Docstoc

Madness _ Genius Schizophrenia

Document Sample
Madness _ Genius Schizophrenia Powered By Docstoc
					Madness & Genius: Schizophrenia


                         Jariel Rendell
                              HRS 305
                Outline

• Schizophrenia
• Schizophrenia & Intelligence
• Schizotypal traits & Creativity
            Schizophrenia

• Severe psychotic illness
• Disturbances in perception, emotion,
  thought, or speech
• 1% Prevalence rate
• Positive and Negative Symptoms
           Positive Symptoms

•   Pathologically excessive:
•   Hallucinations
•   Delusions
•   Racing, disorganized Thoughts
•   Disorganized Speech
         Negative Symptoms

• Pathologically deficient:
• Flattened Affect
• Alogia
  – Poverty of speech
• Avolition
  – Lack of desire, motivation, or persistence
         Predisposing Factors

• Genetic influences
  – Twin studies:
  – Monozygotic twins have 46%
    concurrence rate
  – Dizygotic twins have 14% concurrence
    rate
• Environmental influences
  – E.g., Prenatal
     • Concordance rate for monozygotic (MZ)
       twins sharing same placenta twice as high as
       MZ twins in different placentas
  Enlarged Ventricles


Control      Schizophrenic
Hypofrontality
 Immediate Causes of Schizophrenia

• Functional and structural
  abnormalities in the brain
  –   Hypofrontality
  –   Enlarged ventricles
  –   Dopamine hypothesis
  –   Neurotransmitter imbalances
• Video
  Schizophrenia and Intelligence

• Did he seem intelligent?
• Is it possible to measure his level of
  intelligence?
• Is he more in touch with “true” reality
  than the rest of us?
  Intelligence and Schizophrenia

• Intelligence can be measured in
  schizophrenics using IQ tests
• Schizophrenics have much lower IQ scores
  than non-schizophrenics
• Badcock et al. (2005) compared
  schizophrenics’ current and pre-morbid IQ
  to controls
  – Both IQ scores were lower than controls
  – Even the highest functioning schziophrenics
    had lower IQ scores than average.
• Substance abuse, schizophrenia, and
  intelligence
          Cognitive Impairments

• Schizophrenics:
• Have problems processing information
• Have impaired:
   –   Memory
   –   Spatial ability
   –   Motor skills
   –   Language skills
   –   Executive functioning
• Have difficulty paying attention
  Schizotypal Traits & Creativity

• Schizophrenics not more creative than
  average
• But, individuals with schizophrenic
  tendencies (i.e., schizotypal traits) tend to
  be more creative than average
• Participants with higher schizotypal traits
  tended to be more creative on various self-
  report tests of creativity (e.g., Remote
  Associate Test)
What do you see?
What do you see?
      Schizotypy & Creativity

• Highly creative females gave answers to the
  Rorschach indicative of schizophrenia
• They were not mentally ill
• Suggests that creative individuals and
  schizophrenics share some thinking
  patterns
• Lowered evidence criterion
• May explain increased creativity of
  schizotypal individuals
• Adoption study
                Schizotypal Traits

• Answer Yes/No:
1. Do you sometimes feel that things you see on the TV or read
    in the newspaper have a special meaning for you ?
2. I sometimes avoid going to places where there will be many
    people because I will get anxious.
3. Have you had experiences with the supernatural ?
4. Have you often mistaken objects or shadows for people, or
    noises for voices ?
5. Other people see me as slightly eccentric (odd).
6. I have little interest in getting to know other people.
7. People sometimes find it hard to understand what I am
    saying.
8. People sometimes find me aloof and distant.
9. I am sure I am being talked about behind my back.
10. I am aware that people notice me when I go out for a meal or
    to see a film.
       Summary/Conclusions

• Schizophrenics less, not more, intelligent
  than average
• Schizophrenics not more creative than
  average
• Schizotypal individuals (i.e., those with
  tendencies toward schizophrenia) tend to be
  more creative than average
                                References

•   American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
    disorders (DSM-IV-TR) (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric
    Publishing.
•   Badcock, J. C., Dragovic, M., & Waters, F. A. V. (2005). Dimensions of intelligence in
    schizophrenia: Evidence from patients with preserved, deteriorated and compromised
    intellect. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 39, 11-19.
•   Badcock, J. C., Williams, R. J., & Anderson, M. (2004). Speed of processing and
    individual differences in IQ in schizophrenia: General or specific cognitive deficits?
    Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 9, 233-247.
•   Carlsson, I., Wendt, P. E., & Risberg, J. (2000). On the neurobiology of creativity:
    Differences in frontal activity between high and low creative subjects. Neuropsychologia,
    38, 873-885.
•   Franklin, K. W., & Cornell, D. G. (1997). Rorschach interpretation with high-ability
    adolescent females: Psychopathology or creative thinking? Journal of Personality
    Assessment, 68, 184-196.
•   Heinrichs, R. W., & Zakzanis, K. K. (1998). Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A
    quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology, 12, 426-445.
•   Holthausen, E. A., Wiersma, D., & Sitskoorn, M. M. (2002). Schizophrenic patients
    without neuropsychological deficits: Subgroup, disease severity or cognitive
    compensation? Psychiatry Research, 112, 1-11.
                                References
•   Kinney, D. K., Richards, R., & Lowing, P. A. (2001). Creativity in offspring of
    schizophrenic and control parents: An adoption study. Creativity Research Journal, 13,
    17-25.
•   Kondel, T. K., Mortimer, A. M., & Lesson, V. C. (2003). Intellectual differences between
    schizophrenic patients and normal controls across the adult lifespan. Journal of Clinical
    and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 1045-1056.
•   Nestor, P. G., Kubicki, M., & Gurrera, R. J. (2003). Neuropsychological correlates of
    diffusion tensor imaging in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology, 18, 629-637.
•   Schuldberg, D. (2001). Six subclinical spectrum traits in normal creativity. Creativity
    Research Journal, 13, 5-16.
•   Toulopoulou, T., Grech, A., Morris, R. G., Schulze, K., McDonald, C., Chapple, B.,
    Rabe-Hesketh, S., & Murray, R. M. (2004). The relationship between volumetric brain
    changes and cognitive function: A family study on schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry,
    56, 447-453.
•   Vincent, A. S., Decker, B. P., & Mumford, M. D. (2002). Divergent thinking, intelligence,
    and expertise: A test of alternative models. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 163-178.
•   Weinstein, S., & Graves, R. E. (2001). Creativity, schizotypy, and laterality. Cognitive
    Neuropsychiatry, 6, 131-146.