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                            Philosophy 101: Introduction to Philosophy (HU)
                                              Spring 2008
                                 Section 2, MW 3-4:15: Rm. MA 3202
                                 Section 3, TTh 7-8:15: Rm. MA 3210

                                    Dr. David Louzecky
                                      Office: MA 3104
      Web page:

       “Either you create your future or you become the victim of the future someone creates for you.”
                                         U.S. Army promotional video

     “There are many things to know in this world, but how to live is the only thing that really matters.”
                                                Leo Tolstoy

“To be a philosopher is not merely to have subtle thoughts, nor even to found a school, but so to love wisdom
 as to live according to its dictates a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust. It is to solve
          some of the problems of life, not only theoretically, but practically.” Henry David Thoreau

  When praised as an educator, John Dewey replied: “Sorry, I‟m just a philosopher. I‟m just trying to think.
                                           That‟s all I‟m doing.”

  “The world is not to be narrowed „till it will go into the understanding…, but the understanding is to be
                           expanded „till it can take in the world.” Francis Bacon

 “A mind that is stretched to a new idea never returns to its original dimensions.” Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

 “Many men stumble across the truth, but most manage to pick themselves up and continue on as if nothing
                                     happened.” Winston Churchill

 “The time has come,” the Walrus said, “To talk of many things: of shoes—and ships—and sealing wax—of
   cabbages—and kings—and why the sea is boiling hot—and whether pigs have wings.” Lewis Carroll

                                         Course Introduction
        When you're introduced to people, you don't learn everything about them; you just learn
some interesting and important things, enough to recognize, appreciate, and interact with them.
Since I intend to make this course a genuine introduction to an area of study with which most of you
have little or no acquaintance, you should learn what doing philosophy is like and something, but
not everything, about its main areas of inquiry. Although there's a great deal more to philosophy
than appears in this course, you should learn enough to make an acquaintance, one that you will
enjoy getting together with in the future.
         As you will discover, philosophy is an enormously broad field; in fact, philosophy not only
has its own special content, but it ranges over the content of every other field and every human
activity. How then do we introduce such a field? Some professors use an historical approach,
discussing the views of important philosophers from Socrates to John Rawls. Other professors
survey a series of philosophical problems in metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic. Still
others try to connect the history and problems to a single topic. In this course we‟ll focus on a single
topic: the good life.

        Most people are drawn to philosophy because they are interested in living well. The reason
we are so eager to engage the great historical philosophers and understand the great philosophical
problems is that they connect with the quality of our lives. In doing philosophy, we hope to become

                  Here Are a Few Questions to Start Thinking about
         We're so certain that we know the truth about religion, morality, and politics that we're
willing to kill those who differ with us. Yet in the next breath we say that what is true for me may
not be true for you, that belief is a matter of subjective opinion rather than objective fact, that the
truth is socially constructed, and that we all have the right to believe whatever we please. But if
that‟s the case, how can we be sure we‟re right? Does it make any sense to think we‟re right? How
can we justify political impositions? Well, what does it mean to say that something is true? What
exactly is truth? How do we come to know something? What makes us rational? Which
differences of opinion deserve maltreatment? What should we tolerate?

         We go to church and make religious professions. Are there any reasons to think that God
exists, or is religious belief induced by fear and insecurity? And if God is good, why is there so
much pain and suffering in the world?

        We call actions right or wrong and things and situations good or bad. Is there any adequate
basis on which to make these moral judgments? Are value judgments culturally relative,
individually subjective, or objectively absolute? What kinds of lives are good?

        We think that democracy and capitalism are the best ways to organize ourselves politically
and economically. Are these thoughts a matter of justice and utility or a matter of power and self-
interest? When does the government have the right to interfere with our behavior and restrict our
freedom? What sort of society is best?

        It has become fashionable to think that computers can think, that minds are software and
brains are hardware. But are machines really conscious? And are humans merely computational
devices—meat machines? These ways of thinking have some consequences for human and
computer rights and responsibilities: should we extend the Bill of Rights to machines or withdraw it
from humans?

       Notice that the above questions concern fundamental aspects of the ways we understand our
physical and social worlds—and ourselves. They also require us to speculate about questions that
push the frontiers of our scientific knowledge and try to pull all our knowledge together into
comprehensive worldviews.

        Philosophy, however, is not a collection of unsupported opinions about these matters, and
philosophers are not interested in propaganda, advertising, public relations, spin doctoring,
marketing, psychological manipulation, or indoctrination. Philosophers are concerned with the
truth; they are interested in getting clear about fundamental, speculative, and comprehensive
questions and in constructing arguments by providing evidence in support of their answers.
Philosophy is sustained rational inquiry about the most important concerns of human life.

       We all want to live the best life, and in order to do that we must know what we are like, what
the world is like, how we fit into the physical and social worlds, what goals are worth pursuing, and
what methods provide for the best decisions. In addressing these basic questions, philosophy is both
the most abstract and the most practical of endeavors.

         “What should I do?” is a question we ask ourselves many times each day. Philosophy won't
tell you how to build a profitable stock portfolio, but it will provide both a framework and a set of
skills, which will improve all your decision-making. In studying philosophy you should gain some
skill in clarifying issues and in providing and evaluating arguments. Given that we live in a
consumer society dominated by corporate advertising where everything is commodified, philosophy
could be viewed as a course in personal and public self-defense.

        Socrates said that philosophy begins with wonder. Well, we wonder about a great many
things, and all of these things are organized around the most fundamental wonder: how to live a
good life. Figuring out how to make good personal and public choices is what it is to become wise.

                                        Course Material
John Arthur, Studying Philosophy: A Guide for the Perplexed, 2nd Ed.
Christopher Biffle, A Guided Tour of Five Works by Plato, 3rd Ed.
Harry G. Frankfurt, On Bullshit
Harry G. Frankfurt, On Truth
David Louzecky and Richard Flannery, The Good Life: Personal and Public Choices

The Plaque, handouts, Web pages, and films
Charles Kendall Adams, Former President, University of Wisconsin, the statement on the plaque:
Bertram H. Davis, “Review of W. Lee Hanson‟s Academic Freedom on Trial:100 Years of Sifting
       and Winnowing at the University of Wisconsin-Madison,” from Academe (handout)
Peter DeSmidt, “Socratic Method” (handout)
Barbara Ehrenreich, “Premature Pragmatism,” from The Worst Years of Our Lives (handout)
William Irwin, “Frontmatter” and “Computers, Caves, and Oracles: Neo and Socrates” from The
       Matrix and Philosophy: Welcome to the Desert of the Real (handout)
David Louzecky, “The History of Philosophy” (handout)
Robert Nozick, “The Experience Machine,” from Anarchy, State, and Utopia (handout)
The Last Days of Socrates:
Neil Postman, “Future Shlock” from Conscientious Objections: Stirring up Trouble about
       Language, Technology, and Education (handout)
Robert J. Richards, review of Steven Pinker‟s The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human
       Nature together with Pinker‟s response, from The New York Review of Books (handout)
Max Shulman, “Love Is a Fallacy” (handout)
Gerry Spence, “The Eye of the Wolf: The Tyranny of Justice,” from From Freedom to Slavery:
       The Rebirth of Tyranny in America (handout)
James McTeique, Alan Moore, David Lloyd, and Larry and Andy Wachowski, “V for Vendetta”
Larry and Andy Wachowski, “The Matrix.” Also, check out this site for philosophical articles:
“Winterize Your Lawn” (handout)
Wolff, Robert Paul, “How to Write a Philosophy Paper,” from About Philosophy

        Instead of using class time to lecture you on the material you have already read, we will
discuss philosophical issues as they relate to our lives; consequently, you will want to read the
assignments carefully before class. I don‟t know about you but I can‟t understand a book, or film,
by reading, or watching, it just once. So, the first time through, I enjoy it and get the lay of the land.
Then I read it a second time with pen and pad in hand. Be sure to mark up your books and take
some notes—both expository and critical.

        Since the most important thing is to understand the material, always feel free to ask
questions or raise issues for discussion. Since we're concerned with finding the truth rather than
continuing our indoctrination into a set of social norms, always feel obliged to engage the authors,
your classmates, and me in argument. Don't just take my word for it. Question authority! Since I
am not infallible, be sure to correct my errors.

                                        Course Description
        If we‟re going to think, we can always use some reminders about and help with thinking
correctly. That‟s one reason why we‟re going to study Arthur‟s Studying Philosophy: A Guide for
the Perplexed. Arthur also has lots of good things to say about studying philosophy and education
and writing.

         You are now part of a great educational institution and tradition. The plaque and Davis‟s
“Review of W. Lee Hanson‟s Academic Freedom on Trial: 100 Years of Sifting and Winnowing at
the University of Wisconsin-Madison,” will help you begin to understand that tradition. “The fact
is that truth in any age is hard to find, and wisdom more difficult of compass than the world's wealth.
In the free give-and-take of the University students get a vision of what a lifelong undertaking the
pursuit of both is. Indeed, I think that that is the most valuable thing we give them on this campus.
For there is only one thing more important than the preservation of
freedom, and that is its use. That is why I like so much that sentence of the Board of Regents'
Resolution of December 8, 1956. „The search for truth is the central duty of the University, but
truth will not be found if the scholar is not free, it will not be understood if the student is not free, it
will not be used if the citizen is not free.‟ In other words, freedom is the first business of all of us.
That is, in a word, the heart of our Wisconsin Tradition of Academic Freedom.” Helen C. White,
“The Wisconsin Tradition of Academic Freedom (Sifting and Winnowing)”

        Many people confuse education with indoctrination. The plaque should help dispel that
confusion. Barbara Ehrenreich‟s “Premature Pragmatism,” may help in thinking about the end of
your education and the untenable connection that most people make between education and job
training. Postman also has some interesting things to say about the ends of education.

       Although philosophy didn‟t begin with Socrates, his end is a good place to begin. He‟s a
good example of a philosopher at work and has important things to say about living and dying
well—especially about wisdom, which is what philosophers love.

        Few films present philosophical questions in as exciting a way as “The Matrix.” Irwin
explains some of that philosophy and its connection to Plato. Nozick explains why Cipher made the
wrong choice. Richards‟ “Review of Steven Pinker‟s The Blank Slate” suggests that we need to
think about the fundamental connections between nature and nurture.

         Many of the things our society pressures us to do regularly, even with great expenditures of
time and money—and damage to the environment in which we must live—deserve more careful
attention. “Often, the less there is to justify a traditional custom, the harder it is to get rid of it,” said
Mark Twain. “Winterize Your Lawn” may help you to start looking at the world a bit more
critically. George Carlin is especially helpful in this regard, but he‟s a bit uncouth for such a classy
place as this.

        Not only don‟t we take the time to think about alternative ways to live, we often fail to
adhere to our own well thought-out principles. So, I‟d also like to recommend Gerry Spence‟s From
Freedom to Slavery: The Rebirth of Tyranny in America: it‟s a powerful and poignant discussion
of our ruthless suppression and killing of those who adopt alternative styles of living. Such
suppression is in complete violation of our fundamental principles. You might want to check out the
Bill of Rights, especially after watching “V for Vendetta.”

        OK, we‟re going to situate ourselves in a tradition, think about alternatives and principles,
study thinking, take a look at a great philosopher at work, and watch a film on fundamental
philosophical problems. Then it‟s time to focus on our main question: how to live well? David
Louzecky and Richard Flannery‟s The Good Life: Personal and Public Choices provides a
discussion of the fundamental ideas that comprise a well-lived life.

                             Grades, Papers, Library, and Exams
        Your course grade will be the arithmetic mean of the grades on three exams (100 points
each) and four papers (two at 25, one at 50, and one at 100) and 10 points for attending the library
session and 10 for doing the library assignment. The exams will be short answer, from a word to a
paragraph. Although each exam will focus on specific questions from the material covered in that
section, I may include important questions from previous material, especially on the final exam.
Questions from the class discussions may appear on all of the exams. Exam dates are subject to
change—with notification. The paper assignments are on separate pages at the end of the syllabus.

         I would do the assigned reading during the first week it is assigned—then read it again, mark
it up, and take notes before the exam. I would prepare for the exam by going over my marked up
text, reading notes, and class notes. Instead of trying to guess what I will put on the exam, you
ought to think about what you would ask if you were the professor in this course. What is important
to know in an introduction to philosophy, the central question of which is, “what is a good life?”

        This class has two tutors: Tad Jaromin and Josh Roever; they are good students and
philosophers in addition to having had this and most other philosophy courses taught on this campus.
Get in touch on D2L or by email—and get together for help, ideas, and discussion.

         Probably the most helpful thing to do—after doing the reading and studying your notes—is
to get in touch with Tad or Josh for discussion: this is a philosophy course, after all. Use Socrates as
your model.

        The course has a D2L web page, where Josh or Tad will post the syllabus and perhaps other
items of interest. You aren‟t required to use it, but there is a discussion page where you might try to
get something going with one another. Raise issues and ask questions of everyone including the

        You all have a campus email account. If I need to contact you, I will be use that account. If
you need to contact me or send me something, use that account. I hear that our firewall, hacker
attacker, spam filter, and virus protection systems sometimes dump email from non-university
accounts. The email addresses of the other class members and tutors are posted on the campus email
system and on D2L. The campus has a standard: Microsoft Word. Use it on papers, especially

                                  Tentative Plan (Outline)
I. Education. About 2 weeks.
Read: Adams‟ the plaque, Davis‟s review of Hanson, Ehrenreich, Postman, and chapters 1-4 of Arthur.
       A. The organization of post-secondary education
               1. The liberal arts college (College of Letters and Science) is the core
               2. The graduate school is on top.
               3. Job training
                       a. Professional schools
                       b. Vocational schools
       B. Education contrasted with job training
               1. Job training
                       a. Personal—get a good job
                       b. Public—do well a socially useful task
               2. Education
                       a. Personal—live a good life
                       b. Public—become a good citizen
       C. Education contrasted with indoctrination
               1. Indoctrination—learn a party line
               2. Education—the freedom to inquire, think, and express

II. Rationality and Knowledge. About 3 weeks.
Read: chapters 5-12 in Arthur (skip pp. 50-60), Max Shulman, “Love Is a Fallacy,” Frankfurt On
Bullshit, and Frankfurt, On Truth.
        A. Truth
                 1. What truth is: statements are true when they accurately represent the
                 2. How do we find out whether a statement is true?
                         a. Sense experience, perception, observation.
                         b. Reasoning, argument, inference.
        B. Belief
                 1. What beliefs are:
                         a. Mental (brain) states, which incorporate
                         b. statement content.
                 2. Why do you believe? What are your reasons? Both questions are
                 ambiguous between:
                         a. Explanatory (causal) reasons for the mental state, and
                         b Justificatory (argumentative) reasons for the statement content.
        C. Reasons/Arguments
                 1. Good inductive arguments are cogent
                         a. True premises
                         b. Strong reasoning
                 2. Good deductive arguments are sound
                         a. True premises
                         b. Valid reasoning

III. What philosophy is (with a little ethics first). About 4 weeks.
Read: Biffle‟s, A Guided Tour of Five Works by Plato, the web page:,
DeSmidt on Socratic Method, Irwin on the Matrix, Louzecky on history, Nozick on the experience
machine, Richards‟ review of Pinker, “Winterize Your Lawn,” and Wolff on paper preparation. Watch
“The Matrix” outside of class.
        A. Just a nod to the history of philosophy
        B. Ethics: the good (value) that the right (obligation)
                 1. Teleology
                         a. What‟s right depends on what‟s good
                         b. A matter of consequences only
                 2. Deontology
                         a. What‟s good depends on what‟s right
                         b. A matter of consequences plus rights
        C. The field of philosophy
                 1. What is philosophy?
                         a. Fundamental
                         b. Speculative
                         c. Comprehensive
                 2. How is philosophy done? Rationally, which precludes sages and gurus.
                 3. How is philosophy organized? Its main areas and how they are related:
                         a. Metaphysics (ontology and cosmology)
                         b. Epistemology
                         c. Axiology
                         d. Logic


IV. Living well. About 4 weeks.
Read: Spence, and Louzecky and Flannery‟s The Good Life: Personal and Public Choices, and watch
“V” outside of class.
        A. Background Values
                1. Freedom
                2. Privacy
                3. Rationality
        B. Personal Values
                4. Good Work
                5. Intimate Companions
        C. Public Values
                6. Equality
                7. Justice
                8. Leaders and Followers
                9. Hurrah for the Old Agenda!

Final Exam

              The Best Laid (and modifiable) Assignments, Spring 2008

M/T 1-28/29   Read Adams‟ the plaque, Davis‟s review of Hanson, Ehrenreich, and Postman.
              Introduce the course and start education

W/R 1-30/31 Read chapters 1-4 of Arthur‟s Studying Philosophy: A Guide for the Perplexed
            More on education

M/T 2-4/5     Read chapter 5 of Arthur (skip pp. 50-60)
              First paper on the good life due

W/R 2-6/7

M/T 2-11/12   Read chapters 6-12 of Arthur

W/R 2-13/14 Max Shulman, “Love Is a Fallacy”

M/T 2-18/19   Read Frankfurt‟s On Bullshit

W/R 2-20/21 Read Frankfurt‟s On Truth

M/T 2-25/26

W/R 2-27/28

M/T 3-3/4     Exam I

W/R 3-5/6      Return exams (?) and do Louzecky on history. Read Irwin, Nozick, and Watch the
               “Matrix” outside of class. And “Winterize Your Lawn,” and Wolff on paper

M/T 3-10/11   Read Biffle‟s, A Guided Tour of Five Works by Plato and DeSmidt on Socratic Method

W/R 3-12/13 Library session

M/T/W/R 3-17-20 Recess

M/T 3-24/25   Read the web page:
W/R 3-26/27

M/T 3/31-4/1 Read Richards‟ review of Pinker

W/R 4-2/3

M/T 4-7/8

W/R 4-9/10

M/T 4-14/15   Exam II. Paper on an historical figure due.

W/R 4-16/17 Return exams and papers (?). Read Spence, Louzecky and Flannery‟s The Good Life:
            Personal and Public Choices, Forward, Introduction, and Ch. 1, and watch “V” outside
      of    class.

M/T 4-21/22   Ch. 2

W/R 4-23/24 Ch. 3

M/T 4-28-29 Ch. 4

W/R 4/30-5/1 Ch. 5

M/T 5-5/6     Ch. 6, Institutional Assessment

W/R 5-7/8     Ch. 7 and 8

M/T 5-12/13   Ch. 9 and Afterword

W 5-14

Final Exam:   Section 2:      Monday, 5/19, 3:30-5:30 p.m., Rm. 3202
              Section 3:      Tuesday, 5/20, 6-8 p.m., Rm. 3210
              *Second paper on the good life and the paper on a philosophical topic are both due at
the                   time of the final exam.

         “Just when I discovered the meaning of life, they changed it.” George Carlin

        The UW-Colleges has an assessment program to enhance the quality and effectiveness of the
curriculum, programs, and services of the institution. The following areas of proficiency are
assessed because they are of primary importance in education: Analytical Skills, Quantitative Skills,
Communication Skills, and Aesthetic Engagement. Assessments will be part of a regular homework
or in-class assignment but the assessment is not a “grade” and does not become part of your
transcript. Assessment evaluations are compiled and used solely to evaluate learning effectiveness.
This course will be assessed this semester (I think): I will use the philosophical problem paper to
assess quality of argument according to the following rubric:

Performance Indicator: Construct an argument in support of a conclusion.

Exceeds                  Argument has a clearly stated conclusion.
Expectations             Everything within the argument is directed toward supporting the final conclusion.
                         Argument utilizes a reasonable degree of evidence appropriate to the conclusion.
                         Argument expresses a thorough understanding of the complexities of an issue.
                         Argument anticipates and effectively responds to likely counterarguments
Meets                    The conclusion of the argument is reasonably clear although there may be some
Expectations             ambiguity about the precise nature of the conclusion.
                         Most of the argument supports the conclusion but there is some extraneous material.
                         Argument is supported with some evidence appropriate to the conclusion
                         Argument acknowledges some complexities connected with an issue.
                         Argument acknowledges some potential counterarguments and offers at least some
                         indication of potential responses.
Fails to Meet             The conclusion of the argument shifts and changes as the argument progresses.
Expectations              A significant portion of the argument offers no real support for the conclusion.
                          The argument relies heavily on emotional appeals as opposed to evidence and
                          Argument oversimplifies a complex issue presenting everything in black and white
                          Argument ignores obvious counterarguments

              The Good Life Paper Assignments

   Clearly explain your view of what a good life is. Try to give some reasons. (Some of you,
    of course, are already locked into a bad life or have given up on a good life. Still, or
    especially, you have an idea of the good life you‟re missing. So, this is not about what
    you‟re doing or your plans; it‟s about what constitutes a good life. You may just want a
    white picket fence, lots of rug rats, and a spouse who takes care of you. Fine by me, but
    that‟s what you want, not what you think is good. Don‟t you want to be as rich as Bill Gates
    and Warren Buffet, so you can don a cape and be Super Consumer? Interesting how they‟ve
    teamed up to give much of their money away. Don‟t you just want to be contented—until
    you die? Lots of people want bad things. I want to know what you think is good.)
   Write a one page paper—neither fewer than one nor more than two.
   It should be word processed in 12-point font, double spaced, with one-inch margins.
   I expect correct, clear (but not elegant) prose.
   Be sure to give it a title and put your name, date, course, and section on it. And staple it.
   Turn it in on the first class of the second week. It will be worth 25 points. I will read it
    without my red pen because I really am interested in what you have to say. However, you
    can be graded down for turning in garbage. One way is by playing Wombat High—scribble
    it in pencil and tear it out of your spiral notebook. Another way is by not proof-reading it to
    remove errors. While I‟ll tolerate the ordinary, I find the silly and the monstrous just plain
   Save this paper because you must hand it in at the time of the final, stapled to another
    (second) paper with the same assignment. The only way the two papers could be the same is
    if you are a stone or stoned.

   If you want some help with your writing,
        o we have an Academic Success Center on campus:
        o the Colleges has an Online Writing Lab (OWL):
        o Here‟s a great web site that provides examples of five forms of documentation and a
            lot of good advice on how to write papers:
        o Don‟t forget Tad Jaromin and Josh Roever.

             Historical Figure Paper Assignment

   Pick a philosopher from my list of the “greats” and write two short paragraphs. Pick one
    that you must use sources to find out about.

   Indicate something about the philosopher as a person in the first and something about his
    philosophical achievements in the second.

   It should be word processed in 12 point font, double spaced, with one-inch margins—no
    more than two pages in length. Be sure to give it a title and put your name, date, course, and
    section on it. And staple it if it is more than one page.

   I expect correct, clear (but not elegant) prose.

   Be sure to indicate all your sources. Use MLA parenthetical documentation in the body of
    your work and MLA documentation in your “works consulted” section. Your citations and
    their correctness will be graded.

   Here‟s the punch line: your “works consulted” section must include at least two scholarly
    books and two scholarly articles.

        o The two books must be ones that you picked off the shelf in our library.
        o Two articles must be from paper journals that you found on the shelf in our library.
          They can be located by using The Philosophers Index. We‟ll learn how to use it
          when we go to the library for a session.
        o See “A Little Library and Research Help” at the end of the syllabus.

   If you want some help with your writing and citing,
        o we have an Academic Success Center on campus:
        o the Colleges has an Online Writing Lab (OWL):
        o Here‟s a great web site that provides examples of five forms of documentation and a
            lot of good advice on how to write papers:
        o Don‟t forget the tutors: Tadeus Jaromin and Theo Bialk.

   Turn it in at the time of the second exam. It will be worth 50 points.

       Philosophical Problem Paper Assignment

   Pick a philosophical problem and write a two-page paper—neither fewer than two nor more
    than three.

   Begin with a thesis. Indicate what the problem is and a possible solution. Be sure to give
    reasons. Use Wolff and Arthur as your guides.

   It should be word processed in 12 point font, double spaced, with one-inch margins.

   I expect correct, clear (but not elegant) prose.

   Be sure to indicate sources. Have at least two scholarly books and two scholarly articles in
    your “works consulted” section—they need not be off our shelf. Use MLA parenthetical
    documentation in the paragraphs and MLA documentation your “works consulted” section.
    Your citations and their correctness will be graded.

   If you want some help with your writing and citing,
        o we have an Academic Success Center on campus:
        o the Colleges has an Online Writing Lab (OWL):
        o Here‟s a great web site that provides examples of five forms of documentation and a
            lot of good advice on how to write papers:
        o Don‟t forget the philosophers: Tad Jaromin and Josh Roever.

   Turn it in at the time of the final exam. It will be worth 100 points.

   Be sure to give it a title and put your name, date, course, and section on it. And staple it.

                A Little library and Research Help
Books: Besides the general philosophy sections—B-BD, BH, and BJ—there are works on
philosophy at the beginning of every field.
       B-BD philosophy (general)                   L-LC education
       BF psychology                               ML music
       BH aesthetics                               NX art
       BJ ethics                                   P language and linguistics
       BL-BX religion                              PN literature
       CB intellectual history                     Q general science
       D history                                   QA mathematics
       GN anthropology                             QB astronomy
       H general social science                    QC physics
       HB-HC economics                             QL zoology
       HM-HN, HT, HV sociology                     QM anatomy
       HX social and political theory              QP physiology
       JA-JF political science                     R-RA medicine
       JX international law                        T-TA technology
       K law                                       TD environment

Philosophy journals in our library (Other libraries have many more.):
     Daedalus                                        Philosophical Quarterly
     Ethics                                          Philosophical Review
     International Philosophical Quarterly           Philosophy
     Journal of the History of Ideas                 Philosophy and Public Affairs
     Mind                                            Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly

A journal for undergrads:
      The Richmond Journal of Philosophy. In our library

Some popular philosophy magazines:
      Philosophy Now. I have copies.
      Philosophers’ Magazine. In our library
      Think. I have copies.

Some other good magazines:
    Atlantic Monthly
    Columbia Journalism Review
    The Economist
    The Humanist
    Ideas on Liberty
    London Review (of Books)
    The National Interest
     National Review
     New York Review (of Books)
     Scientific American
     Skeptical Inquirer
     Skeptic Magazine
     Social Problems
     Utne Reader
     Weekly Standard

Some good newspapers:
    Chicago Tribune
    Christian Science Monitor
    London Times
    New York Times
    Wall Street Journal
    Washington Post

World Wide Web sites—just a few— * have discussion forums:
      Alternative Tentacles:
      American Civil Liberties Union:
      American Library Association:
      Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
      Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
      *Ethics Update: (especially good)
      The Last Days of Socrates: (too cool)
      *Philosophy Now:
      *Philosopher’s Magazine:
      Philosophy Papers Online:
      Religious Tolerance:
      *Undergrad Internet Philosophy Conference:

Reference Works:
     Dictionaries of Philosophy (our library has several)
     Encyclopedia of Biomedical Ethics
     Encyclopedia Britannica
     Encyclopedia of Philosophy
     The Great Ideas: A Syntopicon
     Oxford English Dictionary
     Philosopher's Index (the best index, and it‟s online)

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