The strange_ beautiful and power

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					  The strange, beautiful and
 powerful world of microbes
RAVINDER NAGPAL1, A.K. PUNIYA1, M. PUNIYA2, ARTI BHARDWAJ3,
              KISHAN SINGH1 AND HARIOM YADAV4
  1Dairy Microbiology, 2Dairy Cattle Nutrition, 4Animal Biochemistry,

  National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132001, (Haryana); 3CAEHS,
                          Meerut (UP), India.
      The first MICROBIOLOGIST
        and his MICROSCOPE




Anton van Leeuwenhoek - A classical example of serendipity. By
wanting better magnifying lens with which to judge the quality of
the cloth he was buying Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria
        What Microbiologists Do ???
• Work in almost every industry - from food, agriculture and
  pollution control to biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and health,
  government agencies and labs, in education as teachers and
  researchers.
• No one microbiologist can study everything! That's why people
  who become microbiologists usually focus on a particular microbe
  or research area.
   –   Bacteriologists focus on bacteria.
   –   Virologists specialize in viruses.
   –   Mycologists study fungi.
   –   Epidemiologists track down outbreaks of disease
   –   Immunologists study how the body defends itself against
       microbial invaders?
   What is a microorganism?
    • An organism that is too small to be
      seen clearly with the naked eye.
    • Generally single cells, but some
      exist as cell clusters; often work as
      a community
   Where do microbes fit in the
    biological world?
Microbila cell: Efficiency in deficiency




  „Most of the vital organs of eukaryotes are missing‟
 The power of microbe lies in its speedy
 growth




Imagine the weight of biomass of E.coli after 24 hrs under optimal growth?
       Never underestimate the
     power of a Microorganism.
• Microorganisms, just like God cannot be seen through
  naked eye but we can feel their impact on us in various
  ways.
• Though only 3% of the total microbial population are
  harmful to the humans.
• Without knowing, we are getting their help from the
  historic days eg. souring of milk (dahi), pickels, jams,
  dosa and idly making, wine production etc.
          “Microbes are always at Work”
                        Mind it…
contd…




 •The pressure inside a bacterial cell is about 2 atmospheres,
 which is roughly the same as the pressure in a car's tyre.

 •A human can be killed by exposure to less than 500 rad
 radiation. However, Deinococcus radiodurans is a bacterium,
 which can survive exposure to upto 3000000 rad of ionizing
 radiation.

 •'Botulin„, a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, is
 highly toxic and if everyone has to be killed on this earth, less
 than 1kg of this toxin will do.
     Bacterium: as big as the head of a
  fruitfly and can even "hold its breath"?

• A giant bacterium, Thiomargarita "sulfur pearl of Namibia,“.
• The bacteria (3/4 mm wide) about 100 times larger than the largest
  known, Epulopiscum fishelsoni.
• Thiomargarita namibiensis lives on the nitrogen and sulfide on the
  ocean floor produced by rotting plankton and algae.
• Nitrate however is not steadily available, so they "hold their breath"
  while they wait for something to stir up off the ocean floor.
• They do this by storing sulfur just under their cell wall, and keeping
  nitrate in a big sac. This could be one of the reasons why the
  bacterium is so big.
       A Humongous Fungus
• Did you ever wonder what the world's largest organism is?
• Maybe you'd pick an elephant or a giant whale.
• Well, those choices would be wrong; this organism is actually
  a soil Fungus, Armillaria bulbosa, found in a northern
  Michigan hardwood forest.
• It is most likely one of the world's oldest organisms as well,
  exceeding 1,500 years and weighing over 100 tons.
• It is actually a plant pathogen, whose hyphae pierce the roots
  of aspen trees and absorb nutrients from them. Therefore,
  the majority of the fungus is underground and only tiny
  edible „honey mushrooms‟.
          Facts About Microbes
• Microbes outnumber all other species and make up most
  living matter (~60% of the earths biomass).

• Less than 0.5% of the estimated 2 to 3 billion microbial
  species have been identified.

• Microbial cycling of critical chemical elements such as
  carbon and nitrogen helps keep the world inhabitable for
  all life forms.
Contd…




• Microbes generate at least half the oxygen we breathe.
• Microbes are roots of life's family tree. An understanding
  of their genomes will help us understand how more
  complex genomes developed.
• Microbial genomes are modest in size and relatively easy to
  study (usually no more than 10 million DNA bases,
  compared with some 3 billion in the human and mouse
  genomes).
• Microbial communities are excellent models for
  understanding biological interactions and evolution.
      Strange Facts and Bacterial Records!!!

                          (Omnipresent).

 Everything is everywhere, the environment selects - Beijerinck M.W.



Microbes thrive in an amazing diversity of habitats in extremes of
   heat, cold, radiation, pressure, salinity, acidity, and darkness,
          and often where no other life forms could exist.
Contd…




• Underground: Chemolithotrophs found in Basalt deposits 1500m
  (4700 ft) underground in solid rock.

• The Sky: Some bacteria spend their whole lives in the
  atmosphere, growing and reproducing in the clouds above our
  heads.

• On Ice: Some bacterial species live in the ice of glaciers and others
  have often found in the snows of the North and South poles at -17
  and -85°C.
Contd…




• Not So Cool: Some bacteria have learned to live in hot springs.
  Some species are happy at 75°C while others think even this is
  cool. Species of Aquifex can live in water as hot as 95°C. Archaea
  are happy to grow deep sea hydrothermal vents at 106°C

• The Deep Sea: Bacteria „known as Extreme Barophiles‟ live at
  depths of >10000 m and are able to survive pressures in excess of
  1000 times the air pressure at sea level; and they cannot function
  properly at pressures less than 400 atmospheres and may die in a
  couple of hours if brought to the surface.
Life in the extremes




               Sahara desert
Life in the extremes




                       Yellowstone National park
Life in the extremes




     Lake Magadi, Tansania
Life in the extremes




             Yellowstone National Park
Life in the extremes
Life in the extremes
Contd…




• Fast Movers: Some bacteria can move by flagella that enable them to
  obtain speeds as high as 0.00017 km/ hr. This may not seem very fast,
  but remember that we are talking about very small organisms. They
  are travelling at about 50-60 body lengths/ sec which is equivalent to
  a 6 ft tall man running at 100 m/ sec, 9 times faster than the world
  record. Cheetahs, are the fastest animals on land but even they only
  move at about 25 body lengths/ sec.


 “What is soil, becomes grass, becomes a cow, becomes you
   and me and then becomes soil again. Without microbes,
             the whole ecosystem would collapse”
        Facts About Beneficial Bacteria

• The opposite of antibiotics are probiotics - a term coined
  in 1965 to describe substances that favor the growth of
  beneficial microorganisms in the body.
• Two species of probiotics, Bifidobacterium and
  Lactobacillus, have been studied the most.
• Bacteria that produce the enzyme lactase help reduce
  lactose intolerance.


                    Tell me what you eat,
     and I will tell you what you are - Brillat-Savarin
  Learn a lot from a microbe

• Halobacterium, may hold the key to protect astronauts from one
  of the greatest threats they would face during a mission to
  Mars: space radiation.
• The harsh radiation of interplanetary space can penetrate
  astronauts' bodies, damaging the DNA in their cells, which can
  cause cancer and other illnesses.
• Halobacterium appears to be a master of the complex art of
  DNA repair. This mastery is what scientists want to learn from.
        Serratia has a religious history and
    can cause severe infections in humans?

• Serratia marcescens, when grown in colonies, produces
  a bright red pigment similar to the appearance of
  blood.
• In mediaeval churches priests would discover that
  bread left in moist places would "miraculously"
  produce this "blood", thus leading to the belief that the
  bread's red appearance was because it had been
  stabbed by unbelieving Jews.
• In 1819 Bartolemeo Bizio, a pharmacist, discovered that
  the red pigment occurred because of bacteria.
 Martian microbes may exist ?
• Life On Mars??? No one knows for sure yet!
• But in August 1996, scientists announced that they had
  extracted what they believed to be fossils of an unknown
  bacillus shaped microorganism from inside a meteorite from
  Mars found in Antarctica..
• The meteorite left Mars 16 million years ago and landed in
  Antarctica 13 thousand years ago.
• This may support the theory that life did or does still exist on
  Mars!
                Wow! Life on the Red Planet!
                We are not alone! Or are we?
Shergotty, Bihar, India (1865)
Mars - Climate and Life




           Postulated Mars-Biosphere
         Mars-Climate and Life


Liquid water only in deep subsurface regions
Life either extinct or in subsurface niches:




                              Mars from Pathfinder
Life on Europa? Moon of Jupiter
Antarctica, 1984
 Bacteria sometimes catch A Virus

Bacteriophages – “bacteria-eaters”,
viruses that use bacteria to multiply
In the 1990s, bacteriophage research became an alternative
for scientists worried about antibiotic resistance.
Researchers in America followed the example of scientists in
Western Europe who were treating patients with
bacteriophages and obtaining great results.
When antibiotics don't work for a bacterial infection, doctors
can use bacteriophages to kill the bacteria. Although ironic, a
virus can make us feel better!
     Microbes enables cows to eat grass?
o Microbes living in the rumen of the cow are
  responsible for the breakdown of the carbohydrate
  cellulose of plants.
o The cow lacks the enzymes to break down
  carbohydrates.
o Without microbes and their enzymes, ruminants
  would not be able to derive
  any energy or nutrients
  from a diet of grass.
   Microbes have a built-in compass?
• Aquatic, anaerobic bacteria called magnetotactic
  bacteria find their way around by using the attraction
  from the earth's magnetic field.
• When placed near a magnet, they are attracted to the
  magnet's northern pole because the bacteria make
  magnetic particles which contain iron.
• When lined-up, the particles make a long magnet that is
  used by the bacteria as a compass.
• It is this built-in compass that enables the bacteria to
  find its way down to the deep, oxygen-free parts of its
  aquatic habitat.
Diamonds are made from dead bacteria???
• Carbon, the main component of most diamonds, usually
  contains an isotope of light carbon (12C), which is utilized by
  some living organisms.
• Therefore, eclogitic diamonds with large amounts of the
  isotope 12C, are believed to have an organic origin.
• These were formed from carbon near hydrothermal vents
  which was also utilized by the bacterial communities near
  the vents.
• Thus through time, heat and pressure were able to turn the
  carbon along with the bacterial colonies into diamonds.
          "So, those sparklers of yours may just be clumps
               of billion-year-old bacterial corpses"
                Microbial Jugnu:
         Bacteria that emit visible light?
• Lightning bugs make light, but interestingly enough, bacteria
  produce light in basically the same process called
  bioluminescence.
• „Luciferase‟ - uses molecular oxygen and a protein that has a
  particular vitamin FMNH2 attached to it.
• „Luciferase‟ - causes oxidation reaction to occur between
  oxygen and vitamin leading to the conversion from FMNH2 to
  FMN.
• As this occurs, luciferin emits visible light!
• The color of light (orange, yellow, yellow-green, or blue-green )
  depends on the kind of luciferase and amount of oxidation of
  the vitamin attached to the luciferin.
   Enzymes that bacteria use to break down dead,
chilled whales may be used in cold-water detergents?

• The cold temperature slows the rate of biological decay and
  in a whale, the oil-laden bones are the last things to be
  decomposed by bacteria at depth of 3300 feet.
• The detergent industry's current fat-digesting enzymes are
  only effective in warm water, 105ºF.
• Therefore, in cold water the enzymes do not gulp up oil or
  grease. Hence, a tremendous amount of energy savings
  could be obtained when using a cold-water enzyme that
  worked on stains.
 Microbes can degrade explosives?

• Trinitrotoluene, TNT, is a problematic explosive that
  contaminates the soil in areas where ammunition is
  kept.
• Bacteria named Clostridium bifermentans is able to
  break down this contaminant.
• When provided with starch as energy source, the
  bacteria can break down the TNT through co-
  metabolism by broken-down TNT as a source of carbon.
  Bacteria can help clean up oil spills?
• After the Exxon Valdez crashed off the shore of Alaska,
  spilling its contents all over the area, one of the biggest
  contributors to cleaning up the environment was
  Pseudomonas.
• Scientists found that by feeding the contaminated area with
  oxygen and waste water, the bacteria present there were
  provided with the nutrients needed to flourish, thereby
  encouraging the break down of hydrocarbons within crude
  oil by Pseudomonas.
• The hydrocarbon that the bacterium feasts on are converted
  to carbon dioxide and water.
Microbes might be used to breakdown dirty
      laundry on long space flights?
• One of the problems that would be encountered,
  which is now one of the problems with the
  Russian space station Mir, is the disposal of dirty
  laundry.
• Presently, there are only two supply trips a year
  to Mir, so six months of stockpiling doesn't work
  too well.
• Russian scientists are working on developing a
  mixture of bacteria that could be used to
  biodegrade dirty underwear.
  Bacteria keep vegetables fresher?

• Even vegetables that are kept in airtight containers are
  prone to spoilage by E.coli and Listeria.

• Lactic acid bacteria, are an alternative solution to this
  problem by producing natural acids that prevent
  Listeria from growing in foods.
      Bacteria are used to make
             chocolate?
• Chocolate comes from the seeds of the Cacao
  tree.
• The seeds come in pods and the only way to
  retrieve the seeds are to ferment them with yeasts
  and lactobacilli and Acetobacter.
• The Lactobacillus secretes an acid to help break
  apart the pod.
   Microbes can make plastics ?
• Alcaligenes eutrophus, is a useful bacterium having
  the capability of making plastics.
• The bacterium is able to accomplish this feat because
  it has granules that are made of a fat-like polymer
  and not starch, like the granules of other bacteria.
• These plastics can be readily degraded and
  hopefully will pose less environmental threat.
• There are strong hopes of using these bacteria and
  their plastics for medical purposes.
   Microbes are all over your skin?
• While bacteria are found on your fingers, toes, arms and legs
  they are far more numerous on your face.
• They are found above and below the surface of your skin and
  are in no way harmful.
• However, all teenagers have had at least one zit in their
  lifetime, are called: pimples, blackheads, whiteheads,
  blemishes, acne, etc.
• And while bacteria are not the cause for zits they do inhabit
  those little imperfections. So, the next time you pop your
  pimple you must know that you are unleashing an army of
  microbes.
   Microbes cause body odor?
• The sweat that comes out of your underarms actually
  does not smell bad.
• The reason that people give off odors when they
  sweat in their underarms is that bacteria living there
  like to eat sweat, and as a result produce waste
  products that cause it to smell.
• Body odor can be eliminated by using deoderant.
• Deoderant kills the bacteria under your arms so that
  it cannot make your sweat stink.
  “So don't forget your deoderant; it does more than
   just mask body odor, it stops it before it happens!”
     Sick Building Syndrome?
• Fumes from certain construction materials in buildings
  e.g. malls, are responsible for giving people severe
  headaches.

• Microbes living in potted plants eliminate Sick Building
  Syndrome by degrading the fumes.

• However, suffering people may be glad to know that
  helpful bacteria can solve their problem.
 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the literary
                    microbe?

• Famous writers like Keats, Browning, Austen
  and Orwell have all suffered from tuberculosis
  and because of this the microbe has been called
  the literary microbe.

• Tuberculosis is also considered to be the greatest
  killer of all times. About one hundred thousand
  million people have been affected. This bacterium
  is transmitted through air or infected milk.
            Microbes form fossils?

• In 1950's-1960's, micropaleontologists discovered layers
  of sedimentary rocks, wavelike stromatolites in Great
  Lakes, are believed to contain microbial fossils.

• Some fossils are 3.5 billion years old, meaning that they
  were formed only one billion years after the creation of
  the Earth indicating that microbes are the earliest forms
  of life on Earth.
     There's a "Sleeping Beauty" story
                for bacteria?
• In May 1995, scientists were the prince as they revived
  25-40 million year-old bacteria from the stomach of a
  bee that was preserved in tree sap.
• It was this event that led to the notion of Spielberg's
  Jurassic Park, where dinosaurs were created after
  their DNA was extracted from mosquitoes trapped in
  tree sap the same way.
 “The dinosaurs, however, were the ones who took the limelight
          away from the bacteria on the movie screens”
        How Does Salmonella Get
          Inside Chicken Eggs?
• The bacterium actually lives in the feces of chicken.
• Because chickens sit on their eggs, even before they are collected
  for consumer purchases, the eggs may be subjected to the
  bacterium.
• It was found that S. enteritidis could actually penetrate the hard
  outer shell of the egg and live inside the yolk, where it can
  reproduce.
• The bacterium could infect hens' ovaries, and contaminate the
  egg before it even developed a shell.
                Infected rats make easy cat snacks
• Toxoplasma gondii, a parasitic infection in rats, alters their
  natural behaviour and makes them easy prey for cats.
• Toxoplasma gondii is found in about 35% of rats but prefers to
  live in cats.
• It ensures its return to its favourite host by affecting the brains of
  the normally cautious rats, making them outgoing and active and
  an easy meal for a hungry cat.
• Rats can usually detect subtle changes in their environment. It
  makes them very hard to trap or poison but this parasite
  overrides the innate response - they almost taunt the cats in a
  sense (remember Tom n Jerry ???).
       Caught Dirty-Handed!!!
• When was the last time you washed your hands?
• Did you use soap?
• What have you done since you washed?
• Have you eaten, put your fingers in your mouth or touched
  someone else?
• There are millions of microbes on your hands. Most are
  naturally occurring and harmless. But some may be disease-
  causing germs. Hand washing with soap lifts off those
  microbes and rinses them away.
• Observations in public restrooms reveals what?????
  Bacteria can help give your jeans
           the right ‘fade’
• Alkalothermophilic Thermomonospora
  produces enzyme cellulase, which when
  mixed with a coarse denim cloth reduces its
  hairiness and makes it softer and lighter.
• It gives same appearance as a stone wash,
  causes no damage to drums of washing
  machines by preventing wear and tear of the
  material.
• Finish can be controlled to desired level by
  controlling the amount of enzyme.
 Bacteria can act as insecticides?

• The first major products of agricultural
  biotechnology was Bacillus thuringiensis,
  producing proteins that are toxic to many
  insects.
• Now, scientists have spliced genes of it into
  crops, that produces toxins fatal to crop
  damaging pests, but harmless to "good" bugs.
   Thanks
for your kind attention

				
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