Humanistic and Existential Aspects of Personality - PowerPoint by mifei

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									Humanistic and Existential
Aspects of Personality

      Theories of Personality
  Prepared by: Jim Messina, Ph.D.
Humanistic/Existential
Theorists
   Erich Fromm
   Carl Rogers
   Rollo May
   Victor Frankl
   Abraham Maslow
Existentialism
   Area of philosophy concerned with the
    meaning of human existence
   Asking questions about issues of love,
    death and the meaning of life
   How one deals with the sense of value
    and meaning of one‟s life
    Being-in-the-World
   Martin Heidegger (1962)
   Nothing would exist in the world if people
    were not here to see it vs laws govern all
    behaviors and the behaviors & their laws
    exist no matter if there people there at
    the time
   If a tree fell in a forest, and there was no
    one to hear it, would the tree make
    noise?
Existentialists Believe:
   The world changes as people‟s ideas
    about it change.
   Ideas of world = human construction
   “Beings-in-the-World” = Self cannot exist
    without a world and the world cannot
    exist without a person (a being) to
    perceive it
   Must study human beings in their worlds
    Existentialists: Don‟t ask why-
    Just accept what is
   Do not consider why questions but
   They consider that statements
   They do not ignore or explain away the
    issues of man such as ethics or morals
   They do not concern themselves with the
    conflict of choosing ethics or morals but
    rather accept that it is essential part of
    humans to do so
Phenomenological
   People‟s perceptions or subjective
    realities are considered to be valid data
    for investigation
   Phenomenological discrepancy = two
    people perceiving save situation
    differently
Nondeterministic
   Existentialist argue that it is an
    oversimplification to view people as
    controlled by fixed physical laws
   People cannot be viewed simply as “cogs
    in a vast machine”
   Encouragement of theories that consider
    individual initiative, creativity, & self-
    fulfillment
   Focus on active, positive aspects of
    human growth and achievement
Humanism
   Philosophical movement that emphasizes
    worth of the individual and the centrality
    of human values
   Attends to matters of ethics & personal
    worth
   Gives credit to the human spirit
   Emphasis on creative, spontaneous &
    active nature of humans-optimistic
   Human capacity to overcome hardship &
    despair
Dialectical Tension
   People having contradictory traits which
    produce this tension
   Dialectic = process by which two
    contradictory forces or tendencies lead
    to a resolution or synthesis
   E.g.: masculine & feminine inclinations,
    extroverted & introverted etc.
I-Thou dialogue vs
I-It dialogue
   Our relationship comes from our
    relationships with others (Martin Buber,
    1937)
   I-thou = human confirms the other
    person as being of unique value-direct
    mutual relationships
   I-it = person uses others but does not
    value them for themselves-utilitarian
Human Potential Movement
   Begun in 1960‟s
   Use small group meetings, self-disclosure, &
    introspection
   People realize their inner potentials
   Encounter groups, massage, meditation,
    consciousness raising, communing with
    nature, organic food
   E.g.: Environmental concerns, Quality Circles,
    Team self-management
Erich Fromm 1900-1980
   Born Frankfurt Germany
   Only child of Orthodox Jews
   Raised in Christian community –
    experienced “clannishness” & Anti –
    Semitism
   Anxious & Moody father / Depression prone
    mother –he was “unbearable neurotic” as
    child
   A woman, he was attracted to when 25,
    committed suicide-triggered need for
    psychoanalysis
Dialectical Humanism
   Reconciliation of the biologically driven
    and the societally pressured sides of
    human beings with the belief that
    people can rise above or transcend,
    these forces and become spontaneous,
    creative & loving
Existential Needs-Fromm‟s
   These needs must be met if one‟s
    existence is to be meaningful, one‟s
    talents are to be fully exploited, &
    abnormality is to be avoided
       Fromm‟s 8 Existential Needs
Frame of        Cognitive map-gives meaning to
Orientation     existence
Relatedness     Uniting with others
Rootedness      Craving to maintain ties
Identity        Aware of self as separate entity
Unity           Sense of oneness of self with world
Transcendence   Transform from “creature” into a
                “purposeful creator”
Effectiveness   Sense of being able to do in life
                something “to make a dent” in it
Excitation &    Need of nervous system to
stimulation     experience excitation
    Carl Rogers 1902-1987

   Born Oak Park, Illinois
   Fourth of six children
   Fundamental religious practices, little social
    mixing, belief virtue Hard Work
   Solitary boy, outstanding student
   Studied in Seminary, became child
    psychologist influenced by Adler‟s concepts
    of work with children and families
   Emphasized taking personal responsibility for
    one‟s own life
     The Experiencing Person

   Important issues must be defined by
    individual-special concern are discrepancies
    between what a person thinks of himself &
    total range of things he experiences
   People tend to develop in a positive
    direction, that unless thwarted, they
    achieve their potential
   Belief in natural goodness of people-
    Rousseau
   Inner self-control is better than forced,
    external control
Rogerian Therapy –
Client-Centered Therapy
   Necessary conditions from therapist to
    client:
   Unconditional positive regard for
    client
   Accurate empathy, understanding of
    client‟s frame of references and
    communicates this to the client
   Congruence in relations between
    therapist & client -being oneself in the
    therapeutic relationship with client
          Stages of Rogerian
          Client-Centered Therapy
   1. Client’s communications about externals & not self
   2. Client describes feelings but not recognize or
    “own” them personally
   Client talks about self as an object in terms of past
    experiences
   4. Client experiences feelings in present-just
    describes them with distrust & fear
   5. Client experiences and expresses feelings freely in
    present-feeling bubble up
   6. Client accepts own feelings in immediacy and
    richness
   7. Client trusts new experiences & relates to others
    openly & freely
Rollo May
   Sees anxiety triggered by a threat to
    one‟s core values of existence
   A sense of powerlessness follows
   Had polio as young man-long term
    institutionalization-isolation & anxiety
   Sees human journey as a noble and
    dignifying one
     Victor Frankl
   Emphasizes the benefits of personal
    choice
   If people choose to grow & develop =„s
    anxiety which can lead to self-fulfillment
   Was in Nazi concentration camp-found
    meaning in suffering & adopting
    responsibility to control what life was lef
    him
   Developed: logotherapy-search for
    meaning of existence
Self-Actualization
   Innate process by which a person tends
    to grow spiritually and realize potential
   First proposed by Jung-through self-
    exploration person could live in harmony
    with nature and all of humanity by
    integrating various psychic forces to
    become “whole” person-selfish drives
    could be explored, understood &
    integrated with the spiritual aspects of
    human
Teleology – Jung 1933
   Idea that there is a grand design or
    purpose in one‟s life
   Quasi-religious, spiritual integrations
    are key part of human nature
      Abraham Maslow 1908-
      1970
   Born Brooklyn, New York City 1908-Russian
    Jewish Family, mother 1st cousin of father
   Oldest of 7 children
   Mother-cold, vicious, superstitiously religious &
    abusive to son-threats of divine
    retribution=religion is a form of superstition
   Absent father-worked all the time-father in
    depression became ward of his son-they
    became friends
   Suffered from anti-Semitism, poor body image
Peak Experience
   Special moment when everything seems
    to fall into place
   People transcend the self and are at
    one with the world
   Completely self-fulfilled
   Positive meaningful experience
Self-actualized People
   Spiritually fulfilled
   Comfortable with themselves & others
   Loving & creative
   Realistic & productive
   People with ideal healthy lives
   Realistic knowledge of self & accept self
   Independent, spontaneous & playful
   Establish deep intimate relationships
   Have a love for human race
   Non-conformists but highly ethical
Organismic
   Assumes unfolding or life course of
    each organism
   Push for self-actualization comes from
    within humans rather than from outside
   Push for self-actualization is not
    necessary for survival
   Evolved tendency of humans for growth
    is assumed
Maslow‟s Hierarchy of
Needs
      Self-actualization


        Esteem Needs


  Love or Belonginess Needs


   Safety or Security Needs


Survival or Physiological Needs
    Maslow‟s Organismic
    Deficiency Needs
   D needs = deficiency needs for survival
   Survival-Physiological: food, water, sex &
    shelter
   Safety-Security: predictable world, work,
    training, money to pay rent, etc
   Love-Belongingness: intimate relationships
   Esteem: respect for oneself & others
   B needs, values = “being” level correct
    social conditions needed to encourage self-
    actualization
Personal Orientation Inventory
(POI) Shostrum 1974
   Assessment of self-actualization-
    does work but it is:
   Self-report questionnaire so it
    measures what Maslow expected
    these people to have
   Explores dimensions of self-
    actualization:
       Intimate relationships
       Spontaneous vs inhibited etc…

								
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