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					Unit 7: Learning about
        English
 Text A: The Glorious Messiness of
              English
 Text B: The Role of English in the
           21st Century
                    Pre-reading Tasks
   Answer questions on p.206.
       What is the passage about?
   English is a great language, but it is also a crazy
    language.
   The idiomatic usages mentioned in the recorded
    passage.
   ship by truck / send a cargo by ship
   “send” by truck / send a cargo by “a large boat”

   Noses that run / feet that smell
   This refers to what people usually say “have a
    running nose”, “have smelly feet”.

   a slim/fat chance
   used to say that something is very unlikely to
    happen
   a wise guy / a wise man
   A wise guy: a person who pretends to be much wiser
    than he/she really is; a derogatory term.
   A wise man: a really wise person; a commendatory
    term

   overlook / oversee
   overlook: fail to see or notice; pay no attention to;
    miss
   oversee: to be in charge of a group of workers and
    check that a piece of work is done satisfactorily;
    supervise
   hot / cold as hell:
   Hell can either be hot or cold. Extremely hot or cold

   burn up / burn down
   burn up: if something burns up or is burnt up, it is
    completely destroyed by fire or heat
   burn down: if a building burns down or is burned
    down, it is destroyed by fire

   fill in/ out a form
   Synonymous
   go off: if an alarm goes off, it makes a noise to warn
    you about something
   go on: to continue doing something or being in a
    situation

   the human race: all people, considered together as a
    group; mankind
   (Human race isn‟t) a race: one of the main groups
    that humans can be divided into according to the
    colour of their skin and other physical features
   out: ▶NOT BURNING/SHINING◀
   a fire or light that is out is no longer burning or
    shining
   ▶SUN/MOON ETC◀
   if the sun, moon, or stars are out, they have appeared
    in the sky

   wind up a watch: tighten the spring of a watch
   wind up a speech: end a speech
                    Interpret the Title
   glorious: having or deserving great fame, praise, and
    honour
   a glorious future / a glorious victory / a glorious
    expedition
   messy: 1. being dirty or untidy
       a messy room
       Sorry the place is so messy, I haven't had time to clear up.
   2. a messy situation is complicated and unpleasant
    to deal with
       He's just been through a particularly messy divorce.
   glorious: a commendatory term
   messiness: a derogatory term
   What effect can be achieved when one is modified
    by the other?
   Oxymoron
   a deliberate combination of two words that seem to
    mean the opposite of each other, such as 'cruel
    kindness'
         Examples from Shakespeare
        (translated by Zhu Shenghao)
   An honorable murderer: 正直的凶手
   An honorable villain: 庄严的奸徒
   A damned saint: 万恶的圣人
   Sweet pangs: 甜蜜的痛苦
   Sweet knaves: 温文和气的恶人
   Sweet sorrow: 甜蜜的凄清
   A living death: 活死人
   Loving hate, heavy lightness, serious vanity, cold
    fire, sick health,…
          Oxymoron vs. Paradox
   Oxymoron: 矛盾修饰法(两个意思互相矛盾或排斥的
    词语紧密地联结在一起,组成句子描述一个事物或表达
    一种思想或说明一个道理.)
   Paradox: 似非而是的隽语(表面上自相矛盾但实质上
    入情入理的阐述.)
   Similarities: 字面意义互相矛盾,不合逻辑,有时甚至
    荒唐可笑,但仔细推敲,却语言含蓄,哲理深刻,耐人
    寻味;
   Dissimilarities:paradox 把意义相对的概念组合在句
    子中,不一定存在直接修饰或说明的关系;而在
    oxymoron中,意义相悖的词语紧密地置于一处,有修饰
    与被修饰的关系,或者是说明与被说明的关系.
   Scan the first three paragraphs to find out the
    definition for “glorious messiness”

   Text organization Ex.1 on p.214.
       Scan the first sentence of each paragraph in Text A to
        find out where the present tense is switched to the past
        tense?
        And where the present tense is resumed?
   Part I (1-3): Massive borrowing from other
    languages is a major feature of the English language.
   Part II (4-16): The History of the English language
    from the Indo-European parent language to modern
    English.
   Part III (17-19): Tolerance, love of freedom, and
    respect for the rights of others – these qualities in
    the English speaking people explain the richness of
    their language.
      Language Study of Part I (1-3)
   Does English have the largest vocabulary?
   It isn't as clearcut a question as it sounds. For any
    one language, the size of the largest dictionary is
    really just a matter of where the dictionary
    compilers decided to stop; there will always be more
    slang words, technical terms, medical terms, (a
    major source of vocabulary enlargement), etc.
   vocabulary size of different languages:
   I can, however, give you references of how many
    words get used in language. The complete text of the
    Bible has this many different words in different
    languages: Maori 19,301 English 31,244 Dutch
    42,347 French 48,609 Russian 76,707 Finnish
    86,566
   The main difference between these is in the various
    derived and inflectional forms.
   massive: unusually large, powerful, or damaging
       My phone bill is going to be massive this month.
       massive increases in the number of homeless
       Club members can get a massive discount of £50.
       Union leaders are warning of massive job losses.
   far + comparative of adj. ▶A LOT/VERY MUCH◀
   far better/easier etc
       The new system is far better than the old one.
       There are a far greater number of women working in
        television than twenty years ago.
   far more/less
       I enjoyed it far more than I expected.
   French, the French
       English, the English; Chinese, the Chinese; etc.


   snack: a small amount of food that is eaten between
    main meals or instead of a meal
       I grabbed a quick snack.
       Drinks and light snacks are served at the bar.
       snack foods like crisps and peanuts
   the hit parade
   a list that shows which popular records have sold the
    most copies
   parade: (French origin) a public celebration when
    musical bands, brightly decorated vehicles etc move
    down the street
       a victory parade / the St Patrick's Day parade
   hit: something such as a film, play, song etc that is
    very popular and successful
   a big/number 1 hit etc
       the Beatles' greatest hits
   be a hit with somebody (=be liked by them)
       It's hoped the new museum will be a big hit with families.
   corrupt: 1. to encourage someone to start behaving
    in an immoral or dishonest way; to influence
    someone in a bad way
       The Senate will form a committee to determine if
        violence on television is corrupting young people.
       They say power corrupts.
   2. to change the traditional form of something, such
    as a language, so that it becomes worse than it was
       The culture has been corrupted by Western influences.
   ban: vt. to say that something must not be done, seen,
    used etc; synonym prohibit
       Smoking is banned in the building.
   ban somebody from doing something
       Charlie's been banned from driving for a year.
   ban: n. [countable] an official order that prevents
    something from being used or done
       a total ban on cigarette advertising
   lift/impose a ban
       The city has imposed a ban on smoking in all restaurants.
       The bill would lift a ban on U.S. pharmacists re-
        importing drugs.
   invent: to think of an idea, story etc that is not true;
    to give a new name that doesn‟t exist for sth
       I began to invent reasons for staying away from work.
       It was proven that one witness's story had been invented.
       They invented their own names for objects on the screen.
   (to make, design, or think of a new type of thing
       Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876.)
   tolerance: willingness to allow people to do, say, or
    believe what they want without criticizing or
    punishing them opposite intolerance
   tolerance of/towards/for
       This is a gross abuse of public tolerance for the private
        misbehavior of famous athletes.
       The government is beginning to show more tolerance of
        opposition groups.
       The school encourages an attitude of tolerance towards
        all people.
   2. the degree to which someone can suffer pain,
    difficulty etc without being harmed or damaged
   tolerance to
       Many old people have a very limited tolerance to cold.
   tolerant: 1. allowing people to do, say, or believe
    what they want without criticizing or punishing
    them opposite intolerant
   tolerant of/towards
       Luckily, my parents were tolerant of my choice of music.
       a tolerant society
   tolerable: a situation that is tolerable is not very
    good, but you are able to accept it opposite
    intolerable
       The apartment is really too small, but it's tolerable for the
        time being.
   to a very real extent: to a great / large extent
       It's an old maxim but it's true: to a great extent, you are
        what you eat.
       Its success will depend to a large extent on local attitudes.
       Part II (4-16): The History of the
                English language

   Some key terms and key stages related to the history
    of the English Language.
   The Indo-European family includes several major
    branches:
       1. Latin and the modern Romance languages;
       2. The Germanic languages;
       3. The Indo-Iranian languages, including Hindi (an official
        language in India) and Sanskrit (an ancient language of India );
       4. The Slavic languages;
       5. The Baltic languages of Latvian and Lithuanian (but
        not Estonian);
       6. The Celtic languages; and
       7. Greek.
   Of these branches of the Indo-European family,
    two are, for our purposes of studying the
    development of English, of paramount
    importance, the Germanic and the Romance
    (called that because the Romance languages derive
    from Latin, the language of ancient Rome)
   Around the second century BC, this Common
    Germanic language split into three distinct sub-
    groups:
       East Germanic was spoken by peoples who migrated
        back to southeastern Europe. No East Germanic language
        is spoken today, and the only written East Germanic
        language that survives is Gothic.
       North Germanic evolved into the modern Scandinavian
        languages of Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Icelandic
        (but not Finnish, which is related to Estonian and is not
        an Indo-European language).
       West Germanic is the ancestor of modern German, Dutch,
        Flemish, Frisian, and English.
   Viking: a member of the group of Scandinavian
    people who sailed in ships to attack areas along the
    coasts of northern and western Europe from the 8th
    to 11th centuries
   Scandinavian people: people from North Europe
    consisting of Norway, Swede, Denmark, Finland
    and Iceland.
   Norse: the language that was spoken by the people
    of ancient Scandinavia, esp. the ancient Norwegian
    people
   The Norman Conquest: the period when the
    Normans (people from Normandy in northern France),
    led by William the Conqueror, took control of
    England after defeating the English king Harold II,
    at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. These events had
    a very great influence on England's history, culture,
    and language, and French became the main
    language of the ruling class.
   The origins of English: English began as a west
    Germanic language which was brought to England
    by the Saxons around 400 A.D.
   Old English (400-1100 AD)
   The Norman Conquest and Middle English (1100-
    1500) (influenced by French and Latin: French brought
    words related to government and Latin religion and
    learning)
   Modern English (1500-Present) (A Dictionary of the
    English Language 1755 by Samuel Johnson)
   American English (The Elementary Spelling Books by
    Noah Webster 1783)
   West Germanic invaders from Jutland and southern
    Denmark: the Angles (whose name is the source of the
    words England and English), Saxons, and Jutes, began
    populating the British Isles in the fifth and sixth centuries
    AD. They spoke a mutually intelligible language, that is
    called Old English.
   These invaders pushed the original, Celtic-speaking
    inhabitants out of what is now England into Scotland, Wales,
    and Ireland, leaving behind a few Celtic words. These Celtic
    languages survive today in Scotland and Ireland and in
    Welsh.
   About half of the most commonly used words in modern
    English have Old English roots. Words like be, water, and
    strong, for example, derive from Old English roots.
   The most famous
    example of Middle
    English is Chaucer's
    Canterbury Tales.
    Unlike Old English,
    Middle English can be
    read, albeit with
    difficulty, by modern
    English-speaking people.
   Many students having difficulty
    understanding Shakespeare
    would be surprised to learn that
    he wrote in modern English.
    Many familiar words and
    phrases were coined or first
    recorded by Shakespeare, some
    2,000 words and countless
    catch-phrases are his. Words he
    bequeathed to the language
    include "critical," "leapfrog,"
    "majestic," "dwindle," and
    "pedant."
              Language Study of 4-16
   necessity: something that you need to have in order
    to live opposite luxury
       She saw books as a necessity, not a luxury.
       A car is an absolute necessity if you live in the country.
   arouse: to make someone have a particular feeling
       arouse interest/expectations etc (make you become
        interested, expect something etc)
       Matt's behavior was arousing the interest of the neighbors.
       arouse hostility/suspicion/resentment/anger etc (to make
        someone feel very unfriendly and angry, or suspicious)
       A great deal of anger was aroused by Campbell's
        decision.
       Parked vehicles that arouse suspicion should be reported.
   stir: a) [transitive] to make someone have a strong
    feeling or reaction
   stir memories/emotions etc
       Looking at the photographs stirred childhood memories
        of the long hot summers.
       The poem succeeds in stirring the imagination .
   b) [intransitive] if a feeling stirs in you, you begin to
    feel it
       Excitement stirred inside her.
   arouse: anger, anxiety, concern, controversy,
    curiosity, emotion, enthusiasm, expectations, fear,
    hostility, interest, opposition, passion, resentment,
    suspicion, etc.
   stir: action, coffee, controversy, emotion, hatred,
    heart, imagination, memory, mixture, pot, sauce,
    soup, sugar, tea, trouble, wind, etc.
   position: to put someone in a place
   Winston Churchill (1874-1965):
       One of Britain‟s greatest statesmen.
       He had been a soldier and a journalist before entering
        politics.
       He became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence in
        1940. His radio speeches during World War II gave the
        British people a strong determination to win the war.
       He won a second term of Prime Minister from 1951-1955.
       At age 80 he retired and died in 1965.
   Parallelism in the quote from Churchill.
   surrender: to say officially that you want to stop
    fighting or to stop avoiding the police, government
    etc because you realize that you cannot win; give in
       The terrorists were given ten minutes to surrender.
   surrender to somebody
       Thousands of illegal immigrants in Japan have
        surrendered to police.
   surrender yourself (to somebody)
       He immediately surrendered himself to the authorities.
   virtually: 1. almost synonym practically
       Virtually all the children come to school by bus.
       He was virtually unknown before running for office.
       Virtually everyone expects Monica to succeed.
   2. on a computer, rather than in the real world
       virtually published on the Internet


   for effect: if someone does something for effect,
    they do it in order to make people notice
       She paused for effect, then carried on speaking.
       Dangerfield rolled his eyes for effect as he told the joke.
   Julius Caesar (100-44 BC):
       The best-known of all the ancient Roman leaders
       And the first one to land in Britain with an army. He did
        this twice, in 55 and 54 BC, although Britain did not
        become part of the Roman Empire until nearly a hundred
        years later.
       It was he who reformed the Roman Calendar which
        survives even today worldwide.
       July         Julius
   invade: enter a country, town, or area using military
    force, in order to take control of it
       The Romans invaded Britain 2000 years ago.
       Hitler invaded Poland in 1939.
   go into, get into esp. when sth / sb is unwanted
       Every summer the town is invaded by tourists.
       A virus has invaded most of their computers.
       What right does he have to invade my privacy?
   inhabit: [transitive]
   if animals or people inhabit an area or place, they
    live there
       The woods are inhabited by many wild animals.
       I have no idea what sort of people inhabit the area.
       inhabited islands
       Inhabitable / uninhabitable
   mystery: an event, situation etc that people do not
    understand or cannot explain because they do not
    know enough about it
       Twenty years after the event, his death remains a
        mystery .
       The way her mind worked was always a mystery to him.
       'Why did he do it?' 'I don't know. It's a complete
        mystery .„
   resemble: to look like or be similar to someone or
    something
       It's amazing how closely Brian and Steve resemble each
        other.
       He grew up to resemble his father.
   descend: 1. be descended from somebody
   to be related to a person or group who lived a long
    time ago
       She claims to be descended from Abraham Lincoln.
       The people here are descended from the Vikings.
   2. to have developed from something that existed in
    the past
       ideas that descend from those of ancient philosophers
   come up with: to think of a new idea, design, or
    name for something
       Is that the best excuse you can come up with?
       We've been asked to come up with some new ideas.
       The board must come up with a plan to put the city back
        on its financial feet (be successful again after having
        problems ).
   establish: start a company, organization, system, etc
    that is intended to exist or continue for a long time
       The city of Boerne was established by German settlers in
        the 1840s.
       Our goal is to establish a new research centre in the
        North.
   drift: ▶MOVE SLOWLY◀
   to move slowly on water or in the air
   drift out/towards etc
       The rubber raft drifted out to sea.
       Smoke drifted up from the jungle ahead of us.
   make a move                  move
   make a discovery             discover
   Make a guess                 guess
       Martin made a move towards the door.
       If I had to make a guess , I'd say Sam was the youngest.
       He made the discovery that people would rather pay large
        sums of money than have their life work destroyed by
        gangsters.
   pass sth onto to sb: to give information, tradition,
    disease, etc to another person
       I tried to pass on to Louie everything I knew about the
        business.
       I'll pass the information on to our sales department.
       She said she'd pass the message on to the other students.
       Yet they passed on the same tradition to their daughters,
        who then passed it on to their daughters.
   enrich: add a good quality to something
       Add fertilizer to enrich the soil.
       Education can greatly enrich your life.
       The goal of the course is to enrich our understanding of
        other cultures.
   enrich sth / sb with sth
       In this way courses are enriched with case studies and
        presentations from experts working in relevant fields.
   Word formation: en + adj./n        V: cause to be
   More: enlarge, endanger, enable, empower …
   Inversion in the first sentence of Para.13
   To achieve coherence

   addition: something / somebody that is added to
    something / somebody else, often in order to
    improve it
       This excellent book will be a welcome addition to the
        library of any student.
       A bottle of wine would make a pleasant addition to the
        meal.
       The young professor will be a most valuable addition to
        our board.
   flood of: [countable] a very large number of things
    or people that arrive at the same time
       The UN appealed for help with the flood of refugees
        crossing the border.
       Many fear that the flood of imports could weaken
        Britain's economy.
       The town has been hit by a flood of visitors since it was
        featured in the movie.
   conquer: 1. get control of a country by fighting
       Julius Caesar conquered Gaul, which we know today as
        France.
       Egypt was conquered by the Persian king Kambyses.
   2. defeat an enemy
       The Zulus conquered all the neighbouring tribes.
   3. gain control over something that is difficult, using
    a lot of effort
       She was determined to conquer her fear of flying.
       efforts to conquer inflation
       drugs to conquer the disease
   alternative: [countable] something you can choose to
    do or use instead of something else
   alternative to
       Is there an alternative to the present system?
   If payment is not received within five days, legal
    action will be our only alternative.
   I had no alternative but to report him to the police.
   He quickly assessed what alternatives were open to
    him.
   William Caxton (1422 -1491):
       The man who set up the first printing firm in Britain.
       He printed his first book in 1474.
       By printing books in English, Caxton had a strong
        influence on the spelling and development of the
        language.
       Many of the books he published were French stories
        which he translated himself.
   a wealth of something: a lot of something useful or
    good
       There is a wealth of information available about
        pregnancy and birth.
       Pat reckons she has gained a wealth of experience about
        human life.
   spring from: be caused by something or start from
    something, usu. in large number or amount, or
    unexpectedly; originate from
       behaviour which springs from prejudices
       Hatred often springs from fear.
   classic: a book, play, novel, or film that is important
    and has been admired for a long time
       'Jane Eyre' is Bronte's classic (adj.) novel of courage in
        the face of despair.
       „Jane Eyre‟ is one of the classics of English literature.
       all-time/modern/design etc classic
       The play has become an American classic.
   source: a point or place from which sth originates
       The source of the Yangtze River lies in Northwest China.
   Cf. resource: supplies of raw materials, etc., which
    bring a country, a person, etc. wealth; things that can
    be turned to for help, support when needed
       With regard to its population, China is poor in natural
        resources.
   Fill in the blanks with either of the two words, using
    the proper form where necessary.
       1. When you don‟t know a word, a dictionary is a
        valuable ______.
       2. Even though China is rich in manpower and material
        _____, she still has to treasure every bit of both.
       3. Where does the Nile have its ____?
       4. 53% of those questioned gave bad housing as their
        main ____ of worry.
       5. A genuine scientific report requires clear indication of
        theoretical ____.
        Language Study of Part III (17-19)
   Otto Jespersen (1860-1943):
       A Danish linguist and educationist
   The quote:
   strike out: start doing something or living
    independently;
       It feels great to strike out on your own and find a job and
        a place to live.
       The time was finally ripe, they decided, to strike out on
        their own.
   nourish: 1. give a person or other living thing the
    food and other substances they need in order to live,
    grow, and stay healthy
       The cream contains vitamin A to nourish the skin.
       a well nourished baby
   2. formal to keep a feeling, idea, or belief strong or
    help it to grow stronger
       The Bill of Rights nourishes our freedom.
       He nourished the same attitude in others.
   soil, shoots, fences: figuratively used
   spring up: suddenly appear or start to exist
       Fast-food restaurants are springing up all over town.
   preserve: 1. an area of land or water that is kept for
    private hunting or fishing
   2. an activity that is only suitable or allowed for a
    particular group of people
       Banking used to be a male preserve .
   preserve of
       The civil service became the preserve of the educated
        middle class.
     A Summary of Rhetorical Devices
   Oxymoron: glorious messiness
   Metaphors: core of English, a common parent
    language, another flood of new vocabulary, the
    cultural soil, the first shoots sprang up, … grew
    stronger, build fences around their language, the
    special preserve of grammarians, …
   Parallelism in Churchill‟s quote.
   …

				
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