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Today’s Lecture:

Americans Revolt

Number:

6

Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements • Governance from England • The Great Quandary Begins

• America Becomes Independent

Class Announcements

slides -- The slides are up

Class Announcements

big football weekend -- make sure you get through it ok

Questions?

Governance from England

the map -- we talked last time about the colonies …

Governance from England

structure -- let’s examine the structure

THE KING

THE PARLIAMENT

King’s Veto

Privy Council

Colonial Local Government
1/25/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 9

Governance from England

Mercantilism commercial trading network -- England has a vast merchant marine/superiority on the high seas. (Her ships trade in goods all over the globe) (a central repository for trade and distribution through Europe) -- she needs two things: • more cash crops coming through her ports.

• more agricultural produce (land is sparse)

Governance from England

Mercantilism commercial trading network -- America is to supply the agricultural goods that England needs and to make her ports have more products -- As a general rule, colonies are only allowed to trade with or through their mother country (key point)

Governance from England

Mercantilism Setting up the Mercantile Regime • Shipping Act (1600s) – must use British ships • Navigation Acts – early 1700s.

Governance from England

Mercantilism Setting up the Mercantile Regime -- no banks (new institutions) -- no arms industry.

-- no manufacturing
Otherwise, England left us alone Benign neglect George III will try to change this

The Great Quandary Begins
England and the French/Indian War -- The war will be an extremely important development for colonial America. It will lay the groundwork for independence -- France tried to challenge England’s claims to certain areas of north America -- Map ..

Original claim

“Ohio Country”

Travel Up the Mississippi Travel Down the Ohio Travel Down the Mississippi

Louisiana for King Louie

Disputed

Louisiana for King Louie

The Great Quandary Begins
England and the French/Indian War

-- We don’t have time to go over what happened in this war.
Basic Point: -- England is going to kick France out of North America

-- Colonists are going to prosper from the war
• given comfortable allowances (payments) to fight the war side-by-side with the British • This is the period of time when the colonial economy is doing especially well (ordinary farmers getting luxury items)

The Great Quandary Begins
England and the French/Indian War Feelings of Good will toward the British • Colonists had aided their mother country • Psychology -- Felt like they were partners with Britain, not surrogates of it

The Great Quandary Begins
England and the French/Indian War The Truth: “Americans” were provincial • The term “American” meant (or connoted) a sort of provincial creature of the realm • compare – the term “democracy” -- Americans were thought of as being lesser to their British superiors and overlords

The Great Quandary Begins
Britain’s Great English Empire -- After Britain kicked the French out of North America, her empire was HUGE (map)

ENGLAND

The English Empire

-- England’s imperial domination -- strongest empire on the earth -- their holdings match that of Rome

-- they have trading colonies all over the globe
-- India, Canada, West Indies, New Zealand -- think of all the places that speak English as a language today
Note: Some of these possessions arrive later in the 1800s and early 1900s.
1/25/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 22

-- much more than German, France, Russian, etc. (but not Spanish?)

The Great Quandary Begins
Britain’s Interesting Political Problems -- Staggering national debt, and an empire that needs a hell of a police force “tax and spending” problem -- George III ascends the throne at the age of 23. Question: Question: What problems do you think Who do you think is going What does George III do to Britain faces in the wake of to solve those problems? try and solve these her great victory of the problems? French?

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Get control over the empire -- prior administrations had run the territories too loosely -- administrative, top-down solutions

-- let’s take a look at two important solutions …

No Settlement in the Ohio Country!
(1763 Proclamation) Pull the troops back
Sending most home

Raise Taxes!
Note the apparent reasonableness of the Policing idea: Violence in the Ohio 1. Colonists theoretically Country benefitted from the war and Moneyits outcome; 2. They were not paying as much in taxes as those subjects in England
1/25/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 25

Keep a substantial policing force -more than ever before

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Colonial Reaction to the 1763 Proclamation •The whole purpose of the war was keeping that area •Colonies had fought in the war and wanted to keep going westward

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Colonial Reaction – the taxes -- This is where all hell breaks lose Molasses Tax -- Clever politics: lowers the rate but provides for enforcement (smuggling had existed before)

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Colonial Reaction – the taxes Stamp Act -- This is the one that causes all of the major problems

-- (explain the scope of the tax)
-- direct versus “indirect” taxes -- revolts (quote)

Colonial Mobs – The people appointed to collect the tax were beaten and tarred and feathered. Serious injuries. The lieutenant governor of Massachusetts’ house was demolished by a mob. Franklin’s own house came under serious threat. There were people in PA who knew that Franklin was in London and assumed that, because the tax passed, Franklin had supported it (or was affiliated with it). An angry mob gathered around Franklin's home. Debbi had to get friends who had guns to protect the house – a counter mob developed. The crises passed. Source – H.W. Brands (paraphrased)

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Colonial Reaction – the taxes Boycott -- The colonies do something extremely intelligent – they organize a boycott of British goods -- hurts British capitalists in their pocket books, and it works! -- the Stamp Act is repealed

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Colonial Reaction – the taxes Franklin in London
(explain who he is)

-- Ben Franklin is in London trying to sort out a compromise

-- Franklin loved London (culture, libraries, majesty)
-- Franklin had earlier been to England to try to get the King to exercise MORE control over the colonies. (explain PA Indian problems) -- now he is going to represent the colonies before the Crown regarding the tax issues

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Colonial Reaction – the taxes Franklin in London -- Franklin’s chief theory: the “Golden Egg” theory.

(explain & then quote)

Franklin’s Golden Egg Theory –

The Great Quandary Begins

Franklin saw the British empire as the appropriate home for the The solutions of He knew American colonies.George III that the colonies were growing in population exponentially. Every generation the population doubled. Colonial Reaction – the taxes He knew that someday the colonies would be larger than Britain. So, within a couple of generations, America would be stronger. It would Franklin in London have more land, more people and even a greater standard of living. But -- Franklin’s chief theory: the “Golden Egg”happen within the still, Franklin believed that this growth could theory. British Empire so long as the Crown realized that this is where (explain & then they could see the colonies as the new Britain, Britain’s future was. Ifquote) Philadelphia as the New London, they would treat it differently. Franklin envisioned a union of equals between Britain and the colonies. There was a model for this: Scotland and England were equals within the United Kingdom. Let’s extend this to America. It is fair to say that Franklin was an enthusiast of the British Empire. Source: H.W. Brands (paraphrased)

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Colonial Reaction – the taxes Franklin in London -- Franklin’s chief theory: the “Golden Egg” theory.

(explain & then quote)
-- Franklin’s chief negotiating position: indirect rather than direct taxes (seemed like reasonable advice)

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Colonial Reaction – the taxes Townsend Duties & Declaratory Acts -- Following Franklin’s advice, England passes the Townsend Duties -- (new taxes exports and imports, and expanding the list of goods on the navigation acts)

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Colonial Reaction – the taxes Townsend Duties & Declaratory Acts -- But it doesn’t work – Americans still revolt.

-- They re-impose their boycott
-- “Boston Massacre” (mention John Adams) -- Finally, the straw that breaks the camel’s back: the “tea party”

The Great Quandary Begins
The solutions of George III Colonial Reaction – the taxes Franklin Becomes and American -- It is at this point that Ben Franklin finally sees himself as “American” rather than as an Englishman The reason why is because of what happens to him in England. He is scolded by the British ministry for having provided unsuccessful advice (and for leaking certain letters to radicals in Massachusetts) (quotes)

The Great Quandary Begins
Franklin is Scolded – Franklin was hauled before the British Privy Council on January in 1774, shortlyReaction – the taxesbirthday. For more than an hour Colonial after Franklin’s 68th Franklin was required to stand as the solicitor general, the chief Franklin King George, American prosecutor of Becomes andvilified him in the most unflattering of terms, calling him a traitor, an ingrate, that he had not the interests of -- It is at this point that interests of the colonists, himself as Great Britain in mind nor theBen Franklin finally sees only his own “American” who were present Englishman interests. People rather than as anat this session were stunned – no newspaper wouldwhy is because of what happens to him in He The reason print what happened. Franklin was humiliated. stood there quietly and didn’t say anything.

The solutions of George III

England. He is scolded by the British ministry for having provided unsuccessful advice [Source: H.W. Brands -- paraphrased](and for leaking certain letters to radicals in Massachusetts) (quotes)

Franklin is Scolded –

The Great Quandary Begins
Franklin believed that this solicitor had no right to treat him this way. He came to realize that he was being criticized ultimately for being an American. This was the moment of decision for Franklin that he The solutions of George III began to see himself as American more than English. All this time he hadColonial Reactionand now he saw that he, too, was part of a been an insider, – the taxes distinct identity that could not fit into the British psyche in any way otherFranklin Becomes and American than pejorative.

-- It records that “I that Ben disgusted from sees himself as Franklin is at this pointwas much Franklin finally the ministerial side by “American” rather than as an Englishman courage, religion, many base reflections on American understanding, etc., in which we were treated with the utmost The reason why is because of what happens to him in contempt as the lowest of mankind, almost of a different species of England. He is scolded by honesty was abused by the House Britain. But particularly, Americanthe British ministry for having provided asserted that advice (and for leaking certain letters of Lords, who unsuccessful we were all naves and wanted only by to radicals in Massachusetts) this dispute to avoid paying our debts; and that if we had any sense of equity or justice, we should offer payment of the tea.” (quotes)
[Source: H.W. Brands -- paraphrased]

The Great Quandary Begins
Marshall Law and Bloodshed -- Parliament will pass the Intolerable Acts and place Boston under Marshall law -- British will get involved in skirmishes in Lexington and Concord and at Breed’s Hill (Bunker’s Hill)

America Becomes Independent
“extra-legal” assemblies -- At first, they meet in taverns. -- they are called committees of correspondence -- they start corresponding with other committees who are doing the same thing in sister colonies

America Becomes Independent
“Illegal” assemblies Pamphleting -- Writing down “Declarations of Rights,” etc. -- another thing they do is organize and police the boycotts.

America Becomes Independent
“Illegal” assemblies Continental Congress -- The next major step will be to form a Congress. -- the resistance committees sent representatives to meet in Philadelphia. This was known as the “Continental Congress”

America Becomes Independent
“Illegal” assemblies Continental Congress local rule -- colonists only want “local rule” -- officially, they want the relationship that England has with Scotland (economic partnership; we decide our own tax rates and local governance).

America Becomes Independent
Declaration of Independence -- Symbolic document -- Needed to secure loans from France -- Jefferson picked to write it

-- slight accident [Franklin, Adams]
-- Jefferson was young -- poetic or elegant way of writing

America Becomes Independent
Declaration of Independence (Natural law prose or vernacular)
When Law Goes Wrong –

“When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of and of and of separate and equal station to which the laws of nature nature nature’s nature’s god entitle god entitle them …” them …”

America Becomes Independent
Declaration of Independence -- Plagiarism (Locke and George Mason) -- Exaggeration Inalienable liberty –
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable unalienable among these are Life, Liberty and the the pursuit Rights; that Rights; that among these are Life, Libertythe pursuit of that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of among these are Life, Liberty and and among these are Life, Liberty and Happiness. of Happiness. Happiness.

George Mason

America Becomes Independent
Declaration of Independence
The Lockean Solution –

-- The same exact reason John Locke used to dump the King will be used by the colonists to dump the British.

“That Nothing other than Whig revolutionary thinkingamong men, -- to secure these rights, governments are instituted occurring deriving their justcentury later. the consent of the governed; that, in America a powers from whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, Similar colonial documents to alter or to abolish it, and to -- it is the right of the people institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, • state its powers in and organizing constitutions such form, as to them shall seem most likely to •effect their safety and happiness.” John Adams


				
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