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					Nordic People
  circa A.D.
  800-1050



 Apolinario English Class
                             The Start of

                the Viking Age
Historical ages are seldom pinned down to specific dates
like the Viking Age. Usually, the influence of one group
over the history of another is gradual, spread out over a
few decades or hundreds of years. But the change in how
the Vikings dealt with others in Europe can be pinned
down to a single event, an attack on a monastery in
England, and is widely accepted as the start of the Viking
Age.




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•  8th of June 793: Norsemen attacked a 6th century
monastery on the island of Lindesfarne
• It was the first recorded attack by the Norse on England.
• Until 793, the Vikings had not strayed too far from their
communities along the coasts of Norway, Denmark and
Sweden

• A surviving monk wrote the following in his account of
the raid:
"The same year the heathens arrived from the north to Brittany
with a fleet of ships. They were like stinging wasps, and they
spread in all directions like horrible wolves, wrecking, robbing,
shattering and killing not only animals but also priests, monks
and nuns. They came to the church of Lindesfarne, slayed
everything alive, dug up the altars and took all the treasures of
the holy church".


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    Lindsframe
"Everywhere the Northmen sought out
monasteries and churches, not so much
through malice against the Christian clergy as
because they had learned that there was always
rich plunder to be found under the sign of the
cross and that the monks and clergy had
become too accustomed to the protections
offered them by religious veneration to have
taken the necessary precautions for defense.
Great numbers of the monasteries were
completely destroyed- a serious blow to
learning, since they were the chief centers of
education. The fear these rapacious pirates
inspired is echoed eloquently in the prayer,
introduced into the litany, 'From the fury of
the Northmen, good Lord, deliver us.'"
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SO? Where is Scandinavia?




                                The homeland of the Vikings
                                is Scandinavia. Today,
                                Scandinavia includes the
                                countries of
                                Norway, Sweden, Denmark
                                and Iceland.
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    Who are the

Viking People
• North men,
or Norse men
• Danish, Norwegian,
  Swedish warriors

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      Viking Clans
• Landowning
  Chieftains
• Retainer-important
  people
• Freemen- common
  folk
• Young people/
  slaves
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     Viking = “pirate”?
• Burn – Plunder - Kill
• Robbery and mead parties




True term of Viking = he who serves
or more directly translated: Man from the Vik, a bay in Norway
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  Viking Country & Homes
• Cold winters – snow and ice
• Small houses near fjords




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     Viking Families & Food
• Parents, grandparents
  & Children
• Winter season
  livestock
• Berries, roots,
  mushrooms
• Forest: Pigs, Deer,
  Moose, Reindeer
• Fish & Birds
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    Viking Entertainment
• Games: Running,
  wrestling,
  horseback riding
• Acrobats and
  scops
• Skating - Hockey

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       Viking Clothes
• Winter: wool and hides
• Weaved cloth
• Battle Armor
     Clothing from the Norse era appears
     to have been utilitarian, comfortable,
     and practical. It's surprisingly warm,
     but adjusts for varying temperature
     ranges. Actual clothing from the
     period was, like other Norse craft
     items, both finely made and highly
     decorated.

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Viking Warriors
• Viking warriors
  wore helmets
  made from
  leather or iron.
• A Viking battle-
  axe was capable
  of chopping
  through shields
  and helmets.
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    Viking Weapons and Tactics
• Spears were thrown in
  battles and used for
  stabbing the enemy.
• Viking swords were made
  from rods of iron with steel
  edges. The handles were
  sometimes decorated with
  gold and silver. The
  Vikings gave their swords
  names like 'Leg-Biter'.
• Viking shields were made
  from wood and iron. The
  Viking warriors used them
  to shield their bodies.



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 Viking Runes and Rune Stones
• Writing was a graffiti skill
• Graffiti = archaeology; A drawing or
  inscription
• Used for practical stuff, not stories




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Nomads of the North Atlantic




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             Viking Ships
• Warships and Transport
• Drakkar, Knorr, Gokstad




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Viking Ships – life on board

Navigation and Trade




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   Exploration




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Viking Religion
 Yggdresil is a gigantic tree,
 thought to connect all the
 nine worlds of Norse
 cosmology.




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   Asgard
• The Vikings believed
that there were many
different gods that lived
in a place called Asgard.
• In Norse mythology,
the dwelling place of the
gods.
• It consisted of 12 or
more realms, including
Valhalla, home of Odin.
• Each Norse god had
his own palace in Asgard.
• This heavenly region
could only be reached
from midgard (earth) via
the rainbow bridge called
Bifrost, which was
guarded by Heimdall.

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                     Aesir & Vanir
In old Norse Mythology the Aesir are the
principal gods of the pantheon & were
connected with power and war in the duality
of mythology

They include many of the major figures,
Odin, Frigg, Thor, Balder and Tyr.

The Vanir, 2nd clan of gods, appear to
have mainly been connected with
cultivation and fertility, the Aesir
with.




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                    Odin
•   Odin, also known as Woden,
    was the god of war. He rode an
    eight legged horse and he often
    doubted himself and would
    spend too long trying to decide
    whether or not to do things.
•   Odin is a god of war and death,
    but also the god of poetry and
    wisdom.
•   From his throne he watches
    over the 9 worlds
•   Odin is seen here with Sleippnir
    and his 2 ravens.
•   Wednesday or Woden’s day is
    his special day.




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                   Frigg
•   As the wife of Odin, Frigg is one of the
    foremost goddesses of Norse mythology.
•   She is the patron of marriage and motherhood,
    and the goddess of love and fertility.
•   She has a reputation of knowing every
    person's destiny, but never unveils it.
•   As the mother of Balder, she tried to prevent
    his death by extracting oaths from every
    object in nature, but forgot the mistletoe. And
    by a fig made from mistletoe Balder died.

•   Her Day is Frigga Day: friday




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                         Thor
•      Thor was god of thunder
       and the most popular god.
       He was shot-tempered, a
       little stupid but very good-
       hearted. He had the
       qualities Vikings thought
       most important: strength
       and determination.
•      Thursday or Thor’s day is
       his day.



    •"Thor took the hammer up and swung it
    around his head. As he did so he uttered a
    great cry. And the eyes of the Dwellers in
    Asgard lightened up when they saw Thor
    with the hammer Mjollnir in his
    hands: their eyes lightened up and from
    their lips came the cry: 'This is a wonder, a
    wonder indeed! With this hammer in his
    hand none can withstand Thor, our
    Champion. No greater thing has ever come
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    into Asgard than the hammer Mjollnir."
                Baldr
•The god of light, joy, purity, beauty,
innocence, and reconciliation.
•Son of Odin and Frigg, he was loved by
both gods and men and was considered to
be the best of the gods.
•He had a good character, was friendly,
wise and eloquent, although he had little
power.




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              Tyr
•   Another of Odin's sons.
•   He was considered as the bravest
    of the gods. He was the god of
    warriors (those developed with
    honour and cunning).
•   God of single arm combat and
    sport
•   There was a rune that represented
    him and soldiers used to carve it in
    the blade of their swords.
•   Tyr’s Day = Tuesday




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   Freya & Frey
Freyja, was the goddess of love
   and war. She could turn
   herself into a bird by putting
   on a magic falcon-skin. On
   her chariot pulled by cats,
   she welcomed warriors,
   brought by Valkyries to
   Valhalla.
FREY: He was the god of
fertility (of people, animals
and agriculture). Under his
protection people got good
harvests, cattle grew healthy
and parents had strong
children. In his honour
Vikings dropped bread, wine
or beer on the ground.
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    Valkyrie
    warrior maidens
    who attended
    Odin, ruler of
    the gods.

•   The Valkyries rode
    through the air in
    brilliant armor,
    directed battles,
    distributed death lots
    among the warriors,
    and conducted the souls
    of slain heroes to
    Valhalla, the great hall
    of Odin. Their leader
    was Brunhild.       Apolinario English Class
                        VALHALLA
•   the hall of slain heroes, ruled by the
    king of the gods, Odin, in the realm of
    the gods, Asgard. The hall had 540
    doors, through each of which 800
    heroes could walk abreast, and the
    roof was made of shields. The souls
    of heroic soldiers killed in battle were
    brought to Valhalla by warrior
    maidens called Valkyries. The heroes
    fought during the day, but their
    wounds healed before night, when
    they banqueted with Odin




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                                Loki
•   LOKI:The most hated god
    who was said to be driven
    by wickedness. He was
    Odin's blood brother but
    nobody is sure where he
    originated. He started being
    a god but gradually turned
    into a despised and
    detestable being, hated both
    in Asgard and Midgard. But
    even though he had
    nobody's love, his presence
    couldn't be avoided. He had
    the worst characteristics a
    Viking could have like lying,
    disloyalty and selfishness.

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         Where did they go?
• Erik the Red – Explored Russia, trade
• Leif Erikson- banished to Greenland to
  discover Vinland (Canada)
• Others simply left due to: climate, food
  migration, European
• diseases



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        Where are they now?
        ARCHAEOLOGY

• L'anse aux Meadows
• Sutton Hoo




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The Norse People




      THE END
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posted:5/13/2010
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