Madness _ Genius Schizophrenia

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					Madness & Genius: Schizophrenia

                         Jariel Rendell
                              HRS 305

• Schizophrenia
• Schizophrenia & Intelligence
• Schizotypal traits & Creativity

• Severe psychotic illness
• Disturbances in perception, emotion,
  thought, or speech
• 1% Prevalence rate
• Positive and Negative Symptoms
           Positive Symptoms

•   Pathologically excessive:
•   Hallucinations
•   Delusions
•   Racing, disorganized Thoughts
•   Disorganized Speech
         Negative Symptoms

• Pathologically deficient:
• Flattened Affect
• Alogia
  – Poverty of speech
• Avolition
  – Lack of desire, motivation, or persistence
         Predisposing Factors

• Genetic influences
  – Twin studies:
  – Monozygotic twins have 46%
    concurrence rate
  – Dizygotic twins have 14% concurrence
• Environmental influences
  – E.g., Prenatal
     • Concordance rate for monozygotic (MZ)
       twins sharing same placenta twice as high as
       MZ twins in different placentas
  Enlarged Ventricles

Control      Schizophrenic
 Immediate Causes of Schizophrenia

• Functional and structural
  abnormalities in the brain
  –   Hypofrontality
  –   Enlarged ventricles
  –   Dopamine hypothesis
  –   Neurotransmitter imbalances
• Video
  Schizophrenia and Intelligence

• Did he seem intelligent?
• Is it possible to measure his level of
• Is he more in touch with “true” reality
  than the rest of us?
  Intelligence and Schizophrenia

• Intelligence can be measured in
  schizophrenics using IQ tests
• Schizophrenics have much lower IQ scores
  than non-schizophrenics
• Badcock et al. (2005) compared
  schizophrenics’ current and pre-morbid IQ
  to controls
  – Both IQ scores were lower than controls
  – Even the highest functioning schziophrenics
    had lower IQ scores than average.
• Substance abuse, schizophrenia, and
          Cognitive Impairments

• Schizophrenics:
• Have problems processing information
• Have impaired:
   –   Memory
   –   Spatial ability
   –   Motor skills
   –   Language skills
   –   Executive functioning
• Have difficulty paying attention
  Schizotypal Traits & Creativity

• Schizophrenics not more creative than
• But, individuals with schizophrenic
  tendencies (i.e., schizotypal traits) tend to
  be more creative than average
• Participants with higher schizotypal traits
  tended to be more creative on various self-
  report tests of creativity (e.g., Remote
  Associate Test)
What do you see?
What do you see?
      Schizotypy & Creativity

• Highly creative females gave answers to the
  Rorschach indicative of schizophrenia
• They were not mentally ill
• Suggests that creative individuals and
  schizophrenics share some thinking
• Lowered evidence criterion
• May explain increased creativity of
  schizotypal individuals
• Adoption study
                Schizotypal Traits

• Answer Yes/No:
1. Do you sometimes feel that things you see on the TV or read
    in the newspaper have a special meaning for you ?
2. I sometimes avoid going to places where there will be many
    people because I will get anxious.
3. Have you had experiences with the supernatural ?
4. Have you often mistaken objects or shadows for people, or
    noises for voices ?
5. Other people see me as slightly eccentric (odd).
6. I have little interest in getting to know other people.
7. People sometimes find it hard to understand what I am
8. People sometimes find me aloof and distant.
9. I am sure I am being talked about behind my back.
10. I am aware that people notice me when I go out for a meal or
    to see a film.

• Schizophrenics less, not more, intelligent
  than average
• Schizophrenics not more creative than
• Schizotypal individuals (i.e., those with
  tendencies toward schizophrenia) tend to be
  more creative than average

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