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					         contents
model               aims
effectiveness       programme
skills              what do you know?
activities          MBTI
                    approaches


                    W
                    T
              MBTI
diff LS theories
develop process
EI
SN
TF
JP

                     W
                     T
            skills


reframing
empathy
advanced empathy
positive challenge   W
                     T
      approaches
RET
TA




              W
              T
  MORE ADVANCED
COUNSELLING SKILLS
  AND STRATEGIES


welcome back
                 aims


• to develop a further understanding of
  the process of counselling
• to further develop the skills of
  counselling and their application
       suggested programme
day 1 recap on what we know
      further developing skills
      applications in school
      some issues in counselling
day 2 further skills: action planning
      counselling concepts, styles and approaches
      peer counselling; teaching counselling skills to kids;
      relationship to PSE
      more issues and strategies
day 3 putting it all together
      practice
      dealing with our own problems!
      what do you know?

  in groups of 4/5
• discuss what each of you already knows
  about counselling
• prepare a 5 minute presentation to
  teach the rest of us what you know

 YOU HAVE 30 MINUTES TO PREPARE
HOW THINGS ARE NOW
                     THE IDEAL




HOW THINGS ARE NOW
                     THE IDEAL




HOW THINGS ARE NOW
                     THE IDEAL


HOW THINGS ARE NOW


                A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”
                         THE IDEAL


 HOW THINGS ARE NOW


                   A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY
                         THE IDEAL


 HOW THINGS ARE NOW


                   A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY
                                       THE IDEAL


                HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION            A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY
                                        THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION              A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




     WHAT FIRST?




              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY
                                        THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION              A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




     WHAT FIRST?




              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




     WHAT FIRST?




              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




     WHAT FIRST?




              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




     WHAT FIRST?




              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




     WHAT FIRST?




              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




     WHAT FIRST?




              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




     WHAT FIRST?

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”




     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT

     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT

     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT

     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT
                          PROCESS
     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT
                          PROCESS
     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT
                          PROCESS
     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT
                          PROCESS
     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT
                          PROCESS
     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT
                          PROCESS
     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT
                          PROCESS
     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT
                          PROCESS
     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT
                          PROCESS
     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                            THE IDEAL


                   HOW THINGS ARE NOW


EXPLORE THE SITUATION                  A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

                                                  DO IT
                          PROCESS
     WHAT FIRST?                                  PLAN

                                        WHAT COULD I DO?

              SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY           AIM

                   BIT-BETTER VISION
                                                       HOW I’D IDEALLY LIKE
                                                          THINGS TO BE


      a model for the
      counselling process

                                  HOW ARE THINGS WITH
                                       ME NOW?



                                                       NOW THINGS ARE A
                                  1                   “LITTLE BIT BETTER”
                            STARTING OUT



                                                            10
                                                          ENDING
             2
       WHAT DO I NEED?



                                                               9
                                                         ….. AND DO IT



                                                                8
       3
                         WHAT AM I GETTING             NOW I’LL GET A PLAN
  WHAT SHALL I
                            FROM THIS?                  WORKED OUT …..
DEAL WITH FIRST?



                                                            7
                                                  WHAT COULD I DO TO HELP
                                                      ME GET THERE?
           4
   SEEING THIS IN NEW
         WAYS
                                                          6
                                               SPECIFICALLY WHAT WILL I
                                                       AIM FOR?



                                  5
                         WHAT VISIONS HAVE I
                         ABOUT HOW THINGS
                          WOULD BE IF THEY
                         WERE A BIT BETTER?
what makes counselling work?




   quality of       skills
   relationship
what makes counselling work?
  relationship        skills

• empathy           • listening
• unconditional     • clarifying/
  positive regard     questioning
• genuineness       • positive challenge
• congruence        • goal setting
                    • action planning
                    • processing
what makes counselling work?
  relationship

• empathy           moving towards
• unconditional     understanding the
  positive regard   other person from
• genuineness       their frame of
                    reference
• congruence

                    and showing it
what makes counselling work?
  relationship

• empathy           respect; warm and
• unconditional     caring irrespective
  positive regard   of what the person
• genuineness       has said or done
• congruence
what makes counselling work?
  relationship

• empathy           • real;
• unconditional     • sincere;
  positive regard   • honest with the
• genuineness         other person - and
• congruence          with oneself
what makes counselling work?
  relationship

• empathy           • “all in one piece”
• unconditional     • no discrepancies
  positive regard     between what is
• genuineness         said, what is done
• congruence          and what is felt
              empathy

• a process
• trying to get nearer to knowing how
  someone feels
• concerns feelings directly expressed
• showing you are doing this (so that the
  client knows)
  “You feel ………. when …………
       advanced empathy

• trying to understand feelings that are
  below the surface
• Feelings that are now spoken or openly
  expressed
• “playing your hunches”…..
• …..but not playing at psychoanalyzing
    advanced empathy

“you feel …….. when ……..
 and I wonder if you also
 feel ……..”
        positive challenge

• what is implied
• discrepancies between what is
   said and done
   said and said
   done and done
   said and expressed non-verbally
   said/done and what most other people
     would say/do
        positive challenge

self-sharing



“I felt …….. when ……..
I wonder if it‟s like that
for you”
          positive challenge
           breaking bad news
  how would you

• tell someone they’ve been made redundant
• speak to a P2 pupil who has been hitting people in
  the playground and has made someone’s noise bleed
• tell a student they can’t do a chosen subject
• speak to a teacher after they had slapped a student
• tell a parent their son/daughter has been bullying
• tell a parent their son/daughter has been caught
  with ecstasy and the police are on the way
positive challenge
breaking bad news
       warning


 breaking the bad news


   being supportive
BA PhD MA
    0
RAM   REFRAMING
           download

download the course materials from

www.aberdeen-
education.org.uk/guidance/downloads
We don‟t all learn
 (and teach) the
   same way!
     why are learning styles
          important?
People who are actively engaged in the
learning process will more likely achieve
success.

A key to getting and keeping learners
involved in the learning process is to
understand learning style preferences.
     models for learning styles

•   Felder–Silverman Learning Model
•   Herrmann Brain-Dominance Model
•   Kolb‟s Learning-Style Inventory
•   Honey & Mumford‟s model
•   Barbe-Swassing model
•   Gregorc model of mind styles
•   Myers Briggs Personality Types
  Felder–Silverman Learning
             Model
• sensing or intuitive learners
• visual or verbal learners
• inductive or deductive learners
• active or reflective learners
• sequential or global learners
      Herrmann Brain-Dominance
               Model
    classifies learners in terms of their relative
    preferences for thinking in four different
    modes
•   left-brain cerebral (logical thinkers)
•   left-brain limbic (sequential thinkers)
•   right-brain limbic (emotional thinkers)
•   right-brain cerebral (holistic thinkers).
      Kolb’s Learning-Style
            Inventory
  This classifies learners as having a
  preference for
• concrete experience or abstract
  conceptualization
• active experimentation or reflective
  observation.
        Honey & Mumford’s
          Classification
    Developed from Kolb‟s model;
    learners are
•   activists
•   reflectors
•   pragmatists
•   theorists
     Barbe-Swassing Model
How we take in and learn information
 Visual
     • learn by seeing and watching
 Auditory
     • learn by listening to verbal
       instructions
 Kinesthetic
     • learn by being physically involved
Gregorc model of mind styles

• Perception
  – how we take in information

• Ordering
  – how we make sense of and use the
    information
Gregorc model of mind styles
• Perception: how we take in information

  – Concrete
     • information directly from our 5
       senses; hands-on approach

  – Abstract
     • information from visualization or
       conception; leap easily from real to
       symbolic world
Gregorc model of mind styles
• Ordering: how we make sense of and use
  the information

  – Sequential
     • linear, step-by-step organization; proceed
       in orderly way to the end result

  – Random
     • no particular sequence; learning in
       “layers”; starting with the big picture
Gregorc model of mind styles
          Perception

    Concrete      Abstract

           Ordering

    Sequential    Random
the development/learning process
the development/learning process




 acquiring or taking in information
the development/learning process




  acquiring or taking in information

         using information
the development/learning process


   getting motivated or energised

  acquiring or taking in information

          using information
the development/learning process


   getting motivated or energised

  acquiring or taking in information

          using information

    your preferred environment
getting motivated/energised

  getting motivated or energised

 acquiring or taking in information

         using information

   your preferred environment
getting motivated/energised

extraversion
getting motivated/energised

extraversion           E
getting motivated/energised

extraversion           E

introversion
getting motivated/energised

extraversion           E

introversion           I
getting motivated/energised

                        E-I
•   your energy source
•   what energises you - inner world or outer world
•   direction of focus - sources of energy
•   how you are energised
                  E                           I

energised by outer world (of energised in inner world (of
people activities, things)   ideas, emotions, impressions
focus on people, things       focus on thoughts, concepts
active                        reflective
breadth of interest           depth of interest
live it, then understand it   understand it, before live it
interaction                   concentration
                 E                            I

outgoing                        inwardly directed
do-think-do                     think-do-think
prefer talking to writing       prefer activity to take place
                                quietly in head
need to experience world to     don't need to experience things
understand it, and so tend to   to understand them because the
like action                     concepts and ideas can be
                                worked out in the head
talk it out                     think it through
                  E                            I
extend into your environment     defend yourself against your
by reaching out to others        environment by stepping
                                 back/avoiding others
act first, think later           think first, act later
like variety and action          like concentration and
                                 reflection
prefer to talk face-to-face      prefer to use memos, e-mail,
                                 and other written forms of
                                 communication
you are frequently not available even though you’re present,
because you’re out and about     others see you as difficult to
                                 read/remote or hard to know
the development/learning process


   getting motivated or energised

 acquiring or taking in information

         using information

    your preferred environment
acquiring/taking in information


sensing
acquiring/taking in information


sensing                       S
acquiring/taking in information


sensing                       S

intuitive
acquiring/taking in information


sensing                       S

intuitive                    N
 acquiring/taking in information


                  S-N
• way of taking in information/how you prefer
  to take in information
• perceiving preference
• what you pay attention to
        S                              N

prefer taking in        prefer taking in
information through     information through
the five senses         the sixth sense and
                        noticing what might be
work with known facts   look for possibilities
                        and relationships
facts                   meanings
data                    associations
          S                     N

details         possibilities

reality-based   hunches, speculations

actuality       theoretical

here and now    future

utility         fantasy
          S                                    N

step-by-step                    leap around
avoid fabrications and        overlook details, lose focus
generalities regarding things when things are too “spelled
                              out”
value accuracy and precision value insights and analogies
relish the present              anticipate the future
let the facts pile up to find   let imagination and ideas be
the trends                      their guide
want to know the practical      want to know additional
applications or results         uses or possible innovations
the development/learning process


   getting motivated or energised

  acquiring or taking in information

          using information

    your preferred environment
    using information

 getting motivated or energised

acquiring or taking in information

       using information

  your preferred environment
    using information


thinking
    using information


thinking                T
    using information


thinking                T

feeling
    using information


thinking                T

feeling                 F
           T                        F

base decisions on      base decisions on
objective/impersonal   personal values
analysis and logic
analysis               sympathy
objective              subjective
logic                  humane
impersonal             personal
           T                      F

critique             appreciate

reason               values

criteria             circumstances

firm but fair        compassionate

weigh the pros and   sort through your
cons                 values
               T                                       F
want to be logical                   want to have a harmonious
                                     outcome
seek to find the truth, influenced   seek to find the most important,
by objective reasoning               influenced by personal information

concern yourself with the            concern yourself with the impact
underlying principles behind a       the decision may have on people
decision
tend toward scepticism and           tend towards acceptance and
controversy                          tolerance

care that flaws are discovered,      prefer not to critique others but
sharing them with others in an       rather to find an appreciative
effort to “care for them”            comment
the environment you prefer

  getting motivated or energised

 acquiring or taking in information

         using information

   your preferred environment
the environment you prefer


judging
the environment you prefer


judging                  J
the environment you prefer


judging                  J

perceiving
the environment you prefer


judging                  J

perceiving               P
          J                           P

prefer a planned,       prefer a flexible,
decided, ordered and    spontaneous way of life
organised way of life
organised               pending
settled                 flexible
planned                 spontaneous
decisive                tentative
        J                            P

control one„s life      let life happen
set goals               undaunted by surprise

systematic              open to change
plan your work and      solve problems as they
work your plan          arise
schedule out your       leave scheduling
time, setting dates and options open as long as
arrangements            possible
        J                                  P

make decisions quickly,     enjoy considering new
putting a stop to seeking   information, putting off
new information             final decisions

find surprises and          find surprises or
interruptions an            interruptions a welcome
annoyance                   distraction
want to have things         want to face a few
settled in advance          challenges with
                            spontaneity
focus on tasks and          focus on processes and
timetables                  options
which best applies to you?

  doing what a high sense     an inspiration everything
   should be     of duty         to others     has room for
      done                                    improvement
 ready to try sees much         performing       a love of
anything once but shares      noble service problem-
                   little     to aid society      solving
 the ultimate you only go      giving life an one exciting
     realist  around once     extra squeeze challenge
                  in life                     after another

 one of life‟s host/hostess      smooth-     one of life‟s
administrator of the world        talking      natural
                                persuader      leaders
The sixteen personality types


   ISTJ   ISFJ   INFJ   INTJ

   ISTP   ISFP   INFP   INTP

  ESTP    ESFP   ENFP   ENTP

  ESTJ    ESFJ   ENFJ   ENTJ
The sixteen personality types

      ISTJ               ISFJ              INFJ              INTJ
   doing what      a high sense of    an inspiration    everything has
 should be done         duty            to others          room for
                                                         improvement

       ISTP             ISFP              INFP               INTP
   ready to try    sees much but       performing          a love of
  anything once     shares little    noble service to   problem-solving
                                       aid society
      ESTP              ESFP              ENFP               ENTP
  the ultimate       you only go      giving life an     one exciting
     realist       around once in    extra squeeze      challenge after
                         life                              another
      ESTJ              ESFJ             ENFJ                ENTJ
   one of life‟s   host/hostess of   smooth-talking      one of life‟s
  administrator      the world         persuader        natural leaders
the development/learning process


   getting motivated or energised

  acquiring or taking in information

          using information

    your preferred environment
getting motivated/energised

                        E-I
•   your energy source
•   what energises you - inner world or outer world
•   direction of focus - sources of energy
•   how you are energised
             E s prefer

• being in a group
 group work; group projects; group
  brainstorming
 talking (although they get rather fed
  up with too much talk from others eg
  teacher!)
 talking before doing individual work
  or individual thinking
               E s prefer

 activities which give a chance to
  reconsider thoughts or possible answers or
  solutions
 relatively short, fast-moving
  activities/environment
 trial and error problem-solving (they often
  succeed when the principles follow the
  experience, e.g. when using computers,
  microscopes or doing maths activities)
               E s prefer

 learning by watching someone else do
  something first (modelling) (eg in science
  allow extraverts to try or watch an
  experiment before you explain it)
 talking to lots of other people when
  wrestling with a problem
 action and variety
 knowing what other people expect of them
              E s prefer

• relatively easily distracted (eg do not
  often concentrate best when sitting
  next to a window)
                I s prefer

• individual activities
• one-to-one or small group interaction, and
  may find larger groups difficult
• “lectures” more than extraverts
• not being put on the spot by too many
  questions which require spontaneous
  answers - time for preparation would be
  helpful here (introverts are not usually the
  first to raise their hands in class)
                I s prefer

• pauses for thinking or reflection after
  being given a question, task or problem
• someone else modelling a course of action
  before they attempt it
• “rehearsing” before they do something eg
  speak in front of large group or give oral
  presentations
• concentrating on a few tasks at a time
              I s prefer

• taking their time to understand
  something before they try it
• want to understand the concept
  before trying to solve a problem
• to set their own standards
                  Is

• can often cope with (shut out)
  distractions
• do not always express enthusiasms
  immediately (eg for a particular
  course of action)
• may need reassurance that it is OK
  for them not to be extravert
the development/learning process


   getting motivated or energised

  acquiring or taking in information

          using information

    your preferred environment
 acquiring/taking in information


                  S-N
• way of taking in information/how you prefer
  to take in information
• perceiving preference
• what you pay attention to
                 S s prefer

• to use eyes/ears/touch to find out what's
  happening
• information and facts as well as (vague)
  ideas and theories (may find abstract
  concepts difficult or stressful)
• “lectures” or programmed learning, but only
  if they “attract attention” (straight lectures
  or lots of teacher talk aren't usually enough)
• audio-visual presentations (rather than just
  OHP presentations)
                S s prefer

• solving problems through standard methods
  (so may have difficulty with new problems if
  this can't be done)
• skills practice
• work experience; community service etc
• hands-on activities; practical work
• case studies
• tasks which involve the use of senses (eg
  touch) and which are definite and
  measurable
                S s prefer

• using skills they've already learned more
  than learning new skills
• practical/concrete examples
• having precise step-by-step directions/ideas
  about what they are going to do
• definite measurable things
• facts - and distrust vague ideas
• a reference (eg a chapter in a book which
  they can use as a study guide
                   Ss

• may be patient with details but
  impatient when details get
  complicated
• may find challenge difficult
• sometimes find it difficult when
  INTUITIVE (N) teachers present
  material from several different
  perspectives (eg in social subjects)
                N s prefer

• reading and listening activities
• paying attention to meanings of facts and
  how they fit together
• open-ended situations
• using imagination to come up with
  possibilities and new ways of doing things
• solving new problems, particularly those
  which don't have one particular solution
                N s prefer

• not doing things over and over again - get
  bored with “practice” activities and lose
  interest
• learning new skills rather than practising
  those already learned
• challenge and open-ended, creative
  activities
• self-paced learning
• group discussions which allow imagination
              N s prefer

• role play (particularly if the person
  also prefers extraversion)
• having new topics introduced in such a
  way that it encourages them to look
  upon them as challenges (but if you
  give them too many details at first
  they may feel overwhelmed)
                   Ns

• may be impatient with details but
  don't mind complicated situations
• dislike routine
• sometimes find it difficult to get down
  to concrete realities
the development/learning process


   getting motivated or energised

  acquiring or taking in information

          using information

    your preferred environment
           T                        F

base decisions on      base decisions on
objective/impersonal   personal values
analysis and logic
analysis               sympathy
objective              subjective
logic                  humane
impersonal             personal
                T s prefer

•   deciding things logically
•   “lectures” if logically structured
•   being treated with justice and fair play
•   tasks/problems with right answers
•   praise for getting things “right”; they
    tend to value individual achievement
               T s prefer

• rank-ordering (eg of courses of action)
• to know where they stand in relation to
  others and can be devastated by failure
• feedback – and quickly - on what they've
  done
• work to be marked, and feedback given –
  quickly
• researching information and debate
• to be task oriented
              T s prefer

• programmed learning
• debates
• problem-solving activities involving
  collecting, organizing and evaluating
  data
• activities which involve research
  (e.g. library research) and allow them
  to share results with others
                    Ts

• sometimes hurt other people's feelings
  without realising it; they may pay more
  attention to ideas than to other people's
  feelings
• don't necessarily need harmony, and often
  don't mind conflict so much as other people
• may enjoy talking with teachers rather than
  peers
              F s prefer

• to decide according to personal
  feelings or values
• pleasing people, even in unimportant
  things
• activities involving positive feedback
• praise for the effort they've put in
               F s prefer

• taking account of other people's feelings
  more than ideas, and they sometimes ignore
  the logic
• harmony and get upset by conflict
• appreciate being known personally by the
  teacher
• knowing they're liked
• helping others, so may make good “peer
  teachers” (but remember “prefer” does not
  always equal “good at”)
              F s prefer

• group discussion and group decision-
  making and role play particularly if
  person also has a preference for
  extraversion
                   Fs

• may find it difficult to challenge
  others, even in a small way, because
  they worry about dealing with the
  possible (conflict) response
• have difficulty in accepting criticism,
  sarcasm, ridicule
the development/learning process


   getting motivated or energised

  acquiring or taking in information

          using information

    your preferred environment
          J                           P

prefer a planned,       prefer a flexible,
decided, ordered and    spontaneous way of life
organised way of life
organised               pending
settled                 flexible
planned                 spontaneous
decisive                tentative
                J s prefer

• to have a plan, & have things settled in
  advance
• highly structured activities with clear
  deadlines
• to have clear purposes and instructions
• things to turn out the way they “ought to
  be”
• to finish one project before they start
  another, so may like to try out courses of
  action one at a time
              J s prefer

• to decide things fairly quickly
• to be right
• to live by schedules which are not
  easily changed
                J s prefer

• to be told in advance of any changes in
  procedures or schedules (e.g. if there is to
  be a substitute teacher or a change in
  schedule such as an assembly) and make sure
  they know for how long
• to have a course outline so that they know
  the topics which will be covered during a
  term/course/year
                  Js

• may find it difficult to cope with too
  many unfinished projects - implications
  for Standard Grade assignments here?
              P s prefer

• to be flexible & not have plans which
  are too fixed, so find target setting
  and action planning rather a problem
  (“Not target setting again; we’ve done
  that”, they might say!)
• flexible tasks which can be approached
  in different ways
• unplanned and unexpected happenings
                   P s prefer

• to start lots of projects, but have trouble finishing
  them all (so may like to try out lots of courses of
  action at once at not complete them properly)
• to decide things fairly slowly
• to miss nothing
• to live by making changes to deal with problems as
  they arise
• discussions which do not lead to preconceived
  conclusions
                     Ps

• may find games helpful in learning concepts
• often find sitting at a desk for long periods
  of time boring, and can distract others by
  their activity during “quiet times” if they
  aren't allowed the chance to move around at
  some time (remember that PERCEIVING
  pupils often act spontaneously!)
                  Ps

• often enjoy long discussions which do
  not lead to preconceived conclusions
• may need help in completing
  assignments on time
• can sometimes be helped to develop
  plans for their work by working
  backwards from deadlines
                Ps

BE CAREFUL…
…not to interpret their “off-task”
behaviour as confrontation with the
teacher - they often just like having
fun and enjoying life, and have a
good sense of humour which can be
harnessed in the classroom
            contact details

Terry Ashton,
Adviser (Guidance and Careers)

e-mail
TAshton@education.aberdeen.net.uk

Website on Guidance/pastoral care/PSE
www.aberdeen-education.org.uk/guidance
                            index

    the learning process        E learning preferences

    description of styles       I learning preferences
  styles: being energized       S learning preferences

styles: acquiring information   N learning preferences
 styles: using information      T Learning preferences

 styles: your environment       F learning preferences

          learning              J learning preferences
       contact details          P learning preferences
Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)
assumptions

1. human beings are uniquely rational (as well
   as irrational!) - when they think rationally
   they are competent, happy and effective
2. emotional/psychological disturbance is the
   result of irrational thinking (thought and
   emotion are not separate)
3. people are biologically predisposed to
   irrational thinking (which leads to emotional
   disturbance)
Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)
assumptions

4. human beings are verbal animals and
   thinking usually occurs through the
   use of symbols or language- so when
   people are disturbed they perpetuate
   their disturbance by irrational ideas
   and thoughts (we are our thoughts)
Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)
assumptions

5. continuing emotional disturbance is
   the result of self- verbalisations and
   not the result of events. (PEOPLE
   ARE DISTURBED NOT BY THINGS
   BUT BY THE VIEW THEY TAKE OF
   THEM)
Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)
assumptions

6. negative and irrational thoughts need
   to be attacked by a recognition of the
   perceptions and thinking so that the
   thinking becomes logical and rational.
   SO THE GOAL OF THE COUNSELLOR
   IS TO DEMONSTRATE TO CLIENTS
   THAT THE SELF-VERBALISATIONS
   ARE ILLOGICAL AND IRRATIONAL
Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)
THE A-B-C THEORY

           ANTECEDENT
                
             BELIEFS
                
          CONSEQUENCES
Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)
irrational beliefs

   11 beliefs that are
   universally inculcated by
   western society
Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)
irrational beliefs

1. I must be loved or approved of by virtually
   everyone
2. I must be perfectly competent, adequate
   and achieving to be considered worthwhile
3. If things are not as I want them to be, it is
   a terrible catastrophe
Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)
irrational beliefs

4. there is always a right or perfect solution to
   every problem, and it must be found or the
   results will be catastrophic
5. unhappiness is caused by outside
   circumstances and a person has no control
   over it
6. dangerous and fearsome things are cause
   for great concern and their possibility must
   be continually dwelt upon
Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)
irrational beliefs

7. it is easier to avoid certain difficulties and
   self-responsibilities than to face up to them
8. a person should be dependent on others
   and should have someone stronger on
   whom to rely
9. past experiences and events are the
   determinants of present behaviour; the
   influence of the past cannot be eradicated
Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)
irrational beliefs

10. a person should be quite upset over other
    people’s problems and disturbances
11. Some people are bad, wicked or villainous
    and therefore should be blamed and
    punished
Transactional Analysis (TA)




 ego states
Transactional Analysis (TA)


            P


            A


            C
Transactional Analysis (TA)


       P



eg states
       A
       A
       C
Transactional Analysis (TA)

     set of feelings, thoughts
P
     attitudes and behaviours
     which resemble those of
A
     parental figures
C
Transactional Analysis (TA)


P


A   objective, rational, makes
    judgements
C
Transactional Analysis (TA)


P
     set of feelings, thoughts
A    attitudes and behaviours
     that are relics of an
C    individual’s childhood eg
     spontaneity

				
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