Evaluation of Wheels to Work She by pengxiuhui

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									EVALUATION OF WHEELS TO
WORK SHEMES


Final Report

April 2005




 Prepared for:            Prepared by:


 The Countryside Agency   Steer Davies Gleave
 John Dower House         28-32 Upper Ground
 Crescent Place           London
 Cheltenham               SE1 9PD
 Gloucestershire
 GL50 3RA                 +44 (0)20 7919 8500
                          www.steerdaviesgleave.com
                                                                  Evaluation of W2W Schemes



Contents                                                                            Page

1.        INTRODUCTION                                                                   1
          Background to Wheels 2 Work schemes                                            1
          Urban-based W2W/W2L schemes                                                    2
          Aim and structure of this Report                                               2
2.        STUDY METHODOLOGY                                                              3
          Case study selection                                                           3
3.        THE PROJECT STORY                                                              7
          Overall aims of W2W schemes                                                    7
          Initiatives offered by W2W schemes                                             7
          Target groups                                                                 11
          Identifying need for the scheme                                               14
          Scheme size and geographical coverage                                         15
4.        SCHEME SET-UP AND OPERATION                                                   17
          Scheme development and who to involve                                         17
          Staffing levels                                                               20
          Health and safety                                                             21
          Insurance issues                                                              24
          Scheme promotion                                                              25
5.        SCHEME OUTCOMES AND BENEFITS                                                  26
          Scheme monitoring                                                             26
          Benefits of W2W                                                               28
          Financial benefits                                                            31
          Views towards W2W                                                             33
6.        KEY ISSUES                                                                    35
          Funding issues                                                                35
          Safety                                                                        38
          Monitoring                                                                    38
          Other schemes under consideration                                             39
          Other lessons learnt from the evaluation                                      39
7.        FUTURE FUNDING OPPORTUINITIES                                                 41
          Main stream funding                                                           44
8.        BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                  51
          Many thanks for your time.                                                    56


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      Many thanks for your time.                                                                             57



TABLES

Table 2.1 Case studies included in the W2W evaluation                                                          4
Table 3.1 Initiatives offered by the W2W schemes evaluated.                                                    8
Table 3.2 Gender split of selected W2W schemes (Statistics from schemes only
          for sample months.                                                                                 10
Table 3.3 Age eligibility criteria and types of placements served                                            11
Table 4.1 Organisations involved in delivery of the W2W schemes                                              19
Table 4.2 Staff involved in scheme delivery                                                                  20
Table 4.3 Equipment provided to W2W clients                                                                  23
Table 4.4 Examples of Insurance Costs for mopeds                                                             24
Table 5.1 Summary of outcomes for selected W2W schemes                                                       27
Table 7.1 W2W: Examples of Potential Sources of Funding                                                      42



APPENDICES

A

Discussion Guides used in Case Study Interviews




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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.             Lack of transport can be a major barrier to people living in rural areas accessing
               training, employment and education opportunities. Young people in particular often
               face a situation where without a job they cannot afford to buy a car or motorcycle, and
               without a vehicle of their own they cannot travel to work or take part in a training
               course or in education. Wheels 2 Work (W2W) and Wheels 2 Learning (W2L)
               schemes aim to break this vicious cycle by offering individuals their own transport for
               a short period until a longer-term solution can be found.

2.             Transport initiatives provided as a part of a W2W/W2L scheme generally comprise:

                     provision of a personal mode of transport to an individual e.g. loan of a moped,
                      electric bike or bicycle; or
                     provision of the means for an individual to make their journey by either public or
                      private transport, the most common initiatives being:
                       a minor grant towards vehicle repairs or an MOT to enable a vehicle to be
                           put back on the road
                       subsidised driving lessons
                       provision of general transport advice

               A small number of schemes also offer other types of assistance, such as taxi services
               and Dial-A-Ride type services.

3.             In December 2004, Steer Davies Gleave was commissioned by the Countryside
               Agency to evaluate twelve W2W/W2L schemes. The aims of the study were to:

                     gather and evaluate detailed evidence from selected W2W schemes;
                     assess and report on the successes and shortcomings of their operational practice;
                     identify the benefits these schemes can bring to the individual and to the wider
                      community; and
                     offer practical advice to increase the effectiveness, financially and operationally,
                      of both individual schemes and the national W2W programme.

4.             Table 1 indicates the W2W/W2L schemes included in the study and the types of
               initiatives which they offer.




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                      TABLE 1: SCHEMES INCLUDED IN THE W2W/W2L EVALUATION AND INITIATIVES
                               OFFERED

                           Name of Scheme                                                                                  Minor repair
                                                                                                    Subsidised               grants/
                                                  Moped        Bicycle          Electric
          Area                                                                                        driving                             Other
                                                   loan         loan           bike loan                                    Emergency
                                                                                                     lessons
                                                                                                                              Fund

Cumbria (Copeland)          Wheels 2 Work           
Devon (West Devon)           Getting There                                                                                        
Durham      (Chester-le-    Chester-le-Street       
Street)                          W2W
Essex (Uttlesford)              Z Bikes             
Lancashire       (Runhaw   Wheels to Learning                                                                                              dial
College)                                                                                                                                   a ride
                                                                                                                                            taxi
                                                                                                                                          service

Norfolk  (and    the            Kickstart                                                                                           
Cambridgeshire Fens)

Dorset (North Dorset)        North Dorset           
                            Scooter Scheme
Northumberland              Tynedale W2W                                                                                                    car
(Tyendale)                                                                                                                                 loan

Nottinghamshire             Wheels 2 Work           
Sheffield                    Bradfield W2W          
Shropshire                  Wheels 2 Work 3                                                                                      
East Surrey                 Wheels 2 Work           
Surrey                     Wheels 2 Learning

            SCHEME CHARACTERISTICS

            5.        For W2W, the moped loan period generally lasts for six months although 12 month
                      loans are offered by some schemes. For W2L, loan periods generally last an academic
                      year i.e. 9 months. All schemes tend to take a flexible approach to the loan, and are
                      willing to extend it for a short period where clear benefits to the client can be
                      demonstrated.

            6.        Schemes require clients to pay a contribution towards the loan, ranging on average
                      between £3 and £10 per week. Some referral agencies, stakeholders and even clients
                      felt that charges were too low in some cases, particularly where schemes charged £5
                      per week or less.

            7.        Mopeds are more popular amongst males due to a concern amongst females of the
                      personal security of mopeds and feelings of vulnerability on the road. In some
                      schemes, this gender imbalance was quite marked. Some schemes had tried to address




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               this imbalance through the offer of other initiatives e.g. driving lessons, electric bikes
               etc.

8.             The majority of schemes cater for young people under 25 years of age, with only 5
               schemes having no upper age limit.

9.             All schemes require clients to have a firm offer of employment/training/further
               education in order to qualify for assistance, although some schemes do encourage
               applications before the placement is secured.

10.            A criterion for acceptance onto all schemes was that there is no suitable alternative
               transport solution available. Clients are encouraged to save for a long term transport
               solution, although the extent to which schemes proactively encouraged this varied.

11.            Scheme size varied considerably, ranging from single districts to whole counties. The
               geographical area covered by schemes was sometimes determined by the objectives
               /remit of funders of the scheme which sometimes meant that the target area did not
               cover all areas where there was a real need for W2W/W2L.

HEALTH AND SAFETY

12.            Although risks to clients and other road users cannot be completely removed, high
               levels of training and instruction are provided to W2W/W2L clients to ensure that
               risks to riders and to other road users are reduced as much as possible. All schemes
               take health and safety issues very seriously at all stages during loan of the moped,
               often providing additional training to that legally required in respect of Compulsory
               Basic Training (CBT) and providing good support to clients throughout the loan.
               Some schemes also work in partnership with the local police, for instance, in the
               delivery of safety events for clients.

13.            All schemes provide riders with safety equipment for the loan. However, the
               equipment provided varied across schemes with some schemes providing a helmet and
               reflective band, with others also providing a jacket, gloves and waterproof trousers.
               Consequently, costs for provision of this equipment ranged between £60 and £180 per
               client.

14.            Most schemes insured their mopeds via Zurich, with premiums varying between £280
               and £375 per moped.

15.            The majority of schemes considered that word of mouth was the best form of
               promotion of W2W/W2L schemes. Some schemes did actively promote schemes
               through production of promotional materials and, for example, roadshows at colleges,
               whilst others did little in the way of active promotion.

SCHEME BENEFITS

Benefits to clients

16.            The obvious benefit of W2W/W2L schemes is that they provide the means of
               accessing employment, education and training opportunities; opportunities that an
               individual may not otherwise have. In some cases they can also help young people to


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          retain their employment/ training places. There was an over-riding consensus,
          however, that W2W is about much more than just providing the means to access work,
          education and training opportunities. The schemes also help clients to increase their
          participation in the community and to maintain an active social life, which helps to
          improve opportunities and to enhance life chances. It also provides clients with:

             Greater independence and improved social skills – W2W offers young people
              independence which can be much greater than that offered by other initiatives
              which aim to increase mobility e.g. taxi vouchers, community transport etc.
             Increased confidence and self-esteem – there is „kudos‟ attached to owning a
              moped amongst many young people, increasing respect amongst peers which in
              turn can help to improve self-esteem. Also, knowing that they are now a
              „contributor‟ towards the economy rather than a recipient of benefits and other
              resources, can also help to increase self esteem amongst clients. Some
              coordinators suggested that passing the CBT was itself a confidence booster to
              many clients.
             Responsibility – for many clients accepted on to W2W, taking ownership of a
              moped is the first time that they have really had to look after and take
              responsibility for something. As well as the responsibility of maintaining the
              moped, there are also responsibilities associated with careful and safe moped
              riding and the discipline of saving up regularly to purchase their own vehicle at
              the end of the loan period. This can also encourage a longer term saving habit.
             Improved road awareness and road skills – riding a moped improves
              awareness of safety on the roads, knowledge of the highway code and road signs,
              and can make it easier to learn to drive. Being a moped rider can also make
              people (as car drivers) more considerate of other more vulnerable road users
              (moped riders, cyclists etc).
             Greater opportunities – W2W helps young people to look for opportunities
              outside of their immediate area, which can lead to increased aspirations and
              broader horizons.

Benefits to agencies and other organisations

17.       W2W can help a range of organisations/agencies meet their objectives and targets e.g.
          W2W schemes can help Connexions to achieve their NEET targets; in Cumbria, 6 out
          of the 21 participants on the W2W scheme were in the NEET category prior to being
          accepted on the W2W scheme.

18.       In Surrey, the W2L scheme helped remove one of the barriers for staying on in
          education; Surrey has a sizeable drop-out rate for 16+ education. W2W can also help
          meet local authority targets e.g. in Surrey the local authority considered that
          W2W/W2L helped the Council achieve its social inclusion objectives.

19.       By being involved in W2W, some referral agencies can benefit from offering a wider
          package of initiatives to help people get into work or training.

20.       W2W can also help in the development of relationships between organisations which
          would not traditionally work together.




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Benefits to other groups

                     Employers benefit from access to a larger labour pool and from being able to
                      find people to fill posts more quickly.
                     Colleges benefit from more individuals being able to access their courses.
                     Police – can help to build links with young people through W2W, with W2W
                      also providing good promotion opportunities to demonstrate their work with the
                      community.
                     Local moped dealers, CBT providers, garages, driving schools and
                      businesses can benefit by supplying vehicles and services to provide training and
                      maintenance. Once made, this relationship needs no advertising and can provide
                      a steady stream of work, with regular and reliable payment of invoices. W2W
                      requirements for these services can often even out existing seasonal variations to
                      the business‟ benefit. The credibility of being involved with a scheme of this
                      type may also be useful to service providers in securing other work
                     Hosting organisations can benefit from new staff, particularly where these
                      dynamic individuals can offer other support to the organisation in addition to
                      management of the W2W scheme.

FINANCIAL BENEFITS

21.            W2W can turn an individual around from being a „drain‟ on the economy to being a
               contributor towards the economy, paying national insurance, buying petrol etc.:

Cost of benefits paid to the unemployed

22.            Current rates of Job Seekers Allowance are:

                     £33.50 per week for 16 to 17 year olds
                     £44.05 per week for 18 to 24 year olds
                     £55.65 per week for those over 25 years.

               Over a six month period this could amount to costs of between £871 and £1,444.56 for
               a 26 week loan or £1306.50 and £2170.35 for a 9 month loan.

               Income support may also be payable, dependent on individual circumstances.

               Council tax benefit: up to 100% may be payable, dependent on personal
               circumstances.

               Housing benefit: up to 100% may be payable dependent on personal circumstances.

23.            The costs provided above are indicative but costs in benefits can amount to over £639 1
               per month for an unemployed person dependent upon individual circumstances. In
               addition, other benefits can include assistance in the cost of prescriptions, opticians
               etc. There is also loss of earnings and associated NI and tax contributions to the

1
    Assumes: Average council tax bill is £967 i.e. £80.58 per month (www.odpm.gov.uk). Average rent is £368 per
       month i.e. £84.92 per week (www.odpm.gov.uk). This is based on an average of the following: Assured
       Shorthold (£526pm); Assured (£417pm); Council (£235pm); Registered Social Landlords (£293pm). JSA is
       £44.05 per week (for 18 – 24 year olds)



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          economy as well as overhead costs associated with Jobcentre Plus and other agency
          staff dealing with the unemployed.

Costs of loaning mopeds

24.       A proposal submitted by the Countryside Agency to DWP in 2004 cited an average
          cost of £1910 per six-month moped loan, or £1192 for a loan by schemes offering a
          transport solution not including a moped loan. This compares to payment of benefits
          of up to £3834 for the same six-month period based on figures above i.e. a potential
          saving of £1924.

KEY ISSUES
Funding

25.       The problem of securing continuation funding is a key issue for many schemes.
          Across all schemes, the real funding issue is securing revenue rather than capital
          funding. Schemes generally have relatively easy access to capital funding for moped
          purchase from a range of sources. Some co-ordinators are responsible for putting
          together funding bids as well as managing and co-ordinating the day-to-day operation
          of their W2W scheme. This can be an extremely time consuming and frustrating
          process, often for securing relatively small amounts of money. This takes co-
          ordinators away from their real work of getting the mopeds out on loan to young
          people which, consequently, can result in mopeds sitting idle in depots/workshops.

26.       Problems can arise when the value of funding provided by organisations is actually
          less than that originally pledged.

27.       Sourcing European funding can be difficult and time consuming.

28.       Delays in sourcing continuation funding for follow-on schemes can also result in a
          temporary break in the scheme as funding is secured or in the worse case scenario, the
          scheme has to end completely. Even the most mature schemes have faced funding
          difficulties, highlighting the problems in securing financial sustainability of schemes,
          even in the long term.

29.       The level of funding that can be secured can also determine the geographical scope of
          the scheme and the number of mopeds used, which leads to a resource-led rather than
          demand-led scheme.

30.       The level of support from Connexions, LSCs and Jobcentre Plus, particularly
          financially, varied across the country. There were concerns that securing funding
          from referral agencies could however, lead to unwelcome quotas being established for
          those agencies. Also, reliance on a number of referral agencies would increase
          administration costs for schemes e.g. in terms of multiple invoicing, and retrospective
          payment could also cause cashflow problems.

31.       One of the problems faced by co-ordinators is the uncertainty of what different
          regional funding pots can be used for as Connexions, Jobcentre Plus and LSCs all
          have monies that are left to the discretion of the regions as to the priorities for which
          they will be used. In one area, the Jobcentre Plus Advisor‟s Discretionary Fund was



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               used to purchase safety equipment (helmets etc), fund CBT and even support moped
               loan payments, but other schemes have had no success in securing such funding via
               this route.

32.            Connexions and Jobcentre Plus need to realise that W2W will improve the
               comprehensiveness of their service, yet they should not rely on other organisations to
               fund this. One scheme raised the issue however, that schemes hosted by e.g.
               Connexions cannot access certain funds as they are not a registered charity. It was
               suggested that in these circumstances schemes may need to „second‟ vehicles to
               organisations if they want to secure funding. Jobcentre Plus in one of the regions
               stated that their access to funding was becoming increasingly restricted, suggesting
               that it is not only W2W schemes who will struggle to obtain continuation funding.

33.            Schemes highlighted that in order to secure certainty of W2W projects, Service Level
               Agreements with agencies are required. However, one co-ordinator highlighted that if
               funding was secured centrally via, for example, DWP, W2W could become a „right‟
               for individuals rather than a privilege, which could make it harder to turn down
               applicants who were not deemed suitable for the scheme. It was considered that being
               an independent body does make scheme administration easier in that respect and in
               light of this, employment by a County Council department such as social services or
               community transport may be preferable.

34.            It was considered that although organisations are generally supportive of W2W, more
               PR is needed in order to persuade stakeholders to buy into the initiative. A central
               fund is needed and to achieve this it is necessary to sell the concept to politicians at a
               central level.

35.            The inflexibility of some funding sources had also caused problems in some cases.

36.            There is an opportunity for RDAs to provide funding for W2W schemes. Funding via
               RDAs would help to remove existing problems in respect of boundary issues;
               applicants are often excluded from schemes because they live outside the W2W area
               which can be a relatively small area. Region-wide delivery via RDAs would also
               bring economies of scale.

37.            Section 106 funding can also be used to support W2W schemes.

38.            One scheme suggested that it would be useful if a funder could make up the difference
               of the cost of operation of each moped loaned out at the end of each year. For
               instance, if £200 is generated in loan income per year and the mopeds cost £500 per
               moped to operate, the funder could make up the £300 shortfall. An „overall pot‟
               would be needed to claim down this money.

39.            Some schemes are considering expanding their services to provide further income
               streams, for example, Tynedale RTP is considering funding the Tynedale W2W
               coordinator to train as a driving instructor; the scheme is also looking into potentially
               loaning their cars to community organisations or to employers/communities for car
               share.




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40.       Commercial sponsorship had been considered by some schemes although very little
          had been secured in practice.
Safety

41.       A number of schemes would like to make additional training available to users,
          although budget shortages do not generally permit this.

42.       The need for CBT to be undertaken in areas where the moped will actually be ridden
          was highlighted by one scheme.

43.       Organisations can be reluctant to support schemes due to concerns over safety issues,
          although these can be overcome.

44.       When securing funding it is important to emphasise the level of training and support
          provided by W2W schemes and to stress that safety issues are addressed well e.g. via
          CBT and additional training.
Monitoring

45.       Some schemes are on top of their monitoring, particularly where it is a reporting
          requirement of funders or has been prepared to inform a funding bid. However, this is
          not uniform, and may inhibit some schemes from accessing future funding.

46.       Schemes do need to ensure that they have good messages to get across clearly to
          funders, in accessible formats.
Other schemes under consideration

47.       It was clear from our research that those involved in the on-the ground delivery of
          W2W schemes are generally extremely committed, enthusiastic and dedicated
          individuals. With some significant obstacles faced by some schemes, it is apparent
          that W2W would never have got off the ground in some areas without this continued
          persistence, dedication and drive to see the scheme succeed. However, this does raise
          the issue that in areas where such individuals do not currently exist, W2W schemes
          will not be established in some areas where they could meet a real need. This
          therefore also supports the need for a „central‟ funding pot.

48.       The need for a county-wide strategy for W2W was highlighted in order to ensure that
          schemes are not funding-led and die once funding has run out. It was also felt that a
          planned, strategic approach would appeal to a wider group of potential funders.
Other lessons learnt from the evaluation

49.       Other issues raised during the evaluation included:

             The need to develop quality standards for schemes and introduce a national
              induction and training programme for W2W co-ordinators.
             Involvement and support of the County Council is crucial and should be
              highlighted to those looking to set up new W2W schemes. W2W can help to
              meet the objectives of the youth work of County and District Councils.




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                              Appointment of a national W2W co-ordinator has been valued by schemes, and
                               schemes spoke highly of the advice and support that the national co-ordinator has
                               provided.

        How can W2W/W2L help potential funders achieve their objectives?

            TABLE 2: THE CONTRIBUTION OF W2W/W2L TOWARDS ACHIEVING OBJECTIVES OF
                     POTENTIAL FUNDERS

Potential funding                               Contribution of W2W/W2L to meeting organisational objectives
organisation

Connexions                      Can contribute to the overall aim of providing integrated advice, guidance and access to
                                 personal development opportunities for 13 to 19 year olds, and to help them make a smooth
                                 transition to adulthood and working life.
                                Can help Connexions provide a more comprehensive service and can help in delivery of
                                 NEET targets.

Jobcentre Plus             W2W can help meet the objectives of:
                                Sustaining a higher proportion of people in work than ever before.
                                Modernising welfare delivery so as to improve accessibility, accuracy and value for money of
                                 services to customers.
Learning and Skills        W2W can help meet the objectives of:
Council                         Ensuring that all 14 to 9 year olds have access to high quality, relevant learning opportunities.
                                Strengthening the LSC’s capacity to work effectively at a regional level particularly with the
                                 Regional Development Agencies and Regional Skills Partnerships.

Local authorities          W2W/W2l can link in very well to a number of service areas of local authorities and help them to
                           achieve their targets, including:
                                To the objectives of the Local Transport Plan (LTP), particularly in terms of reducing social
                                 exclusion.
                                To Youth Services.
                                To Post 16 Transport.
                           As part of the LTP process, local authorities must develop schemes that contribute to the
                           achievement of the Government’s shared objectives including reducing congestion, improving
                           road safety and improving accessibility. W2W schemes can contribute to reducing congestion
                           when parental cars are used less as a result of younger people using W2W mopeds.
                           The main benefit of W2W schemes is in improving the accessibility of those who are socially
                           excluded. As part of their second LTPs local authorities must prepare an accessibility strategy
                           which will comprise a series of local action plans to address particular problems of poor access or
                           difficulties faced by certain areas. For rural areas with problems of social exclusion amongst
                           younger people, W2W schemes could form an important element of these local action plans.
                                                                                                           2
                           The release of the Government’s National Strategy on Motorcycling in February 2005
                           demonstrated the Government’s commitment to mainstream motorcycling as a mode of transport.
                           The Strategy included reference to W2W, and W2W could be a useful ‘tool’ to include in the LTP
                           in respect of supporting the aims of the Strategy.
Regional                   W2W/W2L help local people become contributors to the economy as well as increasing the
Development                potential labour pool for local employers. However, there is a need to demonstrate to RDAs how
Agencies                   W2W can overcome rural isolation by working in conjunction with other projects in the delivery of
                           a package that includes bringing people to the services as well as the services to the people. It
                           was considered that W2W is currently too stand-alone and needs to be factored into wider
                           economic regeneration.




        2
            Available at: (http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_roads/documents/divisionhomepage/035443.hcsp)



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1.             INTRODUCTION

               Background to Wheels 2 Work schemes

1.1            Lack of transport can be a major barrier to people living in rural areas accessing
               training, employment and education opportunities. Young people in particular often
               face a situation where without a job they cannot afford to buy a car or motorcycle, and
               without a vehicle of their own they cannot travel to work or take part in a training
               course or in education. Wheels 2 Work (W2W) and Wheels 2 Learning (W2L)
               schemes aim to break this vicious cycle by offering individuals their own transport for
               a short period until a longer-term solution can be found.

1.2            Transport initiatives provided as a part of a W2W/W2L scheme generally comprise:

                     provision of a personal mode of transport to an individual e.g. loan of a moped,
                      electric bike or bicycle; or
                     provision of the means for an individual to make their journey by either public or
                      private transport, the most common initiatives being:
                       a minor grant towards vehicle repairs or an MOT to enable a vehicle to be
                           put back on the road
                       subsidised driving lessons
                       provision of general transport advice

               A small number of schemes also offer other types of assistance, such as taxi services
               and Dial-A-Ride type services.

1.3            The first W2W schemes were initiated in the UK about ten years ago and by 2002
               there were over twenty established W2W schemes in England. An initial evaluation
               of these schemes was undertaken by Steer Davies Gleave in 2002-03 to identify the
               status of the different schemes at that time, and to understand the processes involved
               in scheme development and implementation. This resulted in production of:

                     A Final Report detailing findings from the study entitled “An Evaluation of
                      Wheels to Work Schemes” (March 2002).
                     A Good Practice Guide entitled “Two Wheels Work: A good practice guide for
                      developing and implementing Wheels to Work Scheme.”
                     A Research Note summarising findings from the study.

1.4            In December 2004, Steer Davies Gleave was commissioned by the Countryside
               Agency to undertake a further study to research and evaluate examples of W2W
               schemes. This was a more „forward-thinking‟ evaluation than the 2002-03 study with
               the overall aims of the project being to:

                     gather and evaluate detailed evidence from selected W2W schemes;
                     assess and report on the successes and shortcomings of their operational practice;
                     identify the benefits these schemes can bring to the individual and to the wider
                      community; and
                     offer practical advice to increase the effectiveness, financially and operationally,
                      of both individual schemes and the national W2W programme.



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1.5      A particular focus of the study was to identify how W2W schemes could be adopted
         more widely into mainstream funding in light of Countryside Agency structural
         changes which will mean an end to Rural Transport Partnership (RTP) funding as
         delivery functions are transferred to the Regional Development Agencies (RDAs).
         This will impact on W2W schemes, the majority of which have relied on funding via
         the Countryside Agency‟s RTP.

1.6      In undertaking the current evaluation, the intention has not been to repeat findings
         from the previous evaluation, but rather to build on the original findings and to
         explore further issues and outcomes that have evolved since the previous work. It is
         suggested therefore that this report be read with a knowledge of issues raised in the
         documents detailed in Section 1.3.

         Urban-based W2W/W2L schemes

1.7      The focus of this report is on rural based W2W/W2L schemes. However, it should be
         noted that a number of W2W/W2L schemes are urban based, with the issues for young
         adults in urban areas being very similar to those from a rural background. For
         example, many urban young adults have a shortage of money to spend on travel, with
         parents often in a situation where they are unable to provide financial support. The
         lessons learnt from this research are therefore generally applicable to urban schemes
         as well as to rural schemes.

         Aim and structure of this Report

1.8      This report summarises the findings from the discussions with schemes undertaken as
         part of the evaluation exercise and from the review of literature carried out as part of
         the work. The report is structured as follows:

             Section 2 provides an overview of the study methodology and of the schemes
              included in the evaluation exercise;
             Section 3 provides general details about each of the W2W case studies, whilst
              Section 4 provides additional information in respect of scheme set-up and
              operation;
             Section 5 discusses scheme outcomes and benefits for each of the case studies;
             Section 6 identifies key issues and recommendations from the study;
             Section 7 identifies potential sources of funding and provides details of how
              W2W schemes could help to meet the objectives of these potential funders; and
             Section 8 provides a bibliography of materials included in the literature review.




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2.             STUDY METHODOLOGY

               Case study selection

2.1            The Countryside Agency identified twelve W2W schemes to be included in the
               evaluation exercise.        These represented a good cross-section of „scheme
               characteristics‟ including:

                     a range of lead (or „host‟) organisations;
                     a variety of geographical locations;
                     different degrees of rurality of areas served by schemes;
                     different sized operational areas; and
                     a range of length of time which schemes had been operational, ranging from
                      mature schemes such as Shropshire‟s which has been operational for ten years, to
                      new schemes such as the Z Bikes scheme in Essex which loaned its first moped in
                      September 2004.

2.2            For each scheme, interviews were undertaken with the following:

                     the scheme co-ordinator;
                     between two and five clients who had used the scheme; and
                     appropriate stakeholders who had been involved in scheme development and/or
                      implementation e.g. Connexions representatives, County Council officers etc.

2.3            The following issues were explored through the interviews:

                     the process of development of the scheme;
                     operational aspects including the nature and engagement of different
                      organisations;
                     scheme promotion;
                     scheme monitoring;
                     funding issues and processes for securing both financial and in-kind support from
                      different organisations;
                     scheme benefits;
                     problems/issues encountered by schemes;
                     views of clients towards the scheme; and
                     views of other organisations towards the scheme.

2.4            Discussion guides used to undertake each of the interviews are provided in Appendix
               A. Five face-to-face and seven telephone interviews were undertaken with scheme co-
               ordinators, as indicated in Table 2.1. Stakeholder and client interviews were largely
               undertaken by telephone.




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                     TABLE 2.1           CASE STUDIES INCLUDED IN THE W2W EVALUATION

                                                                  Length of       Continuation of
                                                   Host            time of          a previous                 Interview          Evaluated
      Area            Name of scheme
                                               organisation        scheme            scheme?                      type             in 2002?
                                                                  operation

Cumbria              Wheels 2 Work          Connexions           1 year                     No                Face-to-                  No
(Copeland)                                  Cumbria                                                           face

Devon (West          Getting There          West Devon           3 years 7                 Yes                Telephone                 Yes
Devon)                                      Environmental        months
                                            Network
                                            (charitable trust)
Durham               Chester-Le-Street      Chester-le-Street    3 years                    No                Telephone                 No
(Chester-le-         W2W                    District Council
Street)
Essex                Z Bikes                Rainer (charitable   5 months                   No                Face-to-                  No
(Uttlesford)                                trust)                                                            face
Lancashire           Wheels to Learning     Runshaw College      2 years 6                  No                Face-to-                  Yes
(Runshaw                                                         months                                       face
College)
Norfolk (and the     Kickstart              Kickstart Norfolk    3 years 6          Not in current            Telephone                 Yes
Cambridgeshire                              (limited company     months                format –
Fens)                                       and registered                           previously a
                                            charity)                                series of small
                                                                                     scale pilots,
Dorset (North        North Dorset           NORDCAT              5 years                   Yes                Telephone                 Yes
Dorset)              Scooter Scheme         (community
                                            transport)
Northumberland       Tynedale W2W           ADAPT                Less than 1                No                Telephone                 No
(Tynedale)                                  (community           year
                                            transport)

Nottinghamshire      Wheels 2 Work          Nottinghamshire      3 years                    No                Face-to-                  Yes
                                            Rural Community                                                   face
                                            Council

Sheffield            Bradfield W2W          Sheffield CT         6 months                   No                Telephone                 No

Shropshire           Wheels 2 Work 3        Community            10 years                  Yes                Telephone                 Yes
                                            Council of
                                            Shropshire

East Surrey          Wheels 2 Work          Tandridge District   8 months                   No                Face-to-                  No
Surrey               Wheels to Learning     Council              4 months                   No                face


            2.5      The map in Figure 2.1 indicates the geographical coverage of schemes included in the
                     evaluation exercise.

            2.6      The study has also been informed by reviews of documents of potential funding
                     agencies and by discussions with representatives of these organisations where
                     appropriate.




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                                                                         Evaluation of W2W Schemes


               FIGURE 2.1               GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE OF W2W SCHEMES INCLUDED IN THE
                                        EVALUATION




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3.             THE PROJECT STORY

               Overall aims of W2W schemes

3.1            All schemes included in the evaluation had similar overall objectives for their W2W
               schemes, a typical example being:

               “To enable young people in rural areas who have no practical means of transport to
               access employment, education and training, to overcome problems of social
               exclusion.”

3.2            Some schemes also had supporting objectives. For instance, schemes providing
               access to colleges such as Surrey‟s W2L scheme also sought to increase Post 16
               retention rates by removing one of the barriers to young people staying on at college.

3.3            Schemes also link to the objectives of their key funders. However, meeting the
               objectives and needs of key funders can sometimes result in a scheme being resource-
               led rather than providing a needs-based service. Consequently, this can mean that the
               scheme does not necessarily provide the focus where it is required in terms of the
               people and/or the area which it is targeting.

               Initiatives offered by W2W schemes

3.4            As shown in Table 3.1, moped loan forms the core element of all schemes evaluated,
               with mopeds being the only initiative offered in 7 of the 12 schemes.




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                     TABLE 3.1          INITIATIVES OFFERED BY THE W2W SCHEMES EVALUATED.

                                                                      Minor                                                       Cost of
                                                                     repair                                                      moped to
                                                      Subsidised                                               Loan
                     Moped     Bicycle     Electric                  grants/                                                     client (per
                                                        driving                             Other             length
                      loan      loan      bike loan                                                                             week unless
                                                       lessons     Emergency                                 (months)
                                                                                                                                 otherwise
                                                                     Fund                                                          stated)

Cumbria                                                                                                    6-10                £3

Devon                                                                                                   6                   £6

Durham                                                                                                     6                   £5 (initially
                                                                                                                                £2.50)

Essex                                                                                                      3-9                 £20 per month

Lancashire                                                                              dial a ride     For length          £5
                                                                                                            of course
                                                                                         taxi service

Norfolk                                                                                                   3-9                 £6

Dorset                                                                                                     6-12                £10

Northumberland                                                                              car loan      Initially 12,       £25-35
                                                                                                            now 4

Nottinghamshire                                                                                            12                  £4

Sheffield                                                                                                  Initially 3         £3

Shropshire                                                                                             6                   £10 per month

Surrey                                                                                                     W2W: 6              £40 per month
                                                                                                                                (half of this is
                                                                                                            W2L: 9
                                                                                                                                refunded at the
                                                                                                                                end of the loan
                                                                                                                                so the real cost
                                                                                                                                is £20)


                     Moped loan period

            3.5      The moped loan period is generally for six months although some schemes such as
                     Essex‟s Z Bikes and Sheffield‟s W2W schemes offer an initial 3 month loan period at
                     which point the loan is reviewed and extended to six and nine months respectively if it
                     is progressing satisfactorily. For loans involving clients accessing education e.g.
                     Surrey‟s W2L scheme, loan periods generally last the duration of the academic year
                     i.e. 9 months or, in the case of the scheme at Runshaw College, for the duration of the
                     course being attended. One scheme, Northumberland, initially offered a 12 month
                     loan period for car loans. However, this was reviewed and revised to a 4 month loan
                     to reinforce the message that the scheme is a „bridge‟ and not a long-term transport
                     solution. Pilot projects operating in Sheffield prior to the current scheme also offered
                     loans for 12 months, but they felt that this was too long and consequently the loan
                     period for the current scheme was reduced. However, in Nottinghamshire a 12 month
                     loan period is generally offered and this is considered to work well.

            3.6      All schemes took a flexible approach to the loan period and if there was a clear benefit
                     to a client for extension of the loan, for example, if by having use of the moped for a


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                                                                              Evaluation of W2W Schemes



               little longer it meant that the client could purchase their own vehicle or could pass
               their driving test, this would generally be considered favourably.

               Cost of the moped loan

3.7            All schemes required clients to pay a contribution towards the moped loan, which
               ranged on average between £3 and £10 per week; one scheme was willing to waiver
               the loan fee in particular circumstances. It was generally considered that requiring
               clients to make some contribution to the scheme instilled extra responsibility and also
               increased self-esteem through clients not receiving a service for free. There was a
               general feeling amongst clients from most schemes that the costs of moped loan were
               extremely reasonable (cheaper than public transport in many cases), and some
               schemes were considering raising their charges in the future to make them more
               sustainable. Some referral agencies also felt that charges were extremely low, and that
               clients and other stakeholders might value the scheme more highly if they were
               required to pay more for it. However, one scheme did cite that with the Countryside
               Agency reducing their funding for income generated through client payments, this did
               not provide schemes with an incentive to generate income.

3.8            The Northumberland W2W scheme offers cars and mopeds for a loan at a cost of £35
               and £25 per week respectively. In addition, there is a £40 initial administration fee,
               and a £5 fee to join ADAPT (the charity that hosts the W2W scheme). Whilst these
               charges are high compared to other schemes, one of the scheme‟s aims is to become
               sustainable over its three year period; charges had been informed by other models
               operating elsewhere, in particular in Fife in Scotland. The Northumberland scheme
               has found that referral agencies contribute to (or in some cases completely cover) the
               cost of the loan, or clients can obtain small loans/grants from the Princes Trust or from
               Jobcentre Plus.

3.9            In Surrey, W2L clients may be able to receive assistance with petrol costs via the
               Local Education Authority‟s Transport Scheme if they are in full-time education,
               spending over £3 per day on fuel and in receipt of Education Maintenance Allowance
               (EMA).

               "If you can't manage that (£3 per week) then there's something not right.”
               [Client, Nottinghamshire‟s W2W scheme ]

               Gender imbalance of moped loans

3.10           As highlighted in the 2001/02 W2W research, mopeds are more popular amongst
               males due to a concern amongst females of the personal security of scooters and a
               feeling of vulnerability on the road. Consequently, there was a general predominance
               of males across all but one of the schemes evaluated. For example, the Cumbria
               scheme reported that 80% of enquiries received were from males, the Chester-le-Street
               scheme had 94% male participants on the scheme and East Surrey‟s W2W scheme
               reported that only two of its 28 moped loans had been to females.

3.11           However, the gender imbalance was not quite as marked for some schemes – a third of
               the participants in the Nottinghamshire scheme are female, whilst in the Runshaw
               College scheme, the split is currently 72 females: 30 males, although there are several


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         elements to the latter scheme, not just moped loan. The scoring system used in the
         Norfolk scheme weights in favour of females applying to join, although this has had
         little impact on the number of female participants in the scheme to date.

3.12     Table 3.2 indicates that those schemes offering initiatives in addition to moped loan,
         have a less pronounced gender imbalance.

         TABLE 3.2           GENDER SPLIT OF SELECTED W2W SCHEMES (STATISTICS FROM
                             SCHEMES ONLY FOR SAMPLE MONTHS.

                                                     PARTICIPANTS                            PARTICIPANTS
                      Scheme                    No. males: No. females                    % males: % females


           Cumbria                                         17:4                                      81:19
           Dorset                                          72:14                                     84:16

           Durham                                          45:3                                       94:6

           Lancashire*                                     30:72                                     29:71

           Norfolk                                       430:108                                     80:20
           Nottinghamshire                                 67:33                                     67:33

           Shropshire*                                     61:18                                     77:23

           Surrey (W2W)                                    26:2                                       93:7
           National Figure (provided                                                                 68:32
           by National W2W Co-
           ordinator)


         * indicates schemes offering initiatives in addition to moped loan.

3.13     A number of schemes have sought to address the gender imbalance issue.
         Shropshire‟s W2W3 scheme was approached by Connexions who had some monies
         available which they were looking to spend. Although there were 5 or 6 possible
         initiatives on which the money could be spent, Connexions chose to provide driving
         lessons via W2W3; ten subsidised driving lessons (50% of the cost paid by W2W3
         and 50% paid by the client) and a Theory Test were provided to eligible Connexions
         clients. Connexions were very pleased with the success of the initiative and are
         looking to provide similar funding for an additional year. Connexions in Shropshire
         considered that provision of driving lessons helps to address the gender imbalance that
         exists for schemes comprising solely of moped loan.

3.14     The Shropshire W2W scheme has found that electric scooters (similar to mopeds in
         that CBT training and a driving licence is required) can help to address gender
         imbalance resulting from moped-only schemes as these tend to be more popular with
         females. Electric bikes (power assisted bicycles) can also help address gender
         imbalance although some schemes such as West Devon‟s reported that electric bikes
         are of limited value in sparsely populated rural areas where travel distances are long
         (electric bikes only have a charge capacity of approximately 25 miles) and/or if the
         area is hilly. The West Devon scheme did however cite a specific situation where the
         loan of an electric bike had been invaluable to a female client with epilepsy who was
         unable to hold a driving licence. The Runshaw College scheme also reported that


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                                                                                             Evaluation of W2W Schemes



                         there was little demand for its electric bikes but that push bikes were a useful addition
                         to the fleet, especially for short term ad hoc loans (for example to support people
                         while their car was off the road).

                         Target groups

                         Age

          3.15           As shown in Table 3.3, the majority of schemes cater primarily for young people
                         under 25 years of age with only 5 schemes having no upper age limit.           One co-
                         ordinator reported that their scheme had achieved the best results from the older
                         clients in terms of securing longer-term transport solutions. Other schemes reported
                         that their support for older clients had helped to break long-term cycles of
                         unemployment/unemployability, particularly in areas where there were high levels of
                         deprivation and unemployment. One scheme cited that it did not have an upper age
                         limit because if it had imposed this it would not have met with the needs of local
                         referral agencies in an area where a specific Action Team for Jobs 3 had been set up.

                         TABLE 3.3                AGE ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA AND TYPES OF PLACEMENTS SERVED

                                                                            Employment     Training           Further
                                            Target age group
                                                                                                             Education

Cumbria                      16 to 20 years                                                                    

Devon                        16 –25, but consider up to 30 years in                                     () some cases
                             special cases

Dorset                       16+ years                                                                         

Durham                       16-64                                                                             

Essex                        16 to 24 years                                                                    

Lancashire                   19+ years                                                   (at Runshaw      (at Runshaw
                                                                                           College)          College)

Norfolk                      16+ years                                                                  () some cases

Northumberland               16+ years                                                                         

Nottinghamshire              16-24 years.          Long term unemployed                                        
                             (no age limit)

Sheffield                    16-24 years (upper limit can be flexible)                                         

Shropshire                   Primarily 16 to 25 years, but will cater                        
                             for older clients.

East Surrey W2W              24 mopeds for 16-19 year olds.                                                    
                             15 mopeds have no upper limit

Surrey W2L                   16-19 year olds                                                                     


                         Placement types

          3.16           All schemes generally required clients to have a firm offer of an employment/training/
                         further education placement in order to qualify for assistance via the W2W scheme.

          3
              Action Team for Jobs is part of Jobcentre Plus, and is a Department of Works and Pensions (DWP) initiative
                  focused on supporting people into work in areas of disadvantage



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         However, some schemes encouraged potential clients to apply to W2W before their
         placement was secured, even though they could not actually take up the offer of the
         moped or other initiative. For instance, the Essex co-ordinator raised the issue that
         delays can be incurred if a person approaches the scheme but does not already hold a
         provisional licence; if people approach the scheme at an early stage issues such as this
         can be addressed. The Cumbria scheme coordinator also maintains a flexible
         approach, considering that securing a placement/position and the provision of
         transport go hand-in-hand. The North Dorset scheme is exploring targeting 15 1/2 year
         olds and providing off-road training on moped handling skills. Consequently, when
         clients are old enough to undertake Compulsory Basic Training (CBT) they can focus
         on acquiring road awareness/road safety skills rather than having to also learn how to
         ride a moped.

3.17     Some schemes were quite strict on the eligibility of clients for receipt of W2W
         initiatives, which was driven by the objectives of funders in many cases. For example:

             In the case of East Surrey‟s W2W scheme, Connexions provides 60% of the
              funding. Consequently, 60% of the scheme‟s fleet of 39 mopeds is allocated to
              the 16 to 19 age group, which is the target age group for Connexions.
             In Shropshire‟s W2W3 scheme, Connexions currently provide all funding for the
              driving lessons element of the scheme. Consequently, only clients referred by
              Connexions are eligible for driving lessons.

3.18     Another scheme (Nottinghamshire) raised concerns about being tied to specific
         funders in this way and had purposefully not yet sought funding from referral
         agencies. However, the scheme is based within a Rural Community Council (RCC)
         and is therefore only able to accept people onto the scheme who need to travel to/from
         rural locations.

3.19     Other schemes were more flexible where there were no such funding constraints
         imposed by the funding organisations, which also made it possible to honour more
         „unusual‟ requests. For example, the North Dorset Scooter Scheme was approached
         by the Probation Service in respect of the loan of a moped to a person who was being
         released from prison and who, it was considered, needed to access social opportunities
         in order to reduce the chance of re-offence. This individual was subsequently lent a
         moped as a result of the approach. The scheme also lent a moped to a prisoner who
         needed to access a work placement once a week from prison; the moped was kept at
         the prison during the loan period.

         Financial status of clients

3.20     W2W clients must have a financial need in terms of their inability/their parent‟s
         inability to afford transport solutions. However, this can sometimes be difficult to
         ascertain as it is not possible to means test or look in detail at a client‟s (and their
         family‟s) financial situation. Some schemes interview clients at their own home to try
         to determine the probable low income of a client. However, there were a number of
         issues associated with this:

             One co-ordinator raised the issue that a family could be „asset rich‟ i.e. live in a
              relatively comfortable home, but be „cash poor‟. An example cited was of a


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                                                                              Evaluation of W2W Schemes



                      single parent family who had gone through a divorce. The potential W2W client
                      could consequently be living with their mother or father in the family house, but
                      with a lack of ready cash available to fund an appropriate transport solution.
                     Female co-ordinators in particular are concerned about making visits alone to
                      interview clients due to the personal security implications, especially where the
                      client lives alone.         The Nottinghamshire scheme co-ordinator makes
                      arrangements for a colleague to ring her part way through a home visit and
                      returns the call at the end of the interview if she is concerned about the
                      circumstances of a particular visit.
                     The issue was raised of the appropriateness of a co-ordinator paying a visit
                      unaccompanied to the home of a young person. Essex‟s Z Bike scheme always
                      has two co-ordinators in attendance at interviews, who also make a joint-decision
                      on whether a particular applicant will be accepted on to the scheme. However,
                      this approach has cost implications for the scheme.
                     Undertaking home visits in expansive, sparsely populated rural areas can be time
                      consuming and was not considered by some schemes to be a cost-effective way of
                      undertaking interviews. The Nottinghamshire scheme cited the need to work one
                      to two evenings per week in order to undertake the necessary home visits (both
                      for the initial home visit and for on-going monitoring requirements).
                     The Shropshire scheme cited that it was helpful for the co-ordinator to interview
                      in agency offices e.g. Connexions, Jobcentre Plus as their presence enables other
                      potential applicants to liaise with the co-ordinator. The Nottinghamshire co-
                      ordinator also makes significant use of local Connexions and Jobcentre Plus
                      offices in order to be more accessible for clients.

3.21           Some co-ordinators said that they always undertook home visits if the potential client
               was 16 so that they could explain the scheme to their parents/guardians.

               Lack of availability of transport alternatives

3.22           A criterion for acceptance of all schemes is that there is no suitable alternative
               transport solution available:

                     In many cases the types of work accessed by clients requires shift work, outside
                      of times of operation of any public transport that might be available.
                     The Cumbria and Runshaw College schemes specify that if a client is unable to
                      make use of alternative transport that might be available e.g. due to childcare
                      commitments, then this is still a valid reason for acceptance on to the scheme.
                      The Cumbria scheme also cited an example of a 2-month moped loan to a man
                      whose car was off the road due to an accident, and he had no means of accessing
                      his job for those two months, which demonstrated the need for flexibility.

3.23           In most cases, the scheme co-ordinator will check the public transport alternatives
               open to the client by accessing public transport information via the Traveline public
               transport information service, timetables etc. Schemes will then direct applicants
               towards suitable public transport where this is available.

               Long term transport provision

3.24           The aim of W2W is to meet a short term transport need whilst enabling a client to find
               a long term solution to their transport problem. To be accepted on to schemes clients



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         need to be able to demonstrate that they have a plan in place to meet this long term
         need, for example:

             An appropriate savings plan in place which will enable, for example, a moped to
              be purchased at the end of the loan period. The North Dorset scheme encourages
              clients to save £10 per week which means that at the end of the loan period they
              will have approximately £260 available to purchase a cheap second hand moped.
             The Norfolk scheme also requires clients to have an appropriate savings plan in
              place and adherence to this requirement is monitored throughout the loan period.
             Clients of the Sheffield scheme are required to join the Credit Union and, in
              addition to a £50 bond, pay the scooter loan payments into it. If no insurance
              claims are made, then this money is returned to the client. One client interviewed
              was surprised at how quickly the fund built up from relatively small payments per
              week and was planning to use this money to help pay for a car at the end of the
              loan period. He also felt that this approach would encourage other clients to save
              over the longer term.
             Taking driving lessons.

         “(the money) soon adds up…looked a couple of weeks ago and was quite
         surprised…there was a couple of hundred in there”

         [Client, Sheffield W2W scheme]


         Identifying need for the scheme

3.25     Three schemes included in the evaluation were continuations of previous schemes (see
         Table 2.1). A number of scheme continuations did not undertake additional needs
         analysis but rather the success of the previous scheme was adequate to demonstrate
         the need for a follow-on scheme. In some cases, for instance North Dorset‟s Scooter
         Scheme, the geographical coverage of the scheme was expanded as a number of
         potential clients from a particular area had applied for a moped under the previous
         scheme but were not eligible due to their home location. Similarly, securing longer
         term and substantial funding had enabled the Norfolk scheme to expand countywide
         where previously it was only available in specific areas.

3.26     Some schemes did however undertake additional needs assessments/ evaluation
         exercises, for instance West Devon‟s Getting There scheme was subject to two
         independent evaluations including one after the initial scheme had ended; both of
         these demonstrated that there was a real need for Getting There.

3.27     The Cumbria and East Surrey schemes were both relatively new schemes in which
         Connexions played a key role. NEET (Not in Employment, Education and Training)
         statistics played an important role in shaping these schemes. In East Kent (a scheme
         not included as part of this evaluation), exploratory needs analysis for a future W2W
         scheme was undertaken through discussions with 20 stakeholders including
         representatives from Jobcentre Plus, Connexions and employment agencies. Feedback
         from the two employment agencies identified that between two and six clients per



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                                                                                Evaluation of W2W Schemes



               week refused job offers because of a lack of transport, whilst Connexions reported a
               similar rate for the cancellation of client interviews.

3.28           The Northumberland scheme was driven forward by the Tynedale Rural Transport
               Partnership Officer (RTPO), with a general need for an employment-based scheme
               identified through research for the RTP Action Plan. This was complemented by
               further bespoke research with Jobcentre clients and staff, local schools and businesses,
               which identified the need for a W2W scheme.

3.29           One of the schemes was primarily funding and administration-led rather than needs-
               led. The Sheffield W2W scheme is funded by Objective 1 monies from the European
               Union and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA),
               channelled to the scheme via the Yorkshire RCC (YRCC). Money was available for a
               transport project in South Yorkshire: Sheffield was chosen as a potential target area
               since Sheffield Community Transport (which operates the scheme) had had previous
               experience of running pilot W2W schemes in other areas of Sheffield. Bradfield was
               chosen as the area of coverage as this was the only full parish area within the YRCC‟s
               Rural Target Area of Sheffield. Further analysis was however undertaken to
               demonstrate that there was a real need for the scheme in this area, but the area was
               initially chosen for other reasons.

               Scheme size and geographical coverage

3.30           Schemes varied in size from a whole county e.g. Shropshire, to individual districts e.g.
               Essex‟s scheme which covers only Uttlesford District. It was sometimes the case that
               geographical coverage was determined by funders of schemes, for example:

                     The primary funder of Surrey‟s W2W scheme is Connexions and given that the
                      East of Surrey had the highest NEET statistics, this was identified as the focus for
                      the scheme. However, the County‟s W2L scheme is funded by Surrey County
                      Council‟s „Surrey Student Transport Partnership‟ fund, and thus the scheme‟s
                      area of coverage comprises the whole of Surrey.
                     Uttlesford District Council is a key player who manage day-today operations of
                      Essex‟s Z Bike scheme. The scheme therefore only covers the population of
                      Uttlesford District. This was considered an issue because there was additional
                      need for the scheme from young people outside of the district.
                     The Sheffield scheme is completely funded by Objective 1 monies through
                      Yorkshire RCC which specified the rural area to be targeted.

3.31           In Cumbria, Connexions Cumbria was the host organisation for W2W and although
               their remit did not formally cover the southern section of Copeland District, it was
               decided to include the latter area in the scope of the scheme given that young people
               would not recognise the district boundaries.

3.32           Although most schemes focussed on those people living in rural areas, schemes such
               as the Nottinghamshire, Surrey and Durham schemes also served people who were
               living in urban areas but needed to access employment/training/education located in
               rural areas. The Norfolk scheme would consider requests from people living in the
               urban areas (the three main towns in Norfolk) if alternative public transport services
               did not exist. Similarly, some schemes such as Durham‟s and Surrey‟s (W2W) would



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         consider urban to urban movements; it was recognised that transport can be a problem
         for people living in urban areas who are undertaking shift work outside of operation of
         public transport. The Nottinghamshire scheme has received several requests for
         assistance for urban-urban journeys, but has been unable to consider them because of
         the rural objectives of its funders.

3.33     The Nottinghamshire scheme co-ordinator felt that the current size of the scheme (45
         mopeds increasing to 50 in the next couple of months) is appropriate for the level of
         need in the area, and although she felt that she would have no trouble in loaning out
         significantly more mopeds, she questioned whether this would be meeting a genuine
         need in the area.

3.34     The size of the Sheffield scheme was partly defined by the cost of providing the
         scheme. Initially, Yorkshire Rural Community Council (YRCC) had proposed a
         scheme comprising 60 scooters but this was rejected on cost grounds and
         subsequently, YRCC narrowed their target area. The scheme was subsequently
         reduced to 15 scooters and funding was approved.




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                                                                               Evaluation of W2W Schemes



4.             SCHEME SET-UP AND OPERATION

               Scheme development and who to involve

4.1            The process for scheme development varied across schemes and in many cases came
               down to an individual being inspired by the W2W concept, who consequently sought
               to gain commitment from others to take the initiative forward.

               Involvement of County Councils and Connexions

4.2            Involvement of the County Council and Connexions was generally seen to be
               important to scheme development across many of the case studies. In some cases the
               support of these organisations was easily secured at the outset of scheme development:

                     In Cumbria, Connexions Cumbria was actually the lead organisation for the
                      W2W scheme and was the key driver for scheme development. They had
                      excellent links with the County Council, including secondment of one of their
                      officers to the Council to work as Neighbourhood Development Officer as well as
                      to work on the W2W scheme. The scheme considered it would not have gone
                      ahead without involvement from all key funders; Connexions, the Countryside
                      Agency and Cumbria County Council.
                     In Shropshire, Connexions have been excellent at supporting the W2W3 scheme.
                      Indeed, Connnexions actively approached the scheme themselves when some
                      spare funding became available which was subsequently used to fund the
                      provision of driving lessons.
                     Surrey County Council was extremely supportive of W2L, and provided £140k to
                      fund the scheme via the „Surrey Student Transport Partnership‟ (DfES funding).
                      Connexions were also very supportive of Surrey‟s W2W scheme; it helped
                      considerably in that a senior individual of Connexions in the area had heard about
                      W2W schemes and the benefits they can bring, and he was personally supportive
                      of the concept. In total, for Surrey‟s two schemes, the Countryside Agency
                      provided funding for 8 mopeds, 26 were funded by Connexions and 46 by Surrey
                      County Council.
                     Dorset County Council has been very supportive of the North Dorset Scooter
                      scheme, providing funding for an additional 20 mopeds via the Local Transport
                      Plan.
                     Devon County Council has been very supportive of W2W schemes in Devon, and
                      has helped in developing bids for continuation funding for schemes.
                     Nottinghamshire County Council has been supportive of the Nottinghamshire
                      scheme ever since it began, and has been a funder throughout the project.

4.3            However, in other cases, it was much harder to secure the support of the County
               Council and Connexions:

                     Essex‟s Z Bikes scheme faced considerable difficulties in gaining support from
                      officers of the County Council‟s Road Safety team as well as from elected
                      Members. This was largely because of concerns over safety of the scheme; the
                      Council had a particularly high accident rate for Powered Two Wheelers, and
                      thus was reluctant to support a scheme that supported the encouragement of
                      motorcycling. This was a major barrier for the scheme, particularly as they
                      required a letter of support from the Council in order to secure Countryside
                      Agency funding. Considerable effort went into securing the Council‟s support,


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                 including presentations at Council meetings from co-ordinators of successful,
                 W2W schemes. The situation was eventually resolved following exertion of
                 pressure from elected Members of Uttlesford District Council; Uttelsford District
                 Council were key players in development and operation of the scheme and their
                 elected Members were extremely supportive of the scheme.
                A number of schemes such as West Devon‟s Getting There reported that although
                 Connexions recognise the value of W2W schemes, and recognised that they can
                 help to meet NEET targets, it was often difficult to persuade the organisation to
                 contribute financially towards W2W.

           Involvement of other agencies and organisations

4.4        There was a general consensus that it was particularly difficult securing financial
           support from other potential referral agencies such as Learning and Skills Councils
           (LSCs) and Jobcentre Plus, and these organisations had generally had only limited
           involvement in the development and operation of W2W. There are however some
           exceptions to this, for example, in Cumbria the scheme has a Service Level
           Agreement with Jobcentre Plus so that they refer clients to the scheme. Cumbria also
           approached the LSC, but they were concerned about the safety aspects of W2W.
           However, having seen that the scheme is running well, they are now more positive and
           keen to get involved.

4.5        Jobcentre Plus is an active referrer to the Norfolk scheme, although it provides no
           funding to the scheme and it was felt that the very rigid procurement processes within
           the DWP did not lend themselves easily to the financial support of local schemes.
           However, it is hoped that the Norfolk Kickstart scheme will become involved in a
           Working Neighbourhoods Initiative4 in Great Yarmouth in which Jobcentre Plus is a
           key partner.

4.6        Action Team for Jobs, a Jobcentre Plus initiative focused on areas of disadvantage,
           provided substantial start-up funding for the Durham scheme, and provides ongoing
           in-kind support by providing an office base for the coordinator. This has worked well
           for the coordinator as they are close to the referral environment and can meet potential
           clients when they are in the office. However, Action Team is not able to provide
           ongoing revenue funding.

4.7        Discussions with Jobcentre Plus representatives suggested that funding streams are
           generally becoming increasingly difficult to access, an issue which is not isolated to
           funding for W2W schemes.




4
  In his Pre-Budget Report Statement in November 2002, the Chancellor announced a programme of intensive
support in neighbourhoods with very high concentrations of „worklessness‟. The programme, called the Working
Neighbourhoods Pilot, commenced in April 2004 in 12 of the most deprived neighbourhoods in the country and runs
for two years. The pilot tests a new approach of offering intensive support to local residents to help them overcome
barriers to employment and access the jobs that can often be found within travelling distance of where they live.




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                        TABLE 4.1                     ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED IN DELIVERY OF THE W2W SCHEMES




                                                                                                             Learning & Skills Council




                                                                                                                                                                            Community Transport
                                                                       District/Town Council
                                 Countryside Agency




                                                                                                                                                          Rural Community
                                                      County Council




                                                                                                                                         JobCentre Plus



                                                                                                                                                           Council/ACRE
                                                                                                Connexions




                                                                                                                                                                                Provider
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Other




Cumbria                                       F       FO                                       HFRO            R                          R                                                       Cumbria Transport
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Forum (F).
                                                                                                                                                                                                  W2W Partnership
                                                                                                                                                                                                  comprising other
                                                                                                                                                                                                  organisations e.g.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cumbria Constabulary

Devon                                         F        F               O                        (R)          (R)                         (R)                                                      West Devon
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Environmental Network
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (H); Big Lottery (F);
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lloyds TSB (F)

Dorset                                        F        F                 F                      R                                         R                                       H               Dorset Community
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Action (O)

Durham                                        F                          F                      R                                         R                                                       Action Team for Jobs
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (R and in-kind F);
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ground work (H)

Essex                                         F        F               FO                       FR             R                                                                                  Rainer (H), charitable
                                                                                                                                                                                                  trust

Lancashire                                    F        F                                                                                                                         O                Runshaw College (HF)

Norfolk                                       F        F                 F                      R             O                          FRO                   F                                  KickStart Norfolk (H);
                                                                                                                                                                                                  EEDA(F); Big Lottery
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (F)

Northumberland                                F                                                 R                                         R                                       H               Northumberland
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Strategic Partnership
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (F), Leader plus (F),
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Links Hexham (R)

Nottinghamshire                               F        F                                        R                                         R                    H                                  RDA (F); Boots
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Charitable Trust (F)

Sheffield                                                                                                                                 R               F (via                  H               Local schools and
                                                                                                                                                          Ob.1)                                   colleges

Shropshire                                    F        F                 F                      FR                                        R                    H

East Surrey W2W/                              F        F                H                        F
Surrey W2L


                        Key to Table: Nature of involvement: H = Host organisation; F = Funder; R = A Principal
                        Referral Agency (all schemes have additional referrals from other organisations; (R) = Referral
                        Agency, but no formal referral procedures in place; O = Other involvement e.g. on Steering
                        Group




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                      Staffing levels

          4.8         The study explored the views of co-ordinators towards the number of mopeds that
                      could reasonably be managed by a single person. There was a general consensus that
                      this figure varied according to:

                           the operational area of the scheme – in terms of physical size, rurality and socio-
                            economic characteristics; and
                           the additional duties required of the co-ordinator, for example, whether they were
                            expected to secure funding for schemes.

          4.9         Views of co-ordinators are detailed in Table 4.2.

                      TABLE 4.2            STAFF INVOLVED IN SCHEME DELIVERY

                            No. of                 No. of staff               Ratio of               Other                  Manageable ratio of staff:
                          mopeds on                                        staff:mopeds            initiatives                     mopeds
                           existing                                                                 offered?                  (Co-ordinator’s views)
                           scheme

 Cumbria                  15                 1 part-time                  1:15                                        Will need more support shortly
 Devon                    31                 1.75 WTE                     1.75:31                  Yes                1:18 i.e. about right now

 Dorset                   40                 3 people work part-                                                      1:20
                                             time

 Durham                   20                 1 full time                  1:20                                        1:20

 Essex                    10                 Approx 0.35 WTE (2           0.35:10                                     1:24
                                             staff)

 Lancashire               12                 1 FTE                        1:12                     Yes                Yes – because all clients come
                                                                                                                      into college regularly

 Norfolk                  157                3 FTE                        3:157                                       Yes – but difficulty comes when
                                                                                                                      applying for funding

 Northumberland           4, plus 4 cars     1 part time                  1:8 (incl cars)          Yes                About right now

 Nottinghamshire          45 (soon to        1 FTE plus 5 hours           1:45                                        Yes - but at the top end and only
                          be increased       admin support pw                                                         because of the type of area
                          to 50)                                                                                      covered and the hours worked by
                                                                                                                      the co-ordinator

 Sheffield                15                 1                            1:15                                        Yes

 Shropshire               40                 1 full-time co-              1:40                     Yes                1.5:40
                                             ordinator
 East Surrey              80 (39 for         1 part-time co-              0.5:80 until Jan                            1:30
 W2W/ Surrey              W2W and 41         ordinator (18.5 hours        2005
 W2L                      for W2L)           per week).                   Now 1.5: 80
                                             Additional full time
                                             fieldworker recently
                                             appointed.

Note: The large variation in the actual ratio of staff: mopeds and in the ratio of staff:mopeds considered „manageable is
attributable to four main factors: i) rurailty of the area; ii) size of the area; iii) funding available; and iv) co-ordinator duties.

          4.10        The W2W Toolkit recommends that a ratio of approximately 1 person to 50 mopeds is
                      a manageable ratio. However, one co-ordinator expressed concerns about reducing

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                                                                                 Evaluation of W2W Schemes



               resourcing for a scheme to a staff:vehicle ratio, and felt that this could be a dangerous
               precedent. She cited the need for long hours, working unsocial hours, being very
               organised and being „on call‟ (i.e. accessible to clients outside of normal office hours
               when mainstream services may not be available) in order to make the staff:vehicle
               ratio work on her scheme.

4.11           It was also considered that schemes may not be able to rely on voluntary support as
               much as they might have done in the past. Volunteers were previously involved in
               two main areas of the Norfolk scheme – in undertaking on-going vehicle checks and in
               the collection of cash payments. However, both of these practices were highlighted by
               the on-going risk assessment as high risk (the former because the volunteers were not
               qualified mechanics and the latter because it was felt that it was not considered ideal
               to have volunteers dealing with cash payments). Consequently, these practices were
               stopped.

               Health and safety

4.12           Although risks to clients and other road users cannot be completely removed, high
               levels of training and instruction are provided to clients to ensure that risks to both the
               riders and to other road users are reduced as much as possible. Indeed, many schemes
               provide additional training to that legally required i.e. additional training to CBT. All
               schemes take health and safety issues very seriously at all stages during loan of the
               moped:

               During the interview stage

                     For clients under 16 years, parents are generally required to attend interviews and
                      co-ordinators ensure that the parents are supportive of their child using the
                      scheme.
                     The Nottinghamshire scheme asks applicants if they are able to ride a bike – and
                      if not, encourages them to borrow one and to learn, on the basis that if people can
                      ride a bike they are more likely to be able to ride a moped confidently.
                     The Nottinghamshire scheme also follows up telephone references for all
                      applicants (someone who can vouch for the reliability of the client).

               Prior to the loan

                     All schemes offer free CBT to clients. The Essex scheme provides an additional
                      half-day‟s training by the training school plus a further half-day of training
                      delivered by Uttlesford District Council‟s Road Safety Officer. The scheme had
                      been in discussion with a member of the team who were providing advice to
                      Government about motorcycle training and CBT. One of the recommendations is
                      likely to be the need to extend CBT by half a day. In light of this, Essex provided
                      CBT beyond the legal requirement. Runshaw College also require an additional 2
                      hours on-road experience. The Nottinghamshire scheme provides a flexible
                      approach which gives riders additional training where it is deemed
                      appropriate/necessary e.g. if a client is not up to standard to obtain the CBT but it
                      is felt that he/she can make the standard with an additional half day‟s training.
                     Co-ordinators will generally discuss routes with riders although they will not
                      generally recommend routes. Indeed, in Surrey the police specifically advised the
                      W2W scheme against the recommendation of routes. For some inexperienced



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              riders, the Nottinghamshire scheme will arrange for somebody to follow the
              client home by car from the training session. Instructors on the Runshaw College
              scheme may use the additional 2 hours on-road experience to take the rider back
              to more familiar roads near to their home or near to the college.

         During the loan period:

             Surrey‟s W2W and W2L schemes have received endorsement from Surrey Police
              and the Council‟s Road Safety Department. All clients are required to attend a
              safety event delivered by the police and the County Council. These occur once a
              month and last for two hours; to date, four events have been held. The events
              enable the police to highlight any safety issues whilst also enabling riders to feed
              back any concerns/issues they may have. Close partnership working between
              Surrey County Council‟s Road Safety department and Surrey Police was a key
              element which „sold‟ the W2W/W2L initiative to the Council for funding. Surrey
              County Council‟s Road Safety Officer recommended that an interactive safety
              session should be included as an element of any W2W scheme.
             In Cumbria, clients receive top-up training after one month to provide additional
              advice. If required, additional training e.g. confidence training is provided
              throughout the moped loan period. This is provided free by the driving schools.
              Cumbria‟s co-ordinator also texts all clients regularly telling them about any
              adverse weather which is forecast.
             All schemes have speed limiters fitted to mopeds, which restrict moped speeds to
              around 30 mph.
             In Nottinghamshire, clients receive briefing notes at relevant times of the year to
              remind them about, for example, safe winter riding.
             Clients on all schemes are required to undertake basic safety checks of their
              mopeds to ensure that lights, brakes etc are in good working order. All schemes
              also undertake follow-up checks with clients which includes a check of the
              moped, with the frequency of these checks varying between fortnightly and three-
              monthly intervals. The Chester-le-Street scheme coordinator visits the client
              weekly in the first month, then fortnightly during the remainder of the 5 month
              loan period. They check that the bike is working satisfactorily and that basic
              maintenance is being carried out. They also carry out mileage checks.
             Most schemes have forged good links with the police who will report any
              behaviour of concern to co-ordinators. The Cumbria Constabulary sit on the
              steering group for the Cumbria scheme and have had no real issues with the
              scheme since it began operation.
             Essex Z Bikes scheme is considering convening a User Group every 4 months to
              discuss safety issues

4.13     A number of schemes raised the issue of provision of longer training than the current
         CBT requires. The North Dorset Scooter Scheme is exploring provision of off-road
         training to clients in advance of their 16 th birthday so that they can learn moped-
         handling skills prior to their CBT. During their CBT they will then be able to focus on
         safety and road awareness skills rather than also learning how to ride a moped.
         However, schemes face funding issues in trying to deliver this additional training.

4.14     All schemes provide riders with safety equipment for the loan, although the equipment
         offered varied across schemes as indicated in Table 4.4. All schemes allowed clients



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                to keep their helmets, with some schemes also permitting clients to keep other
                equipment.

                TABLE 4.3                EQUIPMENT PROVIDED TO W2W CLIENTS



                                                                    Reflective   Waterproof        Cost of      Items client is
                                                                      band/       trousers         safety        able to retain
                             Jacket         Gloves         Helmet   waistcoat                    equipment      after loan has
                                                                                                 provision          ended
                                                                                                  per client

Cumbria                                                                                                    Client can only
                                                                                                               keep helmet at end
                                                                                                               of loan

Devon                                                                                       £135            Option to keep with
                                                                                                               small contribution
                                                                                                               towards the scheme

Durham                                                                                    £175            Client can keep at
                                                                                                               end of loan except
                                                                                                               for lock and chain

Essex                                                                                                     Option to keep at 5-
                                                                                                               10% of cost

Lancashire                                                                                Approx £130     Helmet (regarded
                                                                                                               as a ‘loss item’)

Norfolk                                                                                      £60             Helmet.
                                                                                                               Jacket,     gloves
                                                                                                               and waterproofs
                                                                                                               may be issued in
                                                                                                               exceptional
                                                                                                               circumstances.

Dorset                                                                                      £150            Can keep for £50

Northumberland                                                                            £160            Client can keep at
                                                                                                               end of loan

Nottinghamshire                                                                           Approx £130     Client can keep at
                                                                                                               end of loan

Sheffield                                                                                  Costs scheme    Can keep helmet,
                                                                                               approx £2,500   but scheme retains
                                                                                               pa or approx    other equipment, so
                                                                                               £140-160 per    can provide spares
                                                                                               client)         to     others    on
                                                                                                               scheme

Shropshire                                                                                                   Clients keep the
                                                                                                               helmet and
                                                                                                               waistband

Surrey                                                                                     £180            Client can keep at
                                                                                                               end of loan



                “the scheme is really brilliant… it gives you everything you need.”

                [Client, Nottinghamshire W2W scheme]




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 4.15         Additional information in respect of health and safety is provided in the W2W Good
              Practice Guide and in the W2W Toolkit5.

              Insurance issues

 4.16         Most schemes insured their mopeds via Zurich, although premiums varied across
              schemes (see examples in Table 4.4). One scheme considered that premiums were
              high due to the „monopoly‟ situation commanded by Zurich. Other insurance
              companies are however willing to insure W2W and it was felt that it is important to
              emphasise the safety and training elements of W2W when speaking to potential
              insurers. The Nottinghamshire scheme had developed a very good relationship with
              staff at Zurich and felt that they were a very charity-friendly organisation. Sheffield
              Community Transport which operates the Bradfield W2W scheme had used Lexum
              for insurance cover for their previous pilot schemes, but felt that the company was not
              set up to meet the specific insurance needs of W2W schemes, and had consequently
              switched to using Zurich for the current scheme.

              TABLE 4.4         EXAMPLES OF INSURANCE COSTS FOR MOPEDS

                                           Excess
                      Cost per moped      payable by                                     Comments
                                            client

Devon                £300                 £250

Dorset               £300                 £250           Insurance per moped has increased significantly; in one year
                                                         costs per moped increased from £110 per moped to £300 per
                                                         moped, despite no insurance claims by the scheme.

Essex                £240                 £250
                                                                          rd
Norfolk              £200                 £150/250       Insurance is 3 party only, and the excess is dependent on
                                                         level of experience. Kickstart, and not the rider, pays any
                                                         excesses; Kickstart retains the right to recoup costs from riders
                                                         who neglect, misuse or intentionally damage the loaned
                                                         machine.

Nottinghamshire      £375                 £250           The insurance covers the moped (fully comprehensive) but not
                                                         the rider and the scheme advises clients to take out personal
                                                         accident insurance of their own (although few, if any, do).
                                                         Zurich has also been willing to insure clients who have been in
                                                         prison, as long as the offence was not related to stealing a
                                                         vehicle or damage directed at a vehicle.
                                                                          rd
Shropshire           £280                 £250           Insurance is 3 party fire and theft. Clients pay £100 of any
                                                         insurance claim. Clients are also required to pay for accidental
                                                         damage (parts not labour/collection) which is not claimable on
                                                         insurance.
East        Surrey   £300                 £150           Insurance is arranged through Tandridge District Council’s fleet
W2W/        Surrey                                       insurance, which happens to be held with Zurich.
W2L




 5
     The W2W Toolkit is available from the National W2W Co-ordinator, based at Nottinghamshire Rural Community
     Council.


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               Scheme promotion

4.17           The majority of schemes considered that word-of-mouth was the best form of
               promotion for W2W/W2L schemes. The quality of promotional materials varied
               across schemes. The Cumbria W2W scheme had benefited from Connexions Cumbria
               producing promotional material in a range of different card sizes e.g. confetti cards
               (business card size), postcard and A4 size and their scheme has featured in both local
               and national Connexions publications. Similarly, the Nottinghamshire scheme
               produced a range of different materials for use with different audiences and has also
               advertised on local radio.

4.18           Surrey‟s W2W and W2L schemes also produced glossy leaflets to publicise the
               schemes and they also promote the scheme on the internet. The Surrey schemes have
               also been promoted via roadshows at local colleges, which have been attended by a
               representative from the County Council‟s Post 16 Transport department as well as by
               the scheme co-ordinator. Connexions Surrey considered that the scheme in Surrey
               had been so successful because of the very effective marketing by the co-ordinator.


                 “The exceptional promotional work undertaken by our W2W Coordinator
                 (including posters on village notice boards, in shops and bus shelters, and
                 information in parish magazines and on websites, roadshows to colleges and
                 contacts with Jobcentres) has also ensured that young people who may not have
                 contact with Connexions Centres or Personal Advisors still have access to the
                 scheme.”

                 [Connexions, Surrey]


4.19           There was a view that „blanket‟ promotion was not the most effective way to publicise
               schemes but rather, promotion needed to be much more targeted. One scheme said
               that they did not want to over-publicise the scheme as if there was a waiting list it
               would mean that some applicants would be turned down for the scheme – and the co-
               ordinator considered that being let down in this way was not beneficial to the clients
               whom the scheme serves. This was a view repeated by the Chester-le-Street scheme,
               where a conscious decision had been made not to over-promote the scheme to avoid
               raising expectations unfairly. However, despite this the scheme already had a waiting
               list for scooters. The Norfolk scheme does not specifically advertise to potential
               clients since there is a considerable amount of interest in the scheme in any case, but it
               does periodically promote at a high level (radio and TV) to maintain name
               recognition.




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5.       SCHEME OUTCOMES AND BENEFITS

         Scheme monitoring

5.1      The amount of monitoring being undertaken varied considerably across schemes.
         There has in general, been a move away from paper-based monitoring to electronic
         filing of information since the 2001/02 W2W evaluation. However, some schemes are
         only now considering electronic monitoring with, for example, one scheme citing that
         they had three years worth of paper based records which will be extremely time
         consuming to transfer onto computer. This also means that the scheme finds it
         difficult to pull scheme statistics together easily which could help secure funding in
         the future.

5.2      Cumbria‟s W2W has undertaken extensive monitoring of its scheme since it started
         operation in February 2004. This included an independent evaluation in October 2004
         which concluded that:


           “The findings from the evaluation show that the work of W2W is valued highly
           throughout Copeland and the wider County by participants, employers, members
           of the partnership group and other organisations in Cumbria. All respondents
           stated that the scheme should continue to operate in Copeland and 96% of
           respondents were supportive of an expansion into other areas.”

           Cumbria independent evaluation 2004


5.3      Overall, the Cumbria scheme co-ordinator estimated that the cost per participant over
         3 years, if they reach their target of 75 people in this period, will be £1300-1400.
         Given their experiences in the first year, they are optimistic that they will exceed this
         target, potentially lowering the cost per participant further.




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                           TABLE 5.1                SUMMARY OF OUTCOMES FOR SELECTED W2W SCHEMES

                                Monitoring Period                                                       Clients helped                                                      No. of applications

Cumbria                      Feb 2004 – Oct 2004                  21. 6 NEET helped by October 2004. In October 2004 there were an additional 5 NEET            75 (at October 2004, this was averaging
                                                                  clients seeking work/training and W2W had expanded the geographical scope of their            15 per month)
                                                                  search.
                                                                  38% in work;
                                                                  38% in training/ apprenticeships
                                                                  24% in education

Dorset                       April 2004-Dec 2004                  35                                                                                            86 (8 training; 30 education;          46
                                                                                                                                                                employment; 2 unemployed)

Durham                       2002 – Feb 2005                      49                                                                                            122 referrals

Essex                        Sep 2004 to Feb 2005                 2 (one to access school and one to access FE college). One of these clients has been
                                                                  asked to leave the scheme.

Lancashire                   2004-05                              Total: 102; moped loan: 14; power bike: 2; subsidised DAR: 40; subsidised taxi: 16; shuttle
                                                                  bus pass: 30.

Norfolk                      Sep 01 – Feb 05                      539 (393 into employment; 93 into work training)                                              1014

Northumberland               Jul 04 – Feb 05                      23, 16 of whom have completed the scheme, 3 of which entered employment, 4 to training
                                                                  of further education (the rest have used the scheme to access interviews etc)

Nottinghamshire              Mar-Dec 2002                         100                                                                                           2002: 78
                             Jan-Dec 2003                                                                                                                       2003: 78
                             Jan-Dec 2004                                                                                                                       2004: 110

Sheffield                    Sep 04 – Feb 05                      12 moped loans                                                                                15 (3 were provided with public transport
                                                                                                                                                                information).

Shropshire                   April 04 – Sep 04                    78: 51 moped loans; 6 small grants; 17 driving lessons; 4 cycle loans                         80 referrals
East Surrey W2W/             June 04 – Feb 05                     28 W2W moped loans (8 finished and 2 transferred to W2L)                                      W2W Jun 04 – Feb 05: 55 applications
Surrey W2L                   Oct 04 – Feb 05                      8 W2L moped loans                                                                             W2L Oct 04 – Feb 05: 9 applications

West Devon                   Jul 04 – Feb 05                      30 moped loans; 40 driving lessons



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         Benefits of W2W

         Benefits to users

5.4      The obvious benefit of W2W schemes is that they provide the means of accessing
         employment, education and training opportunities; opportunities that an individual
         may not otherwise have.

         “[The] Scheme might mean the difference between being taken on and not being
         taken on…it’s as simple as that”

         [Connexions, Nottinghamshire]

5.5      As demonstrated in the Cumbria evaluation, W2W can also help young people to
         retain their employment/ training places (some users were already employed or in
         training when they took up their W2W places). There was also movement from
         unemployment and part-time employment to participation in full-time training
         amongst some clients.

5.6      There was an over-riding consensus, however, that W2W is about much more than
         just providing the means to access work, education and training opportunities. The
         schemes also help clients to increase their participation in the community and to
         maintain an active social life, which helps to improve opportunities and to enhance life
         chances. It also provides clients with:

             Greater independence and improved social skills – W2W offers young people
              independence which can be much greater than that offered by other initiatives
              which aim to increase mobility e.g. taxi vouchers, community transport etc. For
              many young people, access to a moped provides the first real means of accessing
              opportunities without reliance on parents, or without needing to walk or cycle
              excessively long distances. This increased independence can also benefit parents
              considerably by removing the need for them to ferry their children around. For
              example, one client accepted on to West Devon‟s Getting There scheme had been
              reliant on his mother for lifts as there was no public transport available. The
              parent was travelling 400 miles per week just to take her son to and from work.
              One client using the Northumberland scheme was now able to take part in sport
              activities after their training course each day, something they had never been able
              to do when at school due to the constraints of public transport and reliance on lifts
              from their parents.


              “It‟s a fantastic deal … to give you that freedom of transport, that independence,
              it‟s amazing.” This quote was from a male client on the Surrey W2W scheme
              who had used the moped to access a job where he worked nightshifts. The client
              also used the moped to visit his partner and daughter on a regular basis. Before
              use of the moped this young person relied on other people for lifts, public
              transport when available and occasionally taxis. He was learning to drive whilst
              using the moped and felt that as well as giving him independence, the moped had
              also given him excellent experience on the road. He felt that as a result of the
              scheme “it is all coming together”.



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                     Increased confidence and self-esteem – there is „kudos‟ attached to owning a
                      moped amongst many young people, increasing respect amongst peers which in
                      turn can help to improve self-esteem. Also, knowing that they are now a
                      „contributor‟ towards the economy rather than a recipient of benefits and other
                      resources, can also help to increase-self esteem amongst clients. Related to this is
                      that payment of a fee towards the loan helps clients feel that they are making a
                      contribution towards the scheme and are not just getting something for free.
                      Some coordinators suggested that passing the CBT was itself a confidence
                      booster to many clients.

                      “it’s an olive branch back into work”. This male client of the Nottinghamshire
                      scheme had been unemployed for two years and had found finding work difficult
                      as he was dyslexic. After undertaking training to become a fork lift truck driver
                      and then joining the W2W scheme, everything came together to enable him to
                      access his new job. He commented on “raising that sort of money on the
                      unemployment system: there’s no way you could buy one”. He reported how
                      his new work colleagues cheered when he arrived at work with his moped after
                      passing his CBT. [Client, Nottinghamshire scheme].

                     “It’s given me much more confidence… getting out and meeting different
                      people all the time.” This is a quote from a Runshaw College client who uses
                      the taxi services as part of the W2L scheme to access a part time hairdressing
                      course. The student would not be able to attend these evening classes without
                      the transport support the scheme provides and she hopes to use her new skills to
                      become more employable in the future. [Client, Lancashire scheme]

                     Responsibility – for many clients accepted on to W2W, taking ownership of a
                      moped is the first time that they have really had to look after and take
                      responsibility for something. As well as the responsibility of maintaining the
                      moped, there are also responsibilities associated with careful and safe moped
                      riding and the discipline of saving up regularly to purchase their own vehicle at
                      the end of the loan period. This can also encourage a longer term saving habit.
                     Improved road awareness and road skills – riding a moped improves
                      awareness of safety on the roads, knowledge of the highway code and road signs,
                      and can make it easier to learn to drive. Being a moped rider can also make
                      people (as car drivers) more considerate of other more vulnerable road users
                      (moped riders, cyclists etc).
                     Greater opportunities – W2W helps young people to look for opportunities
                      outside of their immediate area, which can lead to increased aspirations and
                      broader horizons.

               Benefits to agencies and other organisations

5.7            W2W can help a range of organisations/agencies such as Connexions to meet their
               objectives and targets. W2W generally targets young people under 25 years old,
               which includes the target group of Connexions (13 to 19 year olds); Connexions
               Partnerships were set targets to reduce the proportion of 16 to18 year olds NEET (Not
               in Education, Employment or Training). W2W schemes can help Connexions to
               achieve these targets; in Cumbria, 6 out of the 21 participants on the W2W scheme
               were in the NEET category prior to being accepted on the W2W scheme. The
               schemes can also bring other benefits to Connexions, for example, in Cumbria success



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         of the scheme has meant that it has been easier for the organisations to start other
         smaller projects in the area.


         “The Wheels to Work scheme in Tandridge, Surrey covers a rural area where young
         people frequently do not have access to public transport at appropriate times or
         locations. The scheme has enabled Personal Advisers (PAs) to recommend an
         alternative option for NEET clients to ensure that they are able to accept and
         successfully maintain education, employment or training options.”

         Connexions Surrey


5.8      In Surrey, the W2L scheme was seen as an „unfussy and targeted‟ way of removing
         one of the barriers for staying on in education; Surrey has a sizeable drop-out rate for
         16+ education. The local authority also considered that W2W/W2L helped the
         Council achieve its social inclusion objectives.

5.9      By being involved in W2W, some referral agencies can benefit from offering a wider
         package of initiatives to help people get into work or training. A referral agency for
         the Durham scheme stated that they can offer a package approach to reducing
         unemployment through the scheme as they can offer their own services as well as
         provide transport through W2W. NCH (formerly called the National Children‟s
         Home) informs the young people it works with about the Norfolk scheme as part of a
         much wider aim of providing comprehensive information about the range of support
         available to them in accessing employment and training.

5.10     W2W schemes can also help to meet objectives of local authorities, as demonstrated in
         the Shropshire example below:


         “The County Council continues to be an active supporter of the Wheels to Work
         scheme. The scheme’s aims fit very well with those of the County in working
         towards access for all to work and training opportunities, widening personal travel
         choice and managing the environmental impact of rural transport through
         advocating appropriate modes. Indicative of this is the presence of the scheme
         within the current and next Local Transport Plan documents, and its role in
         meeting the targets these contain.

         Through participation in the steering and management of the scheme, the County
         has also formed valuable ongoing partnerships with other agencies, local and
         national, that give a new depth to many other areas of its work away from
         transport."

         [Shropshire County Council]


5.11     As highlighted in the example above, W2W can also help in the development of
         relationships between organisations which would not traditionally work together.
         Another scheme cited that W2W had led to good working relationships being built up
         between a local authority and employment agencies, which had in turn helped to

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               develop more innovative approaches to addressing unemployment issues, and to
               widen the scope of regeneration schemes to include social inclusion issues.

               Benefits to other groups

                     Employers benefit from access to a larger labour pool and from being able to
                      find people to fill posts more quickly. In Cumbria, the majority of employers
                      questioned said that they could have employed the young person without W2W
                      but this was qualified with feedback that it would have been more difficult
                      without the existence of the scheme to recruit and retain the young people.
                      Particular types of employers benefit predominantly from W2W – in
                      Nottinghamshire, employers such as McDonalds and B&Q were key W2W users
                      since their businesses were likely to be located in out of centre places, and require
                      staff to start early/finish late.
                     Colleges benefit from more individuals being able to access their courses.
                     Police – can help to build links with young people through W2W, with W2W
                      also providing good promotion opportunities to demonstrate their work with the
                      community.
                     Local moped dealers, CBT providers, garages, driving schools and
                      businesses can benefit by supplying vehicles and services to provide training and
                      maintenance. Once made, this relationship needs no advertising and can provide
                      a steady stream of work (“money in the bank”), with regular and reliable
                      payment of invoices. W2W requirements for these services can often even out
                      existing seasonal variations to the business‟ benefit. For example, CBT trainers
                      in Lancashire and Nottinghamshire told of general business for CBT dropping off
                      between September and March, and on weekdays – with W2W schemes generally
                      providing clients during the week and either steadily throughout the year (as in
                      the Nottinghamshire scheme), or in September at the start of the college year (as
                      in the Lancashire scheme). The credibility of being involved with a scheme of
                      this type may also be useful to service providers in securing other work
                     Hosting organisations – the Northumberland scheme may have benefited its
                      hosting body, ADAPT (the local community transport scheme) as funding for the
                      W2W scheme enabled the organisation to purchase land, an asset which enables
                      them to be more stable and sustainable in the future. Hosting organisations can
                      also benefit from new staff, particularly where these dynamic individuals can
                      offer other support to the organisation in addition to management of the W2W
                      scheme.

               Financial benefits

5.12           W2W can turn an individual around from being a „drain‟ on the economy to being a
               contributor towards the economy, paying national insurance, buying petrol etc.:

               Cost of benefits paid to the unemployed

5.13           Current rates of Job Seekers Allowance are:

                     £33.50 per week for 16 to 17 year olds
                     £44.05 per week for 18 to 24 year olds
                     £55.65 per week for those over 25 years.




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          Over a six month period this could amount to costs of between £871 and £1,444.56 for
          a 26 week loan or £1306.50 and £2170.35 for a 9 month loan.

          Income support may also be payable, dependent on individual circumstances.

          Council tax benefit: up to 100% may be payable, dependent on personal
          circumstances.

          Housing benefit: up to 100% may be payable dependent on personal circumstances.

5.14      The costs provided above are indicative but costs in benefits can amount to over £639 6
          per month for an unemployed person dependent upon individual circumstances. In
          addition, other benefits can include assistance in the cost of prescriptions, opticians
          etc. There is also loss of earnings and associated NI and tax contributions to the
          economy as well as overhead costs associated with Jobcentre Plus and other agency
          staff dealing with the unemployed.

5.15      In calculating financial savings that can accrue from W2W, the Cumbria scheme
          gathered information about other initiatives which aim to support young people in
          gaining entry into education, employment or training opportunities and cited the
          following information

               E2E (Entry to Employment) schemes – typically cost £182/week for 22 weeks -
                £4004.
               NEET (Not in Education, Employment or Training) – typical cost £1142.85 for
                25 hours of support.

          Costs of loaning mopeds

5.16      A proposal submitted by the Countryside Agency to DWP in 2004 cited an average
          cost of £1910 per six-month moped loan, or £1192 for a loan by schemes offering a
          transport solution not including a moped loan. This compares to payment of benefits
          of up to £3834 for the same six-month period based on figures in paragraph 5.15 i.e. a
          potential saving of £1924.

5.17      A range of costs per moped loan were cited by different schemes during the evaluation
          study; this will in part be a reflection on the size of scheme (a scheme with a higher
          number of mopeds to cover overhead costs will result in a lower cost per client
          assuming the actual number of loans is reflective of the number of mopeds) and on the
          length of scheme operation. Examples cited included:

               Cumbria: £1500 per 6 month loan.
               Lincolnshire Connexions W2W (information provided by Cumbria Connexions):
                £1092 per 6 month loan.



6
  Assumes: Average council tax bill is £967 i.e. £80.58 per month (www.odpm.gov.uk). Average rent is £368 per
month i.e. £84.92 per week (www.odpm.gov.uk). This is based on an average of the following: Assured Shorthold
(£526pm); Assured (£417pm); Council (£235pm); Registered Social Landlords (£293pm). JSA is £44.05 per week
(for 18 – 24 year olds)


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               Views towards W2W

5.18           A selection of views provided during the course of the evaluation, in addition to those
               provided throughout the rest of this report, is provided below:

               Quotes from partner organisations

               “I have been impressed by the multi-agency support for the project, which has
               resulted in very thorough safety support” [Cumbria – from independent evaluation
               report]

               “A good number of young people have access to education and work and have found
               solutions to transport problems as a result of the temporary help they have received.”
               [Cumbria – from independent evaluation report]

               The scheme is "absolutely invaluable" [Connexions, Nottinghamshire]

               “really fundamental in targeting people who would find access to work or training
               nigh on impossible” [Northumberland NSP]

               “I would hate to see it go” [Action Team for Jobs, Durham]

               “a barrier is knocked down for jobseekers” [Jobcentre Plus, Durham]

               “Devon County Council recognised the need for innovative transport solutions since
               public transport could not serve all rural areas and so a one-to-one approach was
               needed”. [West Devon]

               “(Norfolk Kickstart) improves the quality of people‟s lives. Some people would not be
               in employment if it wasn‟t for Kickstart. It has given people an opportunity not open
               to them previously.”[Jobcentre Plus, Norfolk]

               “We‟ve never had a problem since the day we started doing it” [CBT provider,
               Lancashire]

               Clients

               “If you [Getting There] hadn‟t been able to help it would probably [have] meant
               moving out of the area to find an apprenticeship. Drewsteignton is not on a bus route
               but I had a great opportunity for a young person like myself. This apprenticeship is
               working so well that I have been offered full time work here permanently once I
               finish.” [West Devon]

               “… I have been to prison twice and I have also been to a Centre for Adolescent
               Rehabilitation… not a lot of people would help me and your project helped me fulfil
               my dream. I have now got myself a slightly bigger bike and I am insured in my name,
               taxed and I am the registered keeper.” [West Devon]

               “I am writing to you to say a big thank you for the privilege of the use of a „Getting
               There‟ moped. It was given to me on loan at a very convenient time at home. Mom
               had just had a baby and was returning to work and my Dad came in late from work.



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         Therefore getting me to work every day was becoming a difficult task. I work as
         Second Chef Apprentice and therefore work very unsociable hours as well as often
         being very late. Having a moped has also given me some more independence and
         helped me become more responsible in my attitude as I have to maintain the moped
         and be responsible for it. Also, I don‟t have to rely on my parents so much for help
         which is a great help for them.”[West Devon]

         “Many thanks to all concerned for the loan of the scooter, without which we would
         probably not be here…I am lucky enough to have weekends off so we can spend it
         together as a family. I have now been able to purchase my own scooter…once again
         thank you – without your help this couldn‟t be done.” [Norfolk – from Annual Report]

         “Thank you so much for the loan of the moped…it has allowed me to do a job I love
         out in the sticks when I couldn‟t have afforded a moped. I‟m now zooming about on
         my own moped!” [Norfolk – from Annual Report]

         “I wanted to write and thank you for the brilliant scheme Kickstart is. It is a real
         practical help to our young people in rural areas and he (writer‟s son) has benefited
         immensely from the scheme. He is now mobile with his own moped but the training he
         received and the experience has been invaluable. Your team has been encouraging
         and helpful. My thanks again for all you do in getting kids into work.” [Norfolk –
         from Annual Report]

         “(the scheme is) a lifesaver in a way. It gives you more independence, it means that
         you don‟t have to rely on other people, you can just get on your bike and go. And for
         work too – if they ring and ask you to come in early or stay late you don‟t have to
         worry because you‟ve got your own transport.” [Norfolk]

         “it gives you the freedom to organise your time to suit yourself.” [Nottinghamshire]

         “Today [Bob] passed his driving test first time, just as he had with his theory, and it is
         great thanks to you all… If there was no project, he would not of secured himself
         with an apprenticeship.” The client had been ill and his parents considered that his
         recovery had been accelerated as a consequence of the scheme. “..being able to ride
         again made the tiredness less intrusive. His self esteem was aided by the freedom
         gained to choose where he wanted to go, to be able to go to the job centre and to get
         to his interviews on a safe and reliable scoot [moped]. He had the opportunity to
         avoid being stuck in a small village with serious drug problems amongst his peers…
         Paying half towards his driving lessons enabled us to support him to get him where
         he is today…. He was quite depressed before you gave him this opportunity to put his
         life back on track. I am not sure you realise what a world of difference you make to a
         teenager‟s and their family‟s lives… Thank you seems such an inadequate word to
         express our gratitude to you. I don‟t know where we‟d be without your support. Our
         boy is turning into a fine young man that we are proud of and I would like you to be
         aware that you have played a part in this.” [Parents of client (name changed), West
         Devon].




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6.             KEY ISSUES

               Funding issues

               Continuation funding

                     The problem of securing continuation funding is a key issue for many schemes.
                      Some co-ordinators are responsible for putting together funding bids as well as
                      managing and co-ordinating the day-to-day operation of their W2W scheme.
                      This can be an extremely time consuming and frustrating process, often for
                      securing relatively small amounts of money. This takes co-ordinators away from
                      their real work of getting the mopeds out on loan to young people which,
                      consequently, can result in mopeds sitting idle in depots/workshops.
                     Problems can arise when the value of funding provided by organisations is
                      actually less than that originally pledged. One scheme has written multiple
                      proposals to the Regional Development Agency (RDA) for funding, who had
                      pledged money to support the scheme, but from whom funds have not yet been
                      forthcoming. The RDA requested a county-wide proposal for W2W, but when
                      this was submitted the costs were considered too high, and requested a scaled
                      down version. Discussions have been on-going since, with further drafts of the
                      proposal submitted, and the process has taken so long that the value of the
                      original funding from the RDA has now reduced significantly. If no funding is
                      forthcoming the scheme will have a shortfall of £109k and this could have
                      significant consequences on the long-term future of the scheme. Another scheme
                      reported that Countryside Agency funding of £160k over three years had been
                      offered originally, but following a delay of 18 months in scheme development,
                      this was reduced to £85k.
                     Sourcing European funding was also reported to be particularly difficult and time
                      consuming with one scheme reporting that “we wasted about 14 months going
                      through hoops and getting nowhere.” There was also a view that European
                      funding generally has extensive reporting requirements once sourced – which can
                      lead to extra administrative support being required. However, the Sheffield
                      scheme reported a better experience with European funding; Objective 1 has been
                      very positive towards W2W in South Yorkshire and the scheme considered that
                      the monitoring and reporting is no more extensive or time consuming than other
                      funding requirements.
                     Delays in sourcing continuation funding for follow-on schemes can also result in
                      a temporary break in the scheme as funding is secured or in the worse case
                      scenario, the scheme has to end completely. Even the most mature schemes such
                      as Shropshire‟s which has been operational for ten years, have faced a funding
                      crisis, highlighting the difficulty in securing financial sustainability of schemes,
                      even in the long term. This can affect clients who have become dependent on the
                      scheme. For example, the Runshaw College scheme has not yet secured
                      continuation funding for the next academic year, but there are current clients who
                      are on two year college courses who have come to rely on the scheme to access
                      the college.
                     The level of funding that can be secured can also determine the geographical
                      scope of the scheme and the number of mopeds used, which leads to a resource-
                      led rather than demand-led scheme.
                     The need for co-ordinators to secure funding may result in appointment of an
                      individual to co-ordinate a scheme who is good at writing funding bids but not so
                      good at engaging with young people and getting mopeds out for loan, and vice


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              versa. The uncertainties created by a lack of funding over the short term may
              mean that staff are „forced‟ to leave - leaving a gap which needs to be filled once
              funding is secured and with additional training requirements associated with this.

         Securing funding from key referral agencies

             The level of support from Connexions, LSCs and Jobcentre Plus, particularly
              financially, varied across the country. Although the links between W2W
              enabling people to gain employment, and savings on job seeker benefit payments
              might be logical, it was felt that the very rigid financial processes within the
              DWP makes financial support for W2W schemes difficult. It would seem that
              where Connexions have had a major role in W2W development and operation, for
              example, in Cumbria, this has helped in securing support from LSCs and
              Jobcentre Plus.
             There were concerns that securing funding from referral agencies would lead to
              unwelcome quotas being established for those agencies – the merit of being
              completely independent of the referral agencies was that the assessment of need
              can also be completely independent. Also, reliance on a number of referral
              agencies would increase administration costs for schemes e.g. in terms of
              multiple invoicing, and retrospective payment would also cause cashflow
              problems.
             One of the problems faced by co-ordinators is the uncertainty of what different
              regional funding pots can be used for as Connexions, Jobcentre Plus and LSCs all
              have monies that are left to the discretion of the regions as to the priorities for
              which they will be used. In one area, Jobcentre Plus Advisor‟s Discretionary
              Fund was used to purchase safety equipment (helmets etc), fund CBT and even
              support moped loan payments. In Dorset, Jobcentre Plus has real ownership of
              the W2W scheme, providing the Secretariat and chairing the Partnership. One
              scheme cited that it was possible to secure funding from the LSC via a
              convoluted route; for clients using mopeds to access college, the W2W scheme
              can invoice the college for the client‟s use of the scheme, who can in turn invoice
              the LSC.
             Schemes highlighted that in order to secure certainty of W2W projects, Service
              Level Agreements with agencies are required. However, one co-ordinator
              highlighted that if funding was secured centrally via, for example, DWP, W2W
              could become a „right‟ for individuals rather than a privilege, which could make
              it harder to turn down applicants who were not deemed suitable for the scheme.
              It was considered that being an independent body does make scheme
              administration easier in that respect and in light of this, employment by a County
              Council department such as social services or community transport may be
              preferable.
             Connexions and Jobcentre Plus need to realise that W2W will improve the
              comprehensiveness of their service, yet they should not rely on other
              organisations to fund this. One scheme raised the issue however, that schemes
              hosted by e.g. Connexions cannot access certain funds as they are not a registered
              charity, which is also an issue to be considered. It was suggested that in these
              circumstances schemes may need to „second‟ vehicles to organisations if they
              want to secure funding. Jobcentre Plus in one of the regions stated that their
              access to funding was becoming increasingly restricted, suggesting that it is not
              only W2W schemes who will struggle to obtain continuation funding. The
              uncertain future of some referral agencies and funders was mentioned by
              Connexions in one of the areas.


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                     It was considered that although organisations are generally supportive of W2W,
                      more PR is needed in order to persuade stakeholders to buy into the initiative. A
                      central fund is needed and to achieve this it is necessary to sell the concept to
                      politicians at a central level.

               Capital vs revenue funding

                     Across all schemes, the real funding issue is securing revenue rather than capital
                      funding. Schemes generally have relatively easy access to capital funding for
                      moped purchase from a range of sources. For example, one scheme had the offer
                      of capital funding via a Council‟s Post 16 Transport budget. However, the money
                      was time-bound and the scheme had to purchase the mopeds and put them into
                      storage until adequate manpower could be provided by the scheme to administer
                      the loan of the mopeds. Jobcentre Plus stated in one area that it could not provide
                      ongoing funding for a scheme it had provided substantial start-up costs for, due to
                      funding restrictions.

               Other funding issues

                     The inflexibility of some funding sources had also caused problems in some
                      cases. For example, one scheme reported that Countryside Agency funding only
                      allowed for a 10% management fee, whereas the host organisation of one W2W
                      scheme has a set rate of 16% which automatically caused a potential 6% loss for
                      the scheme. One scheme received a capital grant from the Countryside Agency –
                      the funding letter was received by the scheme on the 30 th March, with a
                      requirement to have the money spent by the 31 st March which created obvious
                      problems.

               Other funding opportunities

                     There is an opportunity for RDAs to provide funding for W2W schemes.
                      Funding via RDAs would help to remove existing problems in respect of
                      boundary issues; applicants are often excluded from schemes because they live
                      outside the W2W area which can be a relatively small area. Region-wide
                      delivery via RDAs would also bring economies of scale.
                     Section 106 funding can also be used to support W2W schemes. For example,
                      West Dorset District Council has provided funding for mopeds through Section
                      106 payments although this does mean that use of the mopeds is restricted to
                      clients living only in certain villages. In Surrey, the County Council is making a
                      decision in April 2005 as to whether to use development monies to fund two
                      mopeds for a housing development in a rural area. All households would be
                      required to pay a contribution into a „transport pot‟ from which mopeds would be
                      purchased, which would be managed by Surrey‟s W2W/W2L Co-ordinator.
                     One scheme suggested that it would be useful if a funder could make up the
                      difference of the cost of operation of each moped loaned out at the end of each
                      year. For instance, if £200 is generated in loan income per year and the mopeds
                      cost £500 per moped to operate, the funder could make up the £300 shortfall. An
                      „overall pot‟ would be needed to claim down this money.
                     Some schemes are considering expanding their services to provide further income
                      streams, for example, Tynedale RTP is considering funding the Tynedale W2W
                      coordinator to train as a driving instructor; the scheme is also looking into
                      potentially loaning their cars to community organisations or to
                      employers/communities for car share. Tynedale‟s W2W scheme makes a high



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              charge for W2W but took the decision to do this in order to make the scheme as
              sustainable as possible so that it did not need to rely continually on securing
              external funding. Also, the scheme made cars as well as scooters available
              because, due to the rural nature of the area, they wanted to pick up on as wide a
              client base as possible. The availability of cars also meant that the scheme was
              not restricted to young people on scooters, but also more mature people and
              females with employment problems who could use the cars etc. By having cars
              available, the scheme also considered that they might also be able to diversify in
              the future to earn additional income.
             Several people (including some of the W2W clients contacted) felt that moped
              loan payments could be increased to provide additional revenue to schemes to
              ensure their viability over the longer term (this related to schemes which
              currently charge £5/week or less for moped loan). One person felt that clients
              may value their moped more highly if they were required to pay more for it.
             Commercial sponsorship had been considered by some schemes although very
              little had been secured in practice. There were thought to be several problems
              related to this – no rider wants to be an advertising board, and concerns that
              mopeds might be targeted for deliberate damage if they were obviously not
              privately owned. However, several schemes have benefited from discounts on
              the provision of services and equipment (including substantial discounts on
              moped purchase, discounts on bulk buying of equipment and discounts on CBT
              provision).

         Safety

             A number of schemes would like to make additional training available to users,
              although budget shortages do not generally permit this.
             The need for CBT to be undertaken in areas where the moped will actually be
              ridden was highlighted by one scheme. An example was given of one scheme
              where CBT was initially undertaken in town centres. Consequently, when riders
              on the scheme came to use roads in rural areas they were not adequately trained
              for the conditions; the scheme had 9 accidents in 1 year from 12 mopeds.
              Consequently, the scheme now undertakes training in rural areas although there is
              still an accident issue, though not such a great one.
             Organisations can be reluctant to support schemes due to concerns over safety
              issues, although these can be overcome e.g.:
               Essex had difficulties in securing support of the County Council.
               Cumbria had problems securing the support of the LSC due to concerns over
                    safety. However, now that the LSC has seen the success of the scheme in
                    Cumbria, they are keen to be involved.
             When securing funding it is important to emphasise the level of training and
              support provided by W2W schemes and to stress that safety issues are addressed
              well e.g. via CBT and additional training.

         Monitoring

             Some schemes are on top of their monitoring, particularly where it is a reporting
              requirement of funders, or has been prepared to inform a funding bid. However,
              this is not uniform, and may inhibit some schemes from accessing future funding.
              Some schemes are awaiting the toolkit from the National W2W Co-ordinator to
              improve their monitoring processes.


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                     Schemes do need to ensure that they have good messages to get across clearly to
                      funders, in accessible formats. Additional guidance on how to pull out the
                      benefits of a scheme and present this evidence in accessible formats (using case
                      studies etc) may be useful to schemes.
                     One scheme questioned the value of monitoring the number of
                      referrals/applications to a scheme; good referral procedures may actually result in
                      a reduction in the number of applications, and great numbers of applications is
                      not necessarily a good thing as time will need to be spent sifting through the
                      requests.
                     It was cited that monitoring requirements have changed significantly over time –
                      and new requirements have been introduced by the National Co-ordinator.

               Other schemes under consideration

                     It was clear from our research that those involved in the on-the ground delivery of
                      W2W schemes are generally extremely committed, enthusiastic and dedicated
                      individuals. Indeed, one co-ordinator considered national W2W conferences to
                      be some of the most positive and dynamic meetings around. With some
                      significant obstacles faced by some schemes, it is apparent that W2W would
                      never have got off the ground in some areas without this continued persistence,
                      dedication and drive to see the scheme succeed. However, this does raise the
                      issue that in areas where such individuals do not currently exist, W2W schemes
                      will not be established in some areas where they could meet a real need. This
                      therefore also supports the need for a „central‟ funding pot.
                     The need for a county-wide strategy for W2W was highlighted in order to ensure
                      that schemes are not funding-led and die once funding has run out. It was also
                      felt that a planned, strategic approach would appeal to a wider group of potential
                      funders.
                     It is clear that some partners would like to become involved in other W2W
                      schemes because of the very positive experiences they have had from being
                      involved in current schemes. This related particularly to CBT providers
                      interviewed as part of the project who felt that their respective schemes were
                      extremely well organised.

               Other lessons learnt from the evaluation

6.1            Other issues raised during the evaluation included:

                     The need to develop quality standards for schemes and introduce a national
                      induction and training programme for W2W co-ordinators.
                     Involvement and support of the County Council is crucial and should be
                      highlighted to those looking to set up new W2W schemes. W2W can help to
                      meet the objectives of the youth work of County and District Councils. Indeed,
                      Uttlesford District Council who are involved in delivery of the Essex Z Bikes
                      scheme has W2W written into their Corporate Plan. It was also suggested that
                      W2W should be written into the transport remit of local authorities. Political
                      Members can also help significantly to raise the profile of W2W.
                     Where driving lessons are included as part of W2W, imposition of a limit on the
                      number offered makes clients more focussed. Schemes have found that a 50%
                      subsidy seems a reasonable figure.
                     The Good Practice Guide has been well received by schemes and was considered
                      particularly valuable because it gives W2W a national „badge‟. One co-ordinator


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              suggested that W2W is sometimes considered to be a „maverick idea‟ to people
              that have not heard of the concept, but the Guide demonstrates that it is an
              initiative that has been successful elsewhere and has national support.
             Appointment of a national W2W co-ordinator has been valued by schemes, and
              schemes spoke highly of the advice and support that the national co-ordinator has
              provided.
             Payment by clients has been an issue for some schemes; one scheme cited that
              they had wanted clients to pay £10 per week in advance, by direct debit.
              However, banks would not facilitate weekly standing orders and Connexions
              considered that it would be prohibitive for clients to pay £40 per month in
              advance. Consequently clients pay £40 per month in arrears although this means
              that the final payment is incurred after the moped is returned to the scheme,
              making it harder to chase payment. In this scheme, in three cases the final
              payment has been written off.
             There is a significant amount of trust involved in ensuring that schemes are a
              success. Schemes which run smoothly have very defined roles and a high degree
              of trust between the partners that each role is undertaken properly and
              professionally. For example, the Nottinghamshire scheme co-ordinator passes on
              clients contact details to the dealer who liaises directly with the client re:
              servicing, taking this burden off of the co-ordinator.




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7.             FUTURE FUNDING OPPORTUINITIES

7.1            The Countryside Agency has to date, provided a large proportion of funding for most
               rural W2W schemes. However, from April 2005, transport funding that has
               traditionally come through the Countryside Agency will be transferred to the RDAs.
               RDAs have pledged to honour all funding commitments to Countryside Agency
               transport schemes until March 2006.

7.2            Given that one of the main aims of this study is to identify how W2W could be
               incorporated into mainstream funding, an important element of the research was to
               identify potential funding sources. The objectives of organisations considered to be
               the most likely sources of funding were then further explored to establish how W2W
               could help to wards achieving their objectives.

7.3            An overview of potential W2W funding sources is provided in Table 7.1.




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             TABLE 7.1          W2W: EXAMPLES OF POTENTIAL SOURCES OF FUNDING

    Level                Source                                What is it?                        Geographical areas to                     How to find out more
                                                                                                  which funding source
                                                                                                         applies

European Union   European Social Fund      ESF funds training, human resources and equal          Covers every part of          Via        Government                            Offices
                 (ESF).                    opportunities schemes to promote employability of      Great Britain under one       www.urban.odpm.gov.uk
                                           people in both Objective 1 and 3 areas. In Objective   of three objectives:          Via EC website www.europa.eu.int
                                           2 areas, ESF may be used to complement ERDF            Objective 1: covers areas     Via local authorities.
                                           activities. ESF will provide up to 45% of project      that are economically
                                           costs.                                                 disadvantaged:
                                                                                                  Merseyside,         South
                                                                                                  Yorkshire,       Cornwall,
                                                                                                  West Wales and the
                                                                                                  Valleys, Highlands and
                                                                                                  Islands of Scotland.
                                                                                                  Objective 2: covers areas
                                                                                                  that are adjusting to
                                                                                                  changes         in    their
                                                                                                  industrial and service
                                                                                                  sectors, rural areas in
                                                                                                  decline, urban areas in
                                                                                                  difficulty             and
                                                                                                  economically depressed
                                                                                                  areas      that    depend
                                                                                                  heavily on fisheries.
                                                                                                  Objective 3: operates
                                                                                                  everywhere except in
                                                                                                  Objective 1 areas.




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National/       Big Lottery (formerly              The Community Fund distributes money raised by the National Lottery      Any area can submit a bid.          http://www.biglotteryfund.org.uk/
Regional        known as the                       to support charities and voluntary and community groups throughout                                           http://www.nof.org.uk
                Community Fund/                    the UK. Schemes will need to meet Community Fund criteria, and
                                                                                                                                                                Tel: 0116 258 7000.
                National Lottery                   schemes offering a range of initiatives which allow a wider range of
                Charities Board)                   people to participate may be more acceptable.
                Regional                           RDAs aim to co-ordinate regional economic development and                There    are    nine   Regional     www.consumers.gov.uk/rda/info/
                Development                        regeneration, enable the regions to improve their relative               Development       Agencies   in     (includes regional contact details).
                Agencies (RDAs) –                  competitiveness and reduce the imbalances that exist within and          England.                            See section 7.26 for further detail.
                                                   between regions.

                Working                            The Working Neighbourhoods Pilot commenced April 2004 in 12 of           12 pilot areas across the country   www.jobcentreplus.gov.uk/cms.as
                Neighbourhoods Pilot               the most deprived neighbourhoods in the country and runs for two                                             p?Page=/Home/Partners/Working
                                                   years. The pilot tests a new approach of offering intensive support to                                       Neighbourhoods
                                                   local residents to help them overcome barriers to employment and
                                                   access the jobs that can often be found within travelling distance of
                                                   where they live.



Local           County,     borough,               Can help with funding via the LTP (capital funding) or through           All areas                           See section 7.23 for further detail.
                district or   unitary              delegated funds.
                councils

                Connexions                         To date, the decision as to whether Connexions will support W2W          All areas.                          See Section 7.8 for further detail.
                                                   schemes has largely been dependent on regional priorities.
                                                   Connexions can make a contribution directly to a W2W scheme via
                                                   the Voluntary Sector Support Fund.
                Jobcentre Plus/Action              Funding pots available which are relevant to W2W include Advisor’s       Jobcentre     Plus:   all  areas    See section 7.10 for further detail.
                Team for Jobs                      Discretionary Fund, the District Manager’s Discretionary Fund, Action    although Action Team for Jobs is
                                                   teams for Jobs Project Fund, Travel Information and Journey Planning     only relevant in some areas.
                                                   Fund and co-financed ESF provision.
                Learning & Skills                  It has traditionally been harder to secure funding from the LSC for                                          See section 7.17 for further detail.
                Council                            W2W schemes.
Other           Training providers,
                the Princes Trust etc.


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         Main stream funding

7.4      The following government agencies/partners are explored in more depth in this section
         as the most likely potential mainstream funders of W2W schemes:

             Connexions Service
             Jobcentre Plus (Department for Work and Pensions (DWP))
             Learning and Skills Council (Department for Education and Skills (DfES)
             Local Authorities
             Regional Development Agencies

7.5      The objectives of these organisations were explored to establish how W2W could help
         towards achieving these objectives:

         Connexions

7.6      Connexions is the Government's support service for all young people aged 13 to 19 in
         England. The service aims to provide integrated advice, guidance and access to
         personal development opportunities for this group and to help them make a smooth
         transition to adulthood and working life. W2W directly helps to meet in achieving this
         objective of improving access to opportunities.

7.7      Connexions joins up the work of six government Departments and their agencies and
         organisations on the ground, together with private and voluntary sector groups and
         youth and careers services. It brings together all the services and support young people
         need during their teenage years. It offers practical help with choosing the right courses
         and careers, including access to broader personal development through activities such
         as sport, performing arts and volunteering activities. All young people have access to
         a Personal Adviser. For some young people this may be just for careers advice, for
         others it may involve more in-depth support to help identify barriers to learning and
         find solutions brokering access to more specialist support. The Personal Advisers
         work in a range of settings including schools, colleges, one-stop shops, community
         centres and on an out-reach basis

7.8      Connexions is delivered through Local Partnerships, working to national planning
         guidance. The Partnerships cover the same geographical areas as the Learning and
         Skills Councils. Delivery of the service is managed and monitored by local
         management committees which usually cover the same areas as local authorities. To
         date, the decision as to whether Connexions will support W2W schemes has largely
         been dependent on regional priorities and to a degree, on the personal views towards
         schemes of individual managers. Connexions can make a contribution directly to a
         W2W scheme via the Voluntary Sector Support Fund.

7.9      W2W can help Connexions provide a more comprehensive service and can help in the
         delivery of NEET targets. For instance, in the Cumbria scheme, six out of the 21
         clients assisted between February and October 2004 were NEET, with an additional 5
         NEET clients looking for a job, and for whom W2W meant that they had been able to
         widen the scope of their geographical search for employment/training.



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               “The scheme might make the difference between being taken on and not being
               taken on: it’s as simple as that" The scheme is “absolutely invaluable.”
               [Connexions, Nottinghamshire]


               “The Wheels to Work scheme in Tandridge, Surrey covers a rural area where young
               people frequently do not have access to public transport at appropriate times or
               locations. The scheme has enabled Personal Advisers to recommend an alternative
               option for NEET clients to ensure that they are able to accept and successfully
               maintain education, employment or training options.”
               [Connexions, Surrey]

               Jobcentre Plus (part of DWP)

7.10           The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) aims to promote opportunity and
               independence for all. The objectives of the organisation are:

                     To sustain a higher proportion of people in work than ever before, whilst
                      providing security for those who cannot work. W2W can directly help to meet
                      this objective by helping people to sustain employment and training.
                     To halve child poverty within a decade and eliminate it in a generation.
                     To combat poverty and promote security and independence in retirement for
                      today's and tomorrow's pensioners.
                     To improve the rights and opportunities for disabled people in a fair and inclusive
                      society.
                     To modernise welfare delivery so as to improve the accessibility, accuracy and
                      value for money of services to our customers. W2W can directly help to meet
                      this objective by improving access to employment opportunities.

7.11           People of working age are one of the main customer groups of the organisation with
               services aimed at them delivered through Jobcentre Plus. Jobcentre Plus helps people
               of working age to find work and training through provision of help and advice, whilst
               also helping people to claim any benefits to which they are entitled. Jobcentre Plus
               also offers a service to employers to help them fill their vacancies quickly and
               effectively.

7.12           Jobcentre Plus partners comprise organisations in the public, private and voluntary
               sectors which complement the Jobcentre Plus service by providing information and
               advice about benefits, jobs and training. Jobcentre Plus works closely with the
               following organisations:

                     Local authorities
                     Learning and Skills Council
                     Inland Revenue
                     Pension Service
                     Other Department of Work and Pensions services such as Appeals Service and
                      Child Support Agency
                     Health services



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7.13     Funding pots available which are relevant to W2W include the District Managers
         Discretionary Fund (DMDF). DMDF has been available in every district since April
         2004. Funding, which is relatively small, will continue for two years. DMDF offers
         flexibility to District Managers (DMs) for use on initiatives in their local community
         to address barriers to employment quickly and effectively. DMs are encouraged to
         invest in partnership working and joint initiatives with local organisations, providers,
         councils and employers to provide innovative solutions.

7.14     The introduction of the fund brought increased discretion and flexibility on local
         spend, subject to compliance with Jobcentre Plus procurement and contracting policy.
         DMs were told that Jobcentre Plus performance agenda and local targets should be
         considered when considering which initiatives to invest in and that DMDF should be
         used:

             to fund initiatives that will break down barriers to employment in the local area
             to fund joint initiatives with other local organisations

         DMDF should not be used:

             where there is already provision available through Jobcentre Plus programmes
             where other flexible fund(s) are available that would be more appropriate
             to make direct payments to individual customers

7.15     District Managers are ultimately responsible, and accountable, for decisions on which
         initiatives to support. W2W can help Jobcentre Plus deliver a more comprehensive
         service and can help to remove transport problems for clients, which can be one of the
         main barriers to accessing job opportunities. W2W also involves extensive joint-
         working with other organisations, including local employers, and meets the criteria for
         the DMDF.

7.16     Jobcentre Plus can also make contributions to W2W via the Advisor‟s Discretionary
         Fund, the District Manager‟s Discretionary Fund, Action teams for Jobs Project Fund,
         Travel Information and Journey Planning Fund and co-financed ESF provision.


         “The North Dorset Scooter Scheme has proved successful in helping young unemployed
         people have greater accessibility to opportunities available to them thereby increasing their
         independence and self esteem. A large amount of our rural employers are not in the main
         market towns so existing transport does not cover these areas as the north of the county is
         not well serviced by transport or other services. This scheme certainly addresses issues
         identified with rural isolation and provides the young people with personal transport
         enabling them to both search for, gain and remain in work.” [Jobcentre Plus, Weymouth]

         “a barrier is knocked down for jobseekers” [JobCentre Plus, Durham]

         "(Norfolk Kickstart) improves the quality of people's lives"…. "some people would not be in
         employment now if it wasn't for Kickstart" … it has given people an opportunity not open to
         them previously" [Jobcentre Plus, Norfolk]




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               Learning and Skills Council (part of DfES)

7.17           The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) is the main agency providing funding for adult
               literacy, numeracy and „English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) provision.
               It has a strategic planning and funding role and has a national office in Coventry and
               47 local LSCs, each covering a specific geographical area.

7.18           The LSC replaced both the Further Education Funding Council (FEFC) and Training
               and Enterprise Councils (TEC). It is funded by the Department for Education and
               Skills (DfES) and is responsible for funding and planning education and training for
               those over 16 years old in England. It does not fund higher education (which is
               funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England), education in prisons
               or programmes for unemployed adults such as New Deal, which are funded by
               Jobcentre Plus.

7.19           The LSC funds providers in four learning sectors:

                     Work-based learning for young people
                     Further education
                     School sixth forms
                     Adult and community learning.

7.20           Prior to April 2001 these sectors were funded through different routes. It had been the
               intention that by 2003/4 there would be a common funding approach – at the moment
               each sector is at a different stage in moving towards this.

7.21           The overall aims/priorities of the LSC7 are to:

                     Make learning truly demand-led so that it better meets the needs of employers,
                      young people and adults.
                     Ensure that all 14-19 year olds have access to high quality, relevant learning
                      opportunities. W2W directly helps to meet this objective.
                     Transform Further Education so that it attracts and stimulates more business
                      investment in training and skills development.
                     Strengthen the role of the LSC in economic development so that they provide the
                      skills needed to help all individuals into jobs.
                     Strengthen the LSC‟s capacity to work effectively at a regional level –
                      particularly with Regional Development Agencies and Regional Skills
                      Partnerships. W2W can help to meet this objective.
                     Improve the skills of the workers who are delivering public services.

7.22           LSCs have probably traditionally been the most difficult referral agency from which to
               secure funding.

               Local Authorities

7.23           W2W schemes can link in very well to a number of service areas of local authorities
               for instance:

7
    „The Skills We Need: Our Annual Statement of Priorities‟, Learning and Skills Council, December 2004.



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                  To the objectives of Local Transport Plans (LTPs), particularly in terms of
                   reducing social exclusion.
                  To Youth Services.
                  To Post 16 Transport – a number of local authorities have secured funding via
                   DfES Pathfinder projects – although this does not represent a long-term solution
                   to the funding issue.

7.24         As part of the LTP process, local authorities must develop schemes that contribute to
             the achievement of the Government‟s shared objectives including reducing
             congestion, improving road safety and improving accessibility. W2W schemes can
             contribute to reducing congestion when parental cars are used less as a result of
             younger people using W2W mopeds. Since W2W schemes require CBT for all
             participants, road safety objectives should not be compromised, and indeed, safety
             may be enhanced since the schemes provide an improved knowledge of safe driving.

7.25         The main benefit of W2W schemes is in improving the accessibility of those who are
             socially excluded. As part of their second LTPs local authorities must prepare an
             accessibility strategy which will comprise a series of local action plans to address
             particular problems of poor access or difficulties faced by certain areas. For rural
             areas with problems of social exclusion amongst younger people, W2W schemes
             could form an important element of these local action plans.

7.26         The release of the Government‟s National Strategy on Motorcycling8 in February 2005
             demonstrated the Government‟s commitment to mainstream motorcycling as a mode
             of transport. The Strategy included reference to W2W, and a Road Safety Officer
             involved in development of one of the W2W schemes considered that W2W was a
             useful „tool‟ to include in the LTP in respect of supporting the aims of the Strategy.

              “The County Council continues to be an active supporter of the Wheels to Work
             scheme. The scheme’s aims fit very well with those of the County in working
             towards access for all to work and training opportunities, widening personal travel
             choice and managing the environmental impact of rural transport through
             advocating appropriate modes. Indicative of this is the presence of the scheme
             within the current and next Local Transport Plan documents, and its role in
             meeting the targets these contain.

             Through participation in the steering and management of the scheme, the County
             has also formed valuable ongoing partnerships with other agencies, local and
             national, that give a new depth to many other areas of its work away from
             transport." [Shropshire County Council]


             Regional Development Agencies

7.27         RDAs were set up by Government to promote sustainable economic development in
             England. They are business led. The main areas in which the RDAs are involved are:

                  Economic development and regeneration

8
    Available at: (http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_roads/documents/divisionhomepage/035443.hcsp)


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                     Business efficiency, investment and competitiveness
                     Employment
                     Skills
                     Sustainable development

7.28           There are nine Regional Development Agencies throughout England:

                     Northwest Regional Development Agency
                     Yorkshire Forward
                     OneNorthEast
                     Advantage West Midlands
                     East Midlands Development Agency
                     East of England Development Agency
                     South West of England Development Agency
                     London Development Agency
                     South East England Development Agency

7.29           The main objectives of RDAs are to help the English regions improve their relative
               economic performance and reduce social and economic disparities within and between
               regions. RDAs fund and support projects which will assist in achieving regional
               priorities identified in Regional Economic Strategies and targets set by them in their
               Corporate Plans.

7.30           RDAs will only provide financial support for W2W if schemes can demonstrate that
               they will help the RDAs achieve their objective of strengthening the local economy. It
               has been demonstrated in this report that W2W do help local people become
               „contributors‟ towards the local economy, as well as increasing the potential labour
               pool for local employers. However, there is a need to demonstrate to RDAs how
               W2W can overcome rural isolation by working in conjunction with other projects in
               the delivery of a package that includes bringing people to the services as well as the
               services to the people. It was considered that W2W is currently too stand-alone and
               needs to be factored into wider economic regeneration.

7.31           It can be seen that if W2W is to be „sold‟ to potential funders effectively, it will be
               necessary to adapt the message in order to suit different potential funders.




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8.             BIBLIOGRAPHY

               “Skills for Life: The national strategy for improving adult literacy and numeracy skills
               – Focus on delivery to 2007”, Department for Education and Skills, 2003.

               “Adult Literacy and ESOL: A Guide to Learning and Skills Council (LSC) Funding
               2003/04”, Department for Education and Skills, 2003.

               “The Skills We Need: Our Annual Statement of Priorities”, Learning and Skills
               Council, December 2004.

               “A Guide to Finding Funding for Rural Transport partnership Projects” Countryside
               Agency, 2004.

               “Two Wheels Work: A good practice guide for developing and implementing wheels to
               work scheme”, Countryside Agency, May 2002.

               “An Evaluation of Wheels to Work Schemes: Final report”, Steer Davies Gleave,
               March 2002.

               “A Wheels to Work Scheme for the East Kent Triangle: An exploratory report to the
               East Kent Partnership”, Action with Communities in Rural Kent, February 2005.

               “The Government‟s Motorcycling Strategy”, Department for Transport, February
               2005.

               Websites: www.connexions.gov.uk; www.dwp.gov.uk; www.countryside.gov.uk;
               www.dft.gov.uk




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                                   APPENDIX A


                    Discussion Guides used in Case Study Interviews




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    A1.            DISCUSSION GUIDE

    Date                           9 February 2005
    Project Name                   Wheels to Work Evaluation                          Project/Ref         206112
                                                                                      no.
    Subject                        Questions for discussions with W2W Co-ordinators


Category                                  Questions

The project ‘story’                             What are the overall aims of your W2W scheme?
                                               What initiatives are offered as part of the scheme e.g. moped loan, provision of public
                                                transport information, electric bike loan etc?
                                               Was provision of any of the initiatives offered, driven by the needs/request of any
                                                funding/non-funding partner?
                                                How long has your scheme been ‘live’?
                                                How was need for the W2W scheme identified?
                                               Who are the target groups e.g. age group/ access to e.g. education, training,
                                                employment etc.?
                                               What are the criteria for acceptance on to the scheme e.g. unemployed for x months,
                                                age etc.
                                                What was the process for scheme development?
Setting up and running the                     Who was involved in scheme development (include both funding and non-funding
scheme                                          partners)?
                                                What process/methods were used to undertake a needs assessment?
                                                Who is involved in scheme operation (include both funding and non-funding partners)?
                                                Who is the hosting body and what is their organisational structure?
                                                How is the scheme managed?
                                                How did you decide the scope/size of the scheme?
                                                What are your medium and long term aims for the scheme in terms of expansion?

Geographical coverage                          What are the geographical, economic and social characteristics of the area covered by
                                                the scheme?
                                                Please provide a map showing the area of scheme coverage.
Nature and engagement of                       Which referral agencies are involved? How does the process for referral take place
other agencies involved,                        (identify process from how clients are made aware of the scheme through to how they
both public and private                         are accepted on to the scheme?
sector (including                               How do you prioritise if you are oversubscribed?
involvement of the non-
transport sector)                              How     was   support   gained    from  different groups   e.g.    Employment
                                                Services/Connexions/LSC/Parish, Town and County Councils/ suppliers of mopeds
                                                etc.
                                                Who led development of the scheme?
                                                What has the level of community involvement been for the scheme?




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Operational issues –       How many mopeds do you have?
mopeds
                           What is your ratio of mopeds: staff? In terms of ease and effectiveness of managing the
                            scheme, do you think this ratio represents: too few mopeds per staff/ is about right/ too
                            many mopeds per staff?
                           How long is the moped loan period? Is the loan period flexible? If so, in what
                            circumstances is flexibility deemed suitable?
                           What happens at the end of the loan period in terms of sustaining the means for a client
                            to access work/training etc.
                           Is use of the moped encouraged for leisure/social purposes etc
                           Is there a mileage limit on moped use?
                            How are mopeds provided by the supplier e.g. purchased, leased?
                           How have you addressed insurance and legal issues e.g. driver liability? Who do you
                            hold insurance with? What is the value of insurance and what does it cover? How much
                            does insurance for the scheme cost?
                           How did you undertake a risk assessment?
                           How have you addressed Health & Safety issues?
                               What training is received?
                               What protective clothing is provided – and at what cost to the client?
                           What follow-up is undertaken with clients e.g. weekly meetings etc (what is the frequency
                            of these meetings and what questions are asked?)
                           How are on-going checks on vehicles’ roadworthiness undertaken?
                           How is vehicle servicing undertaken (one garage or a number of garages)?
                           How do clients collect their mopeds?
                           What happens if a client breaks his/her contract?
                           What problems have you faced in scheme development/implementation and how did you
                            overcome these?

Operational issues –    For those schemes providing other initiatives as part of W2W e.g. electric bikes, minor repair
other elements          grants etc., please provide details of these and how they operate/are administered (for
                        bicycles/electric bikes, please go through check-list as for mopeds above).

Promotion of the           Where is the scheme promoted e.g. GP surgeries, Jobcentres, nurseries, colleges etc.?
scheme                     How effective are the different means of promotion for reaching different groups?
                           How are/can those not registering as unemployed be targeted e.g. women returning to
                            work?

Monitoring use of the      How do you monitor use of your scheme in terms of achievements?
scheme (collection of      What are the total number of clients helped so far by different elements of W2W e.g.
‘before’ and ‘after’        moped loan, advice, minor repair grants etc (include time period)?
data)
                           Can you provide a further breakdown of numbers of clients using different elements of
                            W2W by time period (six monthly or annually) - preferably broken down by age group,
                            gender, journey purpose e.g. education, employment, training:
                               referred to the scheme
                               interviewed by the scheme
                               accepted on to the scheme.
                           How many people have found employment as a result of W2W?
                           Total costs for operation of the scheme – broken down by revenue and capital costs, and
                            on a per annum basis.




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Benefits                              What do you consider are the benefits (both financial and non-financial) of the scheme?
                                       Break this down as:
                                           Benefits to clients – including what would they have done without W2W?
                                           Benefits to individual agencies e.g. Connexions, LSC?
                                       Other benefits e.g. health benefits, self-confidence, independence, greater integration
                                       into the community, better life chances.
                                      How many clients are able to access employment/ education/ training/ social
                                       opportunities who would otherwise not have been able to?
                                      Have those people who have entered employment also undertaken training/ and vice
                                       versa?
                                      Can you provide testimonials from the following to demonstrate the benefits of w2w:
                                           Clients
                                           Different agencies/colleges etc that have benefited from w2w
                                           Employers
                                           Others??

Funding/ gaining                      How did you gain support from different groups:
support                                    Connexions, LSC etc – did they offer funding or just in-kind support?
                                           Parish/Town/County Councils
                                           Suppliers of mopeds/bicycles/electric bikes – did they offer preferential rates?
                                       Please provide a detailed breakdown of funding and costs (per year) for the scheme
                                       including:
                                           A breakdown by funding partner and the amount of funds allocated over the life of
                                             W2W
                                           A breakdown of costs of the scheme.
                                      What were the main issues faced in securing funding?
                                      What in-kind support is/was provided and by whom?
                                      Is there commercial sponsorship from local employers? If so, how did you secure this?
                                      Were there any reporting commitments attached to funding? If so, were these different to
                                       usual scheme reporting/ monitoring?
                                      How did you ‘sell’ the W2W concept to different bodies? What was the critical factor that
                                       secured their support?
                                      Were there any organisations approached that were not willing to support the scheme
                                       financially? If so, what groups were these and why were they unwilling to provide
                                       support?
                                      Can you provide details of your exit strategy?

Further discussions                   We would like to have some informal discussion with:
                                           up to five clients; and
                                           with some of the agencies/employers etc that have benefited from W2W.
                                       Please can you provide appropriate contact details for these (name and phone numbers)

Ongoing funding                       What issues have you faced in terms of funding? What sources of funding have you
                                       explored/ are you thinking of exploring?
                                      Do you have any views on how you thinking organisations could be encouraged to
                                       provide funding to support W2W?

Other comments                        Have you made use of the CA’s W2W Guide, and if so how useful has this been?
                                      Do you have any other comments?


    Many thanks for your time.




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A2.         DISCUSSION GUIDE FOR OTHERS INVOLVED IN W2W

Date                   9 February 2005
Project Name           Wheels to Work Evaluation                        Project/Ref                 206112
                                                                        no.
Subject                Questions for discussions with others involved in W2W (Connexions etc)




       This is a guide only for the typical questions to be explored with agencies etc. The aim of these
       discussions are to identify:

               The benefits that have been attained from W2W in their area (both at an individual W2W
                client level and from an organisational level).
               The involvement of the organisation in setting up and running the scheme.

               Thoughts on how Agencies can be better engaged in supporting W2W (particularly in
                terms of funding).
       1.   How does your organisation support W2W? consider funding as well as support in-kind
       2.   How did your organisation come to be involved in W2W e.g. approach by scheme co-ordinator,
            national contact etc.

       3.   Why did your organisation become involved in W2W e.g. perceived benefits etc.
       4.   What have been the benefits of supporting W2W? (try and get ‘quotes’ here that we can use in
            reporting if possible) – prompt if necessary – include quantifiable benefits e.g. 5 less people
            unemployed, as well as non-quantifiable eg. greater independence of clients etc.

       5.   Have any financial benefits been attained from support of W2W e.g. reduced benefit payments
            etc
       6.   Has W2W assisted your organisation in achieving any of its aims/objectives? If so, what/how?
       7.   What organisations/groups do you think should be approached to support W2W (both at a local
            and (more importantly) a national level?
       8.   How should these organisations/groups be approached – which level should be targeted e.g.
            central/regional/local level? try and obtain contact details for individuals we could approach.




            Many thanks for your time.




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A3.            DISCUSSION GUIDE FOR W2W CLIENTS (USERS)

Date                           9 February 2005
Project Name                   Wheels to Work Evaluation                       Project/Ref        206112
                                                                               no.
Subject                        Questions for discussions with W2W Clients (Users)



        1.    When did you use W2W? between ……………………… and ……………………
        2.    How did you initially find out about W2W prompt: through posters in job centres, word of mouth from
              friends etc.
        3.    Which initiative did you make use of e.g. mopeds, small grants scheme, bicycle loan etc.
        4.    Did you find W2W useful to help you access work or training or interviews?
        5.    How would you have accessed employment/interviews/training without W2W?
        6.    Do you feel that W2W enabled you to access employment that you might otherwise not have been
              able to do? If yes, explain why e.g. no bus service in village

        7.    Did you also use W2W to access e.g. social/ leisure opportunities? If yes, what sort of activities? E.g.
              visiting friends etc.
        8.    How did you get about before using W2W?             Do you still use this method?
        9.    Besides enabling you to access work/training/employment opportunities, what other benefits has
              W2W had for you? prompt if necessary e.g. increased confidence, independence, more social
              opportunities etc.
        10. How long had you been unemployed before you made use of W2W?
        11. By using W2W to access work/training/education, did this result in you stopping receipt of any
            benefits? If so, which benefits?
        12. Were procedures for taking part in the scheme straight forward?
        13. What costs did you have to pay to use the scheme? Were these costs manageable/affordable?
        14. Do you have any ideas how the process could be improved?
        15. How best could the scheme be publicised to others?
        16. We are producing a report about W2W schemes and would like to include some quotes in the report
            about the benefits of W2W. Would you mind if we used some quotes from this conversation? If we
            did do this, we would contact you and let you know which quotes we intended using so that you could
            approve them. You would not be named in person in the report so it would not be possible to identify
            you from the quote. Would this be okay with you? If yes, tell respondent that you may contact them
            again by phone if a quote is used.




               Many thanks for your time.




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                                                          CONTROL SHEET




Project/Proposal Name:                                            EVALUATION OF WHEELS TO WORK SHEMES


Document Title:                                                   Findings from initial review


Client Contract/Project Number:


SDG Project/Proposal Number:                                      206112


                                                            ISSUE HISTORY


Issue No.                               Date                           Details
                                          rd
1                                       3 March                        1st draft to client
2                                       21st March 2005                Final draft to client
3                                         th
                                        4 April 2005                   Final Report – to co-ordinators
                                            th
4                                       15 April 2005                  FINAL REPORT TO CLIENT
                                                                   REVIEW

Originator:                                        Lynn Morgan

Other Contributors:                                Deborah Andrew, Helen Bonner

Review By:                                         Print:         Derek Palmer

                                                   Sign:          Reviewed electronically


                                                             DISTRIBUTION


Clients: Countryside Agency                                              Philip Lendon; Sonia Aldridge; Michelle
                                                                         Cadby
Co-ordinators involved in study (Issue 3)
Steer Davies Gleave:                                                     LXM; DJP; DEA; HXR




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                                                                                                              Control Sheet

								
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