Tips for New Teachers Teaching R

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					 Teacher Toolkit
        for
Reading Instruction

                      1
A Tool for Teaching
      Reading
 Comprehension in
      English

                      2
     ELL “Best Practices”
    Making Meaning Design
•   Read-alouds (often repeated)
•   Different genres and styles
•   Multicultural Literature
•   Vocabulary
•   Group Work
•   Building Background
•   Questioning and Discussion
•   Comprehension Strategies


                                   3
     Reading IS…




http://www.readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/Readingis..Anch
orChartfromJennifer.JPG                                   4
Making Meaning
      Read-aloud Books
and Independent Reading Books



                                5
     Strategies in Making
           Meaning
•   Retelling
•   Using Schema/Making Connections
•   Visualizing
•   Wondering/Questioning
•   Making Inferences
•   Determining Important Ideas
•   Understanding Text Structure
•   Summarizing
•   Synthesizing


                                      6
  What‟s
Important…


             7
        Fiction
   Sample Text:
Boundless Grace
by Mary Hoffman and Caroline Binch




                                     8
      Narrative Text
        Structure
• Boundless Grace is fiction.
• It has Narrative Text Structure.
• Look for
   --Character
   --Setting
   --Plot


                                     9
      Prior Knowledge
• Readers comprehend text by linking
  their prior knowledge and new
  information in a text.
• Students connect their experiences
  to the text before, during, and after
  read-alouds and independent daily
  reading stories.

                                          10
Practice: Help Students
        Connect
• Today I am going to read a story
  called Boundless Grace. It is about a
  girl who goes to visit her father who
  lives far away in Africa.
• Explore connections
 --Have you ever gone to visit someone who
   lives far away? What do you know about
   Africa?
                                             11
        Visualizing
• Create mental images while reading
  --sights
  --sounds
  --smells
  --tastes
  --sensations
   --emotions

                                       12
      In the Classroom
• Share a picture book read aloud without
  showing pictures. This encourages readers
  to see the story in their minds.
• Invite students to describe their mental
  pictures to a partner or the class.
• In Independent Reading, have students
  use sticky notes to mark places where
  they visualize what is happening.
• Encourage students to read non-illustrated
  books, too, and imagine or picture what the
  words mean. Allow students to draw their
  mental pictures as well.

                                                13
    Practice: Visualize
• What pictures do you see in your mind
  when I read this part of the book
  Boundless Grace?
 “Then they went to a stall that was like
 stepping inside a rainbow. There was
 cloth with crocodiles and elephants on
 it and cloth with patterns made from
 pebbles and shells. And so many colors!”
                                       14
          Inference
• Point out that sometimes writers give
  readers information directly. Other
  times, they give the reader clues to
  figure out what something means. This is
  sometimes called “ reading between the
  lines” or inferring.
• Show students how to look for clues the
  writer gives to readers.

                                       15
       Practice: Infer
• A girl tells about her feelings in
  Boundless Grace: ”I feel like gum,
  stretched out all thin in a bubble,” she
  told Nana. “As if there isn’t enough of
  me to go around.”
• How do you think the girl is feeling?
  What clues does the writer give about
  her feelings?

                                         16
          Character
• Help students to understand a
  character based on:
  --what the character does
  --what the character says
  --what the character thinks
  --how others respond to the
  character

                                  17
    Making Inferences
    about Characters
• Have students create a character
  web.
• Have students discuss their ideas
  about the character.




                                      18
     Character Change
• What is the character like at the
  beginning of the story?
• What is the character like at the end
  of the story?
• Does the character change as a
  result of facing or solving a problem?


                                           19
    Practice: Trace the
           Change
• Ask: How are Grace‟s feelings about her family
   in the beginning of the story different from
   her feelings at the end of the story? Explain
   your thinking.
• Hint: look for meaningful quotations.
  “Our family‟s not right,” she told Nana. „We
   need a father and a brother and a dog.‟”

  “Well, at least you‟ve stopped thinking it‟s your
  family that‟s wrong.” said Nana. “Now, until we
  get back home and find some books about
  families like yours, you‟ll just have to make up
  a new story of your own.”
                                                      20
   Practice: Important
          Ideas
• What do you think the author wants
  readers to learn from Boundless Grace?
• What happens in the story that makes you
  think that?
• During independent reading ask students
  to mark a place in the story where
  something important is happening. Have
  them write about these events.



                                             21
    Nonfiction

Sample Text: Reptiles
     by Melissa Stewart




                          22
       Expository Text
• Looks different from other text that tells
   stories.
• Usually focuses on one topic.
• Reptiles is expository text.
• It has expository text features.
• Look for
  --pictures with captions
  --a table of contents
  --headings and subheadings
  --lists of additional books to read
  --names of organizations and online sites


                                               23
     Practice: Connect
• What do you think you know about
  reptiles?
• Tell about any reptiles you have seen.
• Name some places where reptiles
  live.




                                           24
    Practice: Visualize
• What do you see in your mind when I
  read these sentences from Reptiles?
 “The scales of most snakes feel
  smooth, but most lizards have
  rough, spiky scales. The scales of a
  crocodile are hardened with bone. A
  turtle’s scales cover a hard, bony
  shell.”

                                         25
      Practice: Infer
What can you infer about the cobras
from this sentence?
 “Only a few kinds of snakes take care
  of their eggs. Male and female
  cobras take turns guarding their
  nests…”
                   --Reptiles, p. 29

                                         26
 Practice: Find Expository
      Text Features
• Tell about the expository text
  features you see in Reptiles.
• Find another book, magazine, or
  newspaper that has expository text
  features. Show it to your class. Or,
  make a list of expository texts you
  read inside or outside of school.

                                         27
        The Importance
         of Wondering
•   Encourage students to:
•   Form “I Wonder” questions.
•   Share their thinking.
•   Ask clarifying questions.
•   Determine if their “I wonder”
    questions are answered in the text.


                                          28
    Practice: I Wonder
• I wonder where reptiles live.
   p. 10 “Most reptiles live in warm parts of the
  world.”
• I wonder why reptiles have scales.
 p. 6 “A reptile‟s scales protect it from enemies
 and help keep its insides moist.”
• I wonder if reptiles lay eggs.
• p. 6 “Most young reptiles hatch from tough,
  leathery eggs laid on land and look like smaller
  versions of their parents.”


                                                     29
Stop and Ask Questions
• Tell students the number of times
  you will stop.
• At each stop have students record
  their questions.




                                      30
Practice: Stop and Ask
       Questions
• Please read pages 5-7 in Reptiles.
• Write questions you have about your
  reading.
Examples:
 Are reptiles’ backbones the same as
 people’s backbones?
 Why do reptiles slow down at night?

                                        31
A Tool for Teaching
      Reading
 Comprehension in
      Spanish

                      32
La Lectura


             33
Students explore the difference
between explicit (clear and specific)
and implicit (implied) meanings in
text.
Students continue to use questioning
and understanding text structure
(the way text is organized) to make
sense of text.



                                        3434
CELEBREMOS LAS TRADICIONES
DE CERCA: CUENTOS FOLKLORICOS


Patricia Polacco:
La colcha de los recuerdos
The Keeping Quilt


                                35
 A REVIEW OF
UNDERSTANDING
 QUESTIONING


                36
  QARs: QUESTION-
ANSWER RELATIONSHIPS
                      IN MY HEAD
                                   Answer is a combination
                      AUTHOR &     of what you know and
 Answer is                         what author is telling
                        YOU
 in the                            you.
 book.

             RIGHT                  THINK
             THERE                    &
                          QAR      SEARCH
                                              Answer is in
                                              book, but you
                                              need to get it
        Answer is NOT                         from a few
        in book – need    ON MY               places and
        to use your own    OWN                make sense
        experiences and                       of it.
        knowledge.                                        37
  RIGHT
  THERE

            Answer is in the book
QUESTIO N



 • What is the name of   • When my Great-
   the Grandmother?       Gramma Anna
                          came to America,
                          she wore the same
                          thick overcoat and
    – These are often
      called LITERAL      big boots she had
      questions.          worn for farm
                          work.


                                               38
 IN MY
 HEAD       Answer is what you
AUTHOR
 AND
            know and what the
 YOU.
           author is telling you.
• Why do you think • Student takes information
  Anna’s parents     from book (… most of
  never learned to   their neighbors were just
  speak English?     like them …Russian).
  – Often, these are
    also referred to • Student uses own
    as INFERENTIAL background of
    QUESTIONS.         neighborhoods or parents
          – ISAT       speaking own language.
         QUESTIONS
                                                39
THINK      book, but it is in
 AND
SEARCH    several places and
          you need to make
             sense of it.
• What clues does       • Author states
  the author give
                         they came from
  that Anna is not
                         Russia AND Anna
  from America?
                         wears different
   – Often, these are
                         clothes from her
     FACT BASED and
      found in NON-      country AND she
        FICTION.         doesn’t understand
                         English.         40
 ON        Answer is NOT in
 MY
OWN
         book: you have to use
         your own experiences
           and background.
• What are the
  people doing in this
  illustration?
  – These questions
    require PLENTY of
    BACKGROUND
    KNOWLEDGE.
                      The two older women look like
                      they are arguing with the   41
                      younger woman.
      QAR Suggested Teaching
         Strategy Focus
                    IN MY HEAD
                                       Inference
                    AUTHOR &
                       ME
Retelling
Text                                 THINK
            RIGHT
Structure   THERE     QARs             &
                                    SEARCH


                                         Summarizing

                      ON MY OWN
  .                               Background
                                  Knowledge            42
Now Let‟s Get
  Started




                43
         The Keeping Quilt,
IN MY HEAD

AUTHOR &
   ME     Patricia Polacco
                   • Show the cover of
                     Patricia Polacco: La
                     colcha de los
                     recuerdos.
                   • ASK:
                   • What do you already
                     know about this story?
                   • What do you think the
                      story is about?
                       – What makes you say
                         or think that?

                                            44
Look for Narrative Text
       Structures
• Character
• Setting
• Plot

• Look for ways that characters
  change!


                                  45
          Literal
          Questions
        • Who is telling the
          story?
        • What is the name
          of the great-
          grandmother?
        • What kind of
          work did the rest
          of the family do
          while the father
          was hauling things
RIGHT     in a wagon?
THERE
                          46
                                   Inference
                                   Question
                                  • Why does the author
                                    say that everyone is
                                    in a hurry?
                                  • When does this story
                                    take place? (Use
                                    illustration to help
                                    inference).
                                  • Do you think Anna’s
                                    family was rich or
                                    poor? How do you
                                    know?
            IN MY HEAD
                          THINK       Can you tell what
ON MY OWN   AUTHOR &
                            &
                         SEARCH
                                      type of questions
               ME
                                      these are?         47
                                  Background
                                  Knowledge
                                   Questions
                           • What does the author
                             mean by saying to Anna,
                             English sounds like
                             “cuando se tiran guijarros
                             en una charca”?
                           • Why do you think Anna’s
                             parents never learned to
                             speak English?
                           • What clues does the
                             author give that Anna is
                             not from America?
            IN MY HEAD             Can you tell what
ON MY OWN
                          THINK
                            &
                                   type of questions
            AUTHOR &
                         SEARCH    these are?          48
               ME
                         Characterization
                             Questions
                                  • What do you know
                                    about Anna so far?
                                  • How does Anna feel
                                    when she goes to
                                    school? How do you
                                    know?
                                  • How does Anna feel
                                    when she is dancing?
                                    How do you know?
                                  • Is Anna still
                                    remembering Russia?
            IN MY HEAD              How do you know?
                          THINK       Can you tell what
                            &
ON MY OWN
            AUTHOR &                  type of questions
                         SEARCH                            49
               ME                     these are?
    Character Change
• Make students aware of how the
  characters change.
• Point out how characters are
  different at the end of the story
  than they were at the beginning.




                                      50
          Always….
• Probe student answers:
  – HOW DO YOU KNOW THAT?
  – WHY DO YOU SAY THAT?
  – CAN YOU POINT TO WHERE IT
    SAYS THAT IN THE BOOK?




                                51
Remember…




            52
Multiple Choice ISAT
      Questions
 Commonly Asked Questions




                            53
     Author‟s Purpose
What was the author’s purpose for
writing this story?
a) To inform.
b) To entertain.
c) To persuade.
d) To complain.


                                    54
         Type of Genre
What is the genre of The Keeping
Quilt?
a) story
b) fable
c) fairy tale
d) nonfiction


                                   55
  Character Motivation
Why did Anna’s mother decide to make
 a quilt?
a) To make a wedding present.
b) To remember her homeland.
c) To help the neighborhood ladies.
d) To find a use for old clothes.


                                       56
          Inference
Which best explains why the quilt is so
important to the family?
a) It reminds them of their history.
b) It has a beautiful design of animals.
c) It is worth a lot of money.
d) It has an old-fashioned design.


                                           57
 Tools for
 Teaching
 Academic
Vocabulary

             58
  Pearson
SuccessNet


             59
         Teaching Vocabulary
        Comprehension Skills to
       English Language Learners
• Social Proficiency         • Academic
  – Language used in daily     Proficiency
    interactions               – Language used in
  – Variety of clues to          textbooks
    facilitate                 – More abstract
    comprehension              – Higher order skills
     • Environment               required
     • Gestures
     • Facial expressions


                                                       60
        Teaching Vocabulary
       Comprehension Skills to
      English Language Learners
Issues:                Solutions:
• Limited vocabulary   • Explicit teaching of
• Different              vocabulary
  background           • Preview unfamiliar
  knowledge              concepts/ideas
                         before reading
                       • Create connections
                         to familiar concepts
                                            61
     Teaching Vocabulary
    Comprehension Skills to
   English Language Learners
• Vocabulary Knowledge
  – Builds background knowledge
    • A conceptual framework, or context into which
      students can fit new ideas
  – Assists with comprehension of text
  – Breadth and depth
    • The number of words students know
    • The depth to which students understand how
      these words are used
                                                   62
    Teaching Academic
       Vocabulary
• Focus lesson on key words
• Use context to teach words with
  multiple meanings
• Teach vocabulary intentionally
  – Explicit definitions
    • Use cognates when possible
    • Use “student-friendly” definitions
  – Writing activities
  – Classroom discussions
                                           63
   Pearson SuccessNet
• Leveled Reader Database
• Spanish and English
• Inquiry-rich content




                            64
   Pearson SuccessNet
Spanish and English
  Also available in Spanish (Dermatoesqueleto)




                                                 65
   Pearson SuccessNet
• Scaffolded Inquiry™ activities
• Cross-curricular connections
• Links reading and science skills




                                     66
   Pearson SuccessNet
• Includes picture support and
  concepts.
• Illustrations and text features in
  Spanish and English.
• http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/s
  npapp/login/login.jsp


                                       67
Marzano‟s Six Step
Academic Vocabulary



                      68
 Marzano‟s Academic Vocabulary
     Six Step Process Review
• Steps 1-3 ensure that the term is
  introduced and that the students have
  developed an initial understanding of it
  – Step 1: Provide a description, explanation, or
    example of the new term
  – Step 2: Students restate the description,
    explanation, or example in their own words (help
    students own the words)
  – Step 3: Students construct a picture, symbol, or
    graphic representation of the term

                                                  69
• Steps 4-6 ensure that the student has
  multiple exposures and experiences with
  the terms over time in order to deepen
  their understanding
  – Step 4: Periodically students engage in activities that
    help them add to their knowledge of the terms
      • Compare, Classify, Solve Analogies, Create
        Metaphors
  – Step 5: Periodically students discuss the terms with
    each other to add to their knowledge of the terms
      • Turn and Talk, Think- Pair- Share/Whole Group
  – Step 6: Periodically students are involved in games that
    allow them to play with the terms



                                                               70
Activities to Deepen Students‟
 Understanding of the Terms
•   Free Association
•   Classifying Terms in Categories
•   Concept Circles
•   Semantic Mapping
•   Create and Solve Analogies
•   Metaphors
•   Understanding Roots and Affixes
•   Comparing Terms
    – Venn Diagram
    – Sentence Stems



                                      71
          Classifying Terms in
               Categories
Science              Culture


                   camouflage




                                 72
           Classifying Terms in
                Categories
Science                  Culture

  amphibian               democracy


  camouflage               safety


  mammal                    people


 reptile                   governor




                                      73
  Technology Resources
• Graphic Organizers in English and Spanish
  http://www.region15.org/curriculum/graphicorg.h
    tml
• U-46 teachers, Greg Anthony & Rich
  Levine
  – Bingo game with roots and affixes found here
    as is the Millionaire game (8th grade English).
     • http://www.u46teachers.org/vocabulary%20instructi
       on/VocabularyInstruction.htm


                                                           74
 Share this Toolkit for
Reading Instruction with
     Your Students
      Thank you!


                           75
      Source Materials
• Reptiles by Melissa Stewart.
• The Keeping Quilt by Patricia Polaccho.
• Boundless Grace by Mary Hoffman and
  Caroline Binch.
• Pearson Successnet
  http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/
• “Reading Is” chart on slide 4 taken from
  http://www.readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/
  Readingis..AnchorChartfromJennifer.JPG


                                             76

				
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