RATA _Read Aloud Think Loud_ by pengxiuhui

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									RATA (Read Aloud Think Loud)


The following bullet points describe the purpose of using RATA as well as some points
to consider when implementing.

       RATA is a strategy that allows a teacher using it to model the thought processes
        and strategies involved when reading.
       RATA allows students to hear and see what good readers do and think when they
        encounter text.
       RATA allows students to hear and see the application of different reading
        strategies connected to specific texts or portions of texts.
       During RATA, the teacher reads aloud a short text or portion of text.
       The teacher also shares aloud the thoughts, questions, connections, and/or other
        reading strategies used during the reading.

Points to Consider

       It is helpful to display the text example used during RATA on an overhead
        projector. This allows the teacher to mark questions, important ideas or details,
        and/or sketch pictures or figures that help make meaning from the text. The
        student can then see the connection between what the reader is thinking aloud
        and the direct text connections.
       It is also helpful to provide the students with a copy of the text example used
        during RATA. This allows the student to copy down the markings that the
        teacher makes during RATA. This provides the student with the opportunity to
        see, hear, and write the connections between what the reader is thinking aloud
        and the direct text connections.
       After adequate teacher modeling, students can begin to practice doing RATA.
       Allowing students to practice RATA provides them with the opportunity to think
        about their metacognitive processes during reading as well practice good reading
        strategies.
       Allowing students to practice RATA also provides the teacher an opportunity to
        assess student progress with good reading habits, possible misconceptions about
        text and/or text concepts, as well success levels with vocabulary within the text.

Habits of a Good Reader

The following bullet points describe different habits good readers use when reading.

    Making Connections:
     As readers encounter texts, they frequently make connections between that text
      and previous experiences (background knowledge/schema).
     Text to Text (T:T) Connections - The text may remind readers of something they
      have read, heard, or seen in another text, be it a written, video or audio version of
      text.
   Text to Self (T:S) Connections – The text may remind readers of something they
    have previously experienced in their own life. This kind of connection might
    include characters, settings, events, or ideas and topics that are similar to people,
    places, events, etc. within the reader’s life.
   Text to World (T:W) Connections – The text may remind readers of something
    they have noticed or experienced in the world such as themes and messages,
    events, settings, etc.

Visualizing:
     As readers encounter texts, they frequently form mental images or pictures
        about what they are reading. They may visualize characters, settings, events,
        or things being discussed in the text. This strategy helps students to connect
        their previous experience (background knowledge/schema) to new
        information as well as form a context for this new information. Visualizing is
        like creating a “movie” in your mind as you read a text.

Questioning:
     As readers encounter texts, they frequently formulate questions about what
       they are reading. They may ask questions about characters, their motivations,
       reactions, etc., settings, events and/or topics discussed within the text. These
       questions cause readers to re-read text or give the reader a purpose for
       further reading. Some questions may not have an answer explicitly located
       within the text. These kinds of questions cause readers to make inferences,
       determine importance, and synthesize. Questions readers ask do not always
       have a specific right or wrong answer, but they encourage further thought
       about the text read.

Predicting:
     As readers encounter texts, they frequently make predictions about upcoming
        events, outcomes, or statements in the text. When making predictions,
        readers use clues/information found within the text and their own previous
        experiences (background knowledge/schema). Predictions create anticipation
        and give readers purpose for further reading.

Inferring:
      Inferring is reading between the lines of the written text. As readers
        encounter texts, they frequently draw conclusions and make generalizations
        about the text they are reading. Although inferences are not explicitly stated
        within the text, they can be supported with specific evidence from the text.
        Readers use clues/information from the text and their own previous
        experiences (background knowledge/schema) to make inferences. Good
        readers interact with the text creating meaning from the information the
        author provides in the text and the information they bring to the text.

Determining Importance:
           Determining importance is identifying the essence of a text. As readers
            encounter texts, they frequently must decide which terms, topics, ideas, or
            plot elements that are the most important to the overall text. Determining
            importance helps a reader synthesize the information presented within a text
            and to make decisions as to what parts of a text deserve the most attention.

   Synthesizing:
        Synthesizing is the most complex of the comprehension strategies. As
           readers encounter texts, they frequently they make sense or meaning of the
           text by connecting their own previous experiences (background
           knowledge/schema) to new information within the text. This process of
           assimilation forms a new or more complete idea. Synthesis occurs when a
           reader creates a new perspective based on their reading. Synthesizing goes
           beyond organizing and summarizing to create new ideas or achieve new
           insights. Synthesis is a reader’s “a-ha” moment.


Examples of RATA

        Science
       I.     Text example
Example from EarthComm by Smith and Southard, It’s About Time, 2002.

Geographic features, like mountain ranges, lakes, and oceans, affect the climate of a
region. Mountains can have a dramatic effect on precipitation in nearby areas. The
windward side of a mountain chain often receives much more rainfall than the leeward
side. As wind approaches the mountains, it is forced upwards. When the air rises, it cools,
and water vapor condenses into clouds which produce precipitation. Conversely, the
leeward side of a mountain range is in what is called a rain shadow. It often receives
very little rain. That is because the air has already lost much of its moisture on the
windward side.

         II.    RATA
Teacher says: “Example from Earth Comm by Smith and Southard, It’s About Time,
2002. Earth Comm. That sounds like a text book. I can make a text to text connection
there.” (Teacher underlines Earth Comm) “I am probably going to need to really focus
and maybe re-read some sections to make sure that I get all of the important
information.”

Teacher says: “Geographic features, like mountain ranges, lakes, and oceans, affect the
climate of a region. Hmm. Geographic features (teacher underlines geographic features)
The prefix geo reminds me of geography and geology. I believe that geo must mean
earth. Features are like characteristics of someone’s face, so I am going to infer that
geographic features have to do with characteristics of the earth’s face or surface.
Mountains and lakes and oceans are certainly characteristics of the earth’s face or
surface. The text says these features actually affect, which means to impact or maybe
even change, a region’s climate. (Teacher circles climate) I have heard the word climate
in social studies and on the weather channel. I am making a text to self connection there.
I wonder if climate has to do with weather. (Teacher writes a questions mark over the
word climate)”

Teacher says: Mountains can have a dramatic effect on precipitation in nearby areas.
(Teacher underlines dramatic and draws a line between the root, drama and the suffix, tic)
I know the root word drama has to do with a play or acting out. I have heard my students
use the word drama when referring to a situation that is over-emphasized. You can really
see it or hear it. Dramatic must mean something that can really be seen or felt. That’s
another text to self connection. (Teacher underlines precipitation) I have also heard the
word precipitation in social studies and the on the weather channel. I am not sure what it
means. I better mark it with a question mark to remind myself to try and determine the
meaning as I read.”

Teacher says: “The windward side of a mountain chain often receives much more rainfall
than the leeward side. Let’s see, windward is in bold print, so that means I can determine
this is probably important. (Teacher underlines windward) I am not sure what windward
or leeward means. Let me look at the root wards and suffixes. (Teacher draws a line
between wind and ward. Teacher than draws a shape that looks like a mountain and an
arrow pointing to the left side of the mountain. Teacher writes the word wind over the
arrow) I know what wind is. I have seen ward in words like toward and forward. Both of
these words have to do with direction. I am going to infer that ward here has to do with
direction. I am going to go on and further infer that windward has to do with the direction
the wind is traveling, probably as it approaches the mountain. Maybe, it is the side of the
mountain that the wind hits first.”

Teacher says: “So the windward side receives more rain. (Teacher underlines receives
more rain)Teacher draws three to dour drops of rain above the word wind on the
mountain sketch) As wind approaches the mountains, it is forced upwards. (Teacher
draws an arrow that now points up the side of the mountain in the sketch) When the air
rises, it cools, and water vapor condenses into clouds which produce precipitation.
(Teacher draws a cloud at the top left hand corner of the mountain sketch) Water vapor
condenses into clouds which produce precipitation. I wonder if precipitation means rain.
Water that comes from clouds is often called rain.”

Teacher says: “Conversely, the leeward side of a mountain range is in what is called a
rain shadow. It often receives very little rain. Conversely is not a word I familiar with.
Now the word leeward is in bold print. (Teacher underlines leeward) That bold print
helps me determine that leeward is an important term, too. Earlier, I inferred that the
ward had to do with direction. I can’t connect lee to other words that I know. Looking at
my sketch I see I labeled the left hand side of the mountain as the windward side. Does
that mean that the other side is the leeward side (Teacher writes leeward on the right hand
side of the mountain sketch) I am going to infer that leeward means the opposite of the
windward side of the mountain. Does that mean that the word conversely has to do with
opposite? I am going to infer that conversely means that conversely here means as
opposed to or different than. That word shows us that windward and leeward are on
opposite sides of the mountain or they are directly opposite or different than each other.
(Teacher underlines conversely and puts a question mark over the word).”

Teacher says: “The leeward side of a mountain range is in what is called a rain shadow. It
often receives very little rain. (Teacher underlines the words rain shadow and receives
very little rain) The bold print at rain shadow helps me determine this term is important.
(Teacher draws one or two drops of rain on the right hand side of the mountain sketch)
This side doesn’t get as much rain. The text said that as air rises on the windward side, it
cools and forms clouds which produce precipitation. It also says that is because the air
has already lost much of its moisture on the windward side. Looking at my sketch and the
text I can determine a few things. The text says that the windward side receives more rain
than the leeward side. It also says that clouds form on the windward side and these clouds
produce precipitation. This helps me infer that precipitation does refer to rain. (Teacher
points at the sentence that says mountains can have a dramatic effect on precipitation)
Looking back at the sentence that says mountains can have a dramatic effect on
precipitation I can do a few things. I understand that mountains can cause the wind to rise
and release its moisture in the form of rain on one side of a mountain. I also understand
that this mountain has caused the wind to lose most of its moisture so that the other side
doesn’t get much rain. That helps me understand that mountains really can have a
dramatic effect on the climate of a region.”


            ELA:

   I.     Text Example:
Example from Out of the Dust by Karen Hesse, 1997.

Migrants
We’ll be back when the rain comes,
they say,
pulling away with all they own,
straining the springs of their motor cars.
Don’t forget us.


And so they go,
Fleeing the blowing dust,
Fleeing the fields of brown-tipped wheat
barely ankle high,
and sparse as the hair on a dog’s belly.

   II.       RATA

Teacher says: “ Example from Out of the Dust by Karen Hesse, 1997. Migrants (Teacher
underlines the word Migrants) I have heard that word in social studies before and on the
news. I am making a text to text and a text to world connection. It reminds me of the
word immigrants and immigration. I know that the words immigrants and immigration
have to do with people moving from one place to another. I think I have heard the term
migrants used in connection with the word farmers. I wonder if migrant farmers are
farmers who move from place to another.”

Teachers says: “We’ll be back when the rain comes, they say. I wonder why they would
say we will come back when the rain comes. (Teacher writes a question mark over the
first line) Pulling away with all they own, straining the springs of their motor cars. I can
infer that this must not be talking about a vacation because most people don’t wait until
the rain comes to go there. The text says that they have everything they own in their cars.
I wonder if the text is referring to migrant farmers. (Teacher draws an arrow connecting
the word they in the second line to the word migrant in the title. Teacher then draws a
question mark by the arrow) The title lets me know that the poem probably has to do with
migrants and I am going to predict that migrant farmers move from place to place with
their belongings in their car. I am still not sure about waiting for the rain, though. Looks
like migrant farmers would not be able to work in the rain.”

Teacher says: “Don’t forget us. (Teacher draws a question by the word us in the last line).
I wonder what they mean by that statement. Who do they want to remember them? And
so they go, fleeing the blowing dust, fleeing the fields of brown-tipped wheat. I know that
to flee means to run away from, often in fear. Why would the migrant farmers run away
in fear from the blowing dust and fields of brown-tipped wheat? (Teacher draws a
question mark by the words flee)”

Teacher says: “I like the way the author uses vivid verbs like blowing and descriptive
adjectives like brown-tipped wheat. (Teacher underlines the words blowing and brown-
tipped) That helps me to make connections to things that I have seen before. I can
actually visualize dust blowing around in air and I can visualize the fields of wheat stalks
with brown colored ends sticking up into the air. Look at the last two lines, barely ankle
high and sparse as the hair on a dog’s belly. I can make text to self connections to fields
of plants that have only grown as high as my ankle. Again, that connection helps me
picture or visualize what that looks like. I can also make a text to self connection to the
hair on a dog’s belly. All of the pet dogs liked to roll over on their back so that we could
scratch their belly. I can visualize those dogs rolled over on their back with their feet in
the air waiting for us to pet their belly. Their belly never had near as much hair as the rest
of their body. I am going to infer then that the word sparse must mean not much.
(Teacher underlines the word sparse. Teacher then writes sparse to the side and an equal
sign followed by the words not much)”

Teacher says: “Again, I ask myself why would migrant farmers run or flee from dust and
not much wheat. Looking back at the first stanza I remember that the speaker or speakers
of the poem say we’ll be back when the rain comes. (Teacher points to the first line of the
poem) I can make text to world connection and say that wheat would need rain to grow
higher than my ankle. If a field of wheat didn’t get enough rain then I suppose it would
be sparse. Maybe, the migrant farmers are moving away from an area that is not getting
enough rain. That is why the wheat is sparse. If that is true then the farmers wouldn’t
really have anything to take care of or pick, which means they probably wouldn’t be
making any money. I am going to infer that the migrant farmers are moving away from
these wheat fields because there is not enough rain. I predict that they are going to
another place to try and find work. The first line, we’ll be back when the rain returns
helps me predict that maybe, the farmers will return to these fields if the rain returns.”




              Math

        I.     Text Example:
Example from Discovering Algebra by Murdock, Kamischke, and Kamischke, Key
Curriculum Press, 2007.

So far you have worked with linear equations in intercept form, y + a + bx. When you
know a line’s slope and y- intercept, you can write its equation directly in intercept form.
But what if you don’t know the y- intercept? One method that you might remember from
your homework is to work backward with the slope until you find the y- intercept. But
you can also use the slope formula to find the equation of a line when you know the slope
of the line and the coordinates of only one point on the line.

         II.     RATA

Teacher says: “Example from Discovering Algebra by Murdock, Kamischke, and
Kamischke, Key Curriculum Press, 2007. (Teacher underlines Discovering Algebra) That
sounds like a text book. That means I am going to have really focus my attention and
look for the important information. Usually, math text books include problems that I will
be asked to solve. I better look for details about the problem as I read.”

Teacher says: “So far you have worked with linear equations in intercept form, y+a+bx.
(Teacher underlines linear and draws a line between the root word line and the suffix
are). I recognize the root word line in this word. (Teacher draws a line over to the side)
The word equations reminds me of word like equal and equality. That is a text to text
connection, but I still have a question about what a linear equation really means. (Teacher
writes a question mark over the words linear equation)”

Teacher says: “When you know a line’s slope and y intercept you can write its equation
directly in intercept form. (Teacher underlines intercept) I recognize the prefix inter. That
prefix is also in words like intersection and interception. I know that an intersection is
like when two roads cross. I also know that an interception can occur during a football
game. The quarterback is here (teacher draws a dot) and he wants to throw the ball to a
receiver here. (Teacher draws another dot up and to the left of the first dot. Teacher then
draws a dashed line between the first and second dots) An interception occurs when
another opposing player crosses between the quarterback and the receiver. He catches the
ball before it gets to the receiver. (Teacher draws another dot to the lower right hand side
of the quarterback. Teacher then draws a line that intersects the dashed line between the
quarterback and the receiver. Teacher draws a dark dot at the point that the two lines
cross) The opposing player intercepts the ball. I am going to infer that intercept form has
to do with the point that two lines cross.”

Teacher says: “I also can make a text to self connection with the word slope. I have been
to a ski slope before. I know that slope refers to the hill that you would ski down.
(Teacher traces the line that shows the interception highlighting the downward movement
this time) This reminds me of another text to self connection. In math class before, I have
seen a graph that looks like this figure. (Teacher draws in the x and y axis around the
figure of the interception.

								
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