitable sizing ingredients, which serve the
FABRILOSE is a modified, thin, boiling starch. It has low and uniform viscosity, which does not change much
with temperature unlike native starches, which show wide variation in viscosity. The keeping qualities of the
native starch also show a marked variation, i.e. considerable degradation occurs on boiling.
FABRILOSE's non-congealing characteristic, shorter boiling time, transparency of paste and lower viscosity
ensure easy working, compared to thick boiling starches. Unlike gum and glues which require soaking,
FABRILOSE is readily dispersed in water and can be boiled into a smooth paste without any pretreatment.
One of the main drawbacks of tapioca size is that it thins down very much on boiling, resulting in an uneven pick
up on the high speed machine. The viscosity of FABRILOSE does not change with boiling and ensures uniform
pick up of size even on modern high speed sizing machines.
Fabrilose A B C
%Moisture (Max) 12 to 14 12 to 14 12 to 14
Viscosity in seconds of 3% paste on Ostwald
19 to 25 25 to 28 30 to 35
U-type Viscometer at 75º C
pH 4.5 to 7 4.5 to 7 7 to 8
% Solubles 0.50 0.50 0.50
% Total ash (Max) 0.25 0.25 0.25
1. FABRILOSE, because of the low viscosity ensures uniform pick up and penetration. There is a very
negligible variation in viscosity on boiling, which results in uniform size from beam to beam on high
speed modern sizing machines.
2. FABRILOSE does not develop abrasive points on overdying and its flexible film gives the yarn the
3. FABRILOSE size achieves a striking balance of surface coating and penetration, which ensures effective
binding and reduces the droppings considerably in the loomshed.
4. FABRILOSE is compatible with all the ingredients used in sizing humectant, lubricant, gums, synthetic
5. FABRILOSE is easily removed during the customary desizing process.
The above are deciding advantages that make FABRILOSE an ideal sizing ingredient. FABRILOSE is
manufactured in different viscosities of fluidities, to suit the requirements of different types of warps. Depending
upon the count and quality of the yarn, one can select a grade of FABRILOSE that will not only give penetration
but enough superficial coat to counteract the abrasive action of healds and reeds at the loom stage.
Dextrin is normally prepared by roasting starch in the presence of acid which materially changes the character and
properties of starch. Chemically they are intermediate between starch and sugars derived from starch.
Unlike starch, dextrins are soluble in water. The severity of the heat and acid treatment determines the degree of
solubility, which is the basis for classifying or grading dextrins. Finished dextrins are very fine, powder varying in
colour from pure white to light yellow.
% Moisture (Max) 10 10
% Ash (Max) 0.40 0.50
pH 2.5 to 3.5 2.5 to 3.5
% Cold water soluble (Min) 45* 85*
% Reducing sugar (Min) 6 to 8 3 to 5
* As per need of the customer
As dextrins do not easily react with chemicals, they are especially suitable for application in the textile field. In
textiles printing, they are used as thickeners. Free of grit and other impurities, which usually accompany lower
grades of starch, they ensure that the copper rolls (used in printing) do not suffer from abrasion. In sizing, they are
used with starch for increased adhesiveness. In finishing, they give desired feel and handle to the fabric.
The tack or stickiness of dextrin is increased by adding caustic soda or borax. The adhesive thus formed is widely
used in various industries. In the adhesive industry itself, dextrins are preferred to glue which has an unpleasant
odour and is subject to rapid bacterial decomposition. They are also preferred to starch, as they need less or no
cooking and much less water to form the paste. This means reducing drying time and little likelihood of mould
infection in warm climates. As adhesives, dextrin are thus used with greater advantage in book binding, carton
sealing, cigarette pasting, label pasting of all kinds, paper box making, gum tapes, spiral tube winding etc. In
dyestuff industry it is used as extenders.
The role of dextrin in foundries is well-known. Here the main function is to give good green strength to moulds
and to prevent deformation of the core, which is considerably handled before being fired in the oven. Another
important point is that dextrin does not make the core too dense, so that there are no trapped gases which cause
blow holes. All these advantages make dextrin very good as core binding materials.
IDEAL FOR DRY DISTEMPER:
Dextrin are largely used in dry distemper. 2% to 3% of dextrin mixed with chalk and pigment, acts as a carrier and
imparts good adhesions of the colour to the wall.
Cationic starches represent a unique class of high performance starch derivatives which have gained commercial
acceptance because of their affinity towards negatively charged substrate such as cellulose, aqueous suspensions
of minerals and slimes and biologically active macromolecules. They have already found extensive use in the
paper manufacture in which they function as internal binders and retention aids for various fillers and emulsions
and are added to the paper furnish before the sheet is formed. They are effective for improving such physical
properties of paper as bursting and tensile strength, elongation, fold endurance, and pick resistance. Usually 0.5%
to 1% addition of cooked cationic starch, gives the same improvement in the paper as does 1.5% to 2% addition of
corn starch. Other benefits of the cationic starches are improved drainage on the wire, better sheet formation and
enhancement of the sizing efficiency of an alum rosin size. Cationic starches also improve the retention of fillers
such as titanium dioxide, clay, calcium carbonate which are frequently incorporated in the furnish to improve the
opacity of high grade printing papers, fine writing papers, light weight papers such as bread wraps, glassine, etc.
With increasing filler retention, the sheet loses strength because inert fillers reduce the number of sites for fiber to
fiber bonding. Because cationic starch acts both to improve strength properties and filler retention. Its use gives
high strength properties at higher level of filler retention
A possible explanation for the improved strength obtains with cationic starch is that ionic attraction promotes a
more intimate contact between the fiber surface and starch hydroxyls to increase hydrogen bond formation when
the sheet is dried.
% Moisture (Max) 14.00
% Ash (Max) 0.5
% Nitrogen 0.20 +/- 0.02
MAPROTON is a modified starch, which possesses a cationic (positive) charge in water. The active group is a
nitrogen compound, which is capable of forming salt. In aqueous solution these salts dissociate giving a positively
charged starch radical.
AFFINITY FOR CELLULOSE:
The normal electro-kinetic potential of cellulosic fiber in water is negative. Thus, when MAPROTON is added to
negative fiber system rapid absorption of MAPROTON occurs on the fiber surface. MAPROTON is more or less
completely retained by the fiber system where as ordinary starch is far less retained. A beater starch will be
efficient in the pulp alum system where as MARPROTON functions in the alum and alum free system.
The retention mechanism of the starch is explained by:
Filtration of the starch during sheet formation on the wire.
Absorption of positively charged starch alum agglomerate
by the negatively charged fiber.
Direct absorption of the starch on to the fibers by hydrogen
bonds between the hydroxyl groups of the starch and hydroxyl
groups of the cellulose
Under ordinary paper making conditions all the three mechanisms function to a degree resulting in increased
strength properties in sheet. In practice, starch retention lies in a range of 50% to 70% of that added. The excess is
lost in white water. In case of MAPROTON, bonding occurs directly between the polymer and cellulose and does
not require aluminium floc as intermediary. The opposite electrostatic charge between polymer and fiber increases
the starch retention to almost 100% and this makes MAPROTON a superior wet-end additive.
RETENTION AID FOR FILLERS:
Filler retention is expressed as a percentage of fillers found in the paper to the weight of fillers present in the
breast-box stuff calculated on the same dry fiber basis.
When all the chemical additives are absent filler retention is around 20% to 50%.
MAPROTON is important in improving filler retention. China Clay, Calcium Carbonate etc. are covered with
hydroxyl groups. These hydroxyl groups are attached from the aqueous medium and cause a negative electro-
kinetic potential. The positively charged nitrogen group in MAPROTON radical is the reason for the combination
between the polymer and negatively charged filler particles. MAPROTON combines therefore with Cellulose and
Another successful application of MAPROTON is the improvement of titanium dioxide retention. The negative
charges of titanium dioxide in water may be due to screening demand of the titanium ion, which causes it to
attract positive hydroxyl ions.
From the above it may be concluded that MAPROTON is capable of bonding with negatively charged pigment
particles and cellulose. In this way filler, fiber and fines are effectively bonded together. Because of these several
bonds between MAPROTON polymer, fibers and fillers, a more effective flocculation occurs, resulting in an
improved retention of fillers and fines on the machine wire.
Usual dosage of MAPROTON recommended is between 0.5% to 1.0% on the dry weight of cellulose and no
solution of anionic substances such as anionic defoamers should be present in the system because they will affect
efficiency of MAPROTON as a retention aid. After the addition of MAPROTON the furnish should not pass
regions of high hydrodynamic shear. This can result in the irreversible breakdown of the filler agglomerate.
Typical vigorous agitation in centricleaners and hydro cyclone is detrimental.
PREPARATION OF SOLUTION:
MAPROTON is used as a solution in water and 5% to 10% solution can be prepared in a tank by agitation and
heating with steam for about half an hour.
The stock solution so prepared should be diluted while stirring to 0.5% to 1% concentration and passed through a
fine mesh before adding it to the furnish. This reduces the viscosity and allows intimate contact.
One method of addition is to meter 5% solution of MAPROTON in the machine circulating water so that the
solution reaching the fan pump is 0.5% to 1% approximately. Sufficient time should be allowed for adequate
mixing of back water and concentrated MAPROTON solution.
Another procedure is to dilute the concentrated solution by metering both the additional water and concentrated
MAPROTON solution through a mixer; so, the material reaching the second stage dilution tank is premixed. From
this the solution can be delivered to each machine through rot meter.
In case of completely closed stock supply system 0.5% to 1% MAPROTON solution should be added to the
diluted stock with the aid of high pressure metering pump after centrifugal cleaners, but just before the pressure
The MAPROTON solution must be completely and thoroughly mixed at the point of addition. This is highly
essential as incomplete mixing results in the formation of flocks and streaks on the wire. As a general rule, lower
the pulp consistency, more uniform is the distribution of MAPROTON.
Therefore, the point of addition is very important and it should be added at a point where it will be adequately
mixed by natural turbulence i.e.
Across the first compartment of the breast box or head box. For breast box addition it is recommended to
use a shower pipe which will distribute the solution of MAPROTON evenly across the complete width of
the breast box.
At the exit side of the secondary fan pump, to achieve good mixing in the laminar flow of the discharge
pipe of the fan pump, the feed should end in multiple taps around the discharge pipe.
To evaluate the advantages or efficiency the stock is sampled in the breast box for ash determination. The tray
water should be analyzed for fiber and filler solids and strength characteristics of the finished paper should be
The changes in the vacuum up to and including couch should be recorded. In short the use of MAPROTON has
the following advantages:
1. Increase in filler and fiber retention
2. Increase in the strength property of the paper
3. Decrease of the suspended solids in the final effluent
4. Reduces BOD in the mill effluent.
SAYABOND is a ready-mix corrugation adhesive made from Maize Starch. It is specially developed for use in
the corrugated paper packaging boards keeping in mind the advantages of consistency and perfection in quality.
PREPARATION OF CORRUGATION PASTE FROM SAYABOND:
The ratio is 1:3.6 (1kg SAYABOND to 3.6 lt. Of Water). Take water in a container and stir it with a stirrer at 900-
rpm. While the stirring is in progress, add SAYABOND gradually in to the vertex of water formed by stirrer.
Continue the stirring for 20 minutes.
The SAYABOND to water ratio may however, be changed to ensure required viscosity depending on the gsm,
quality of paper and single facer or double backer bonding.
Appearance Off white powder
% Moisture (Max) 14.0
pH 10.5 to 11.5
% Ash 5 to 7
Viscosity of 1:36 at ambient temp.on Ford Cup No.4 50 +/- 10Secs.(Depending upon the requirement)
Bulk Density 0.55 to 0.65 gram/ml
Paste Clarity Opaque
Shelf life One year
SAYASTICK is a modified starch powder suitable for making Pasting Liquid Glue (by hot process) on semi-
automatic lamination/pasting machine. SAYASTICK is used for making 3-ply and 5-ply paperboards from two
ply, in those units where the double backer facility is not available. Also one can use SAYASTICK for making 7-
ply board from 5-ply board.
PREPARATION OF LIQUID GLUE FROM SAYASTICK:
In a tank equipped with heating arrangements, either by steam or by Electricity. Take water four times the weight
of powder, Slowly disperse the powder in the water or then start heating. The stirrer should continuously run for
all the time and when the temperature reaches 85º to 90º C., then stop heating. The gum is ready for use. The gum
should have a temperature of 45º to 50º C., when it is taken in a tray for application. Depending on the required
viscosity, water can be added to the glue.
Appearance Off white powder
% Moisture (Max) 14.0
% Ash 4.0-6.0
Viscosity of 20% solution on
15-20 Sec. (Depending upon the requirement)
Ford Cup No.4 at 90ºC 1:4 ratio
Bulk Density 0.55 to 0.65 Gram/ml.
Paste Clarity Opaque
Shelf life One year
China clay 100 parts 100 parts
Water 45 parts 45 parts
Dispersant 0.3 parts 0.3 parts
Sayatex 17 parts 20 parts
Water 37 parts 60 parts
Synthetic Latex 6 parts 10 parts
Calcium Stearate 2 parts -
Water to add - 68 parts
TYPICAL ANALYSIS :
% Moisture (Max) 12
% Whiteness + 85
Viscosity of 20% paste By Ostwald Viscometer
Higher Viscosity as per Customer's requirements can be given.
MACHINE AND OFF MACHINE COATING:
The purpose of SAYATEX is to bind the pigment particles to each other, to the base stock, and also to act as a
vehicle for the pigment and regulate ink receptivity.
Synthetic Latex is used together with the starch, to impart flexibility and wet rub resistance to the coated paper.
In general, cooking the solution separately and then adding it to the clay slip previously dispersed in water with
the aid of dispersant prepare coated colour. It is also possible to cook in presence of the pigment. In general,
additives (such as latex, etc.) of the binder are added last.
SAYATEX is dispersed in requisite amount of cold water with continuous stirring. It is then cooked at 85-90º C.
The temperature is maintained for 20-30 minutes and the starch is ready for use.
One of the main applications of SAYATEX starches is in the paper industry, either as a wet end additive or for the
surface treatment of paper and board.
AS A WET-END ADDITIVE :
For this purpose, the recommended amount is 0.5% to 1% on the dry weight of pulp and should be used in
conjunction with rosin size for more effective precipitation of rosin alum complex. This action increases the ink
and water resistance of a finished sheet. Use of SAYATEX has the advantage of increasing the filler retention as
well as the strength properties of the sheet. In the conventional system it can be added as paste or solution at the
beater, and in a continuous system just before the refiners.