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Manual for 2008 Educational Psychology - DOC

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					Educational Psychology

CP 105

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HEART Trust / NTA VOCATIONAL TRAINING DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (VTDI) EDUCATION AND TRAINING

NO. OF CREDITS: 3 COURSE CODE CP 1O5

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Educational Psychology

CP 105

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION
Expectation of Students Course Aim and Course Outcomes Course Schedule Required Text and Supplementary Texts Learning and Teaching Approaches Method of Assessment

6 7 7 8 11 11 11

MODULE 1 THE TEACHER AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Overview and Objectives WEEK1 Session 1. Definition of Key Terms/Introduction What is teaching? What is learning? What is pedagogy? What is andragogy? WEEK 2 Session 2 The Expert Teacher What makes a good teacher? What is the task of the teacher? Can good teaching be taught? Who is an Intentional teacher? What key behaviours are associated with outstanding teachers? Developing as a teacher? Session 3 Research in Educational Psychology How do we know what we know in Educational Psychology? REFERENCES
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12 14 17 18 22 22

23 27 27 28 29 30 31 32 40 43

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MODULE 2 THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT
Overview and Objectives WEEK 3 Session 4 The Meaning of Development Piaget’s Cognitive Development Vygotsky‘s Socio-Cultural Perspective WEEK 4 Session 5 45 46 51 44

PERSONAL, SOCIAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Erik Erikson‘s Psychosocial Theory 56

Session 6 REFERENCES

MORAL DEVELOPMENT –
Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg 58 62

MODULE 3 APPROACHES TO LEARNING
Overview and Objectives 63

WEEK 5-6 Session 7

UNDERSTANDING LEARNING
Classical Conditioning B.F. Skinner‘s Operant Conditioning Premack Principle Intrinsic and Intrinsic Reinforcers Immediacy of Consequences Shaping Extinction Schedule of Reinforcement The role of Antecedents 64 67 68 69 70 70 71 71 72 73

Session 8

Applied Behaviour Analysis (Behaviour Modification)

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Educational Psychology

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__________________________________________________________________________________ WEEK 7 Session 9

COGNITIVE APPROACH TO LEARNING
What is the information – processing model? Short – term or Working Memory Long -term memory What causes people to remember or forget? How do meta-cognitive skills help students learn? 75 77 77 77 78

WEEK 8 Session 10

SOCIAL COGNITIVE AND CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEWS OF LEARNING
Modelling and Observational learning Constructivist Views of Learning Creating a Constructivist Classroom Applying Cognitive Constructivism in the Classroom Constructivist Teaching Methods 79 80 81 82 84 88

REFERENCES

MODULE 4 MOTIVATION IN TEACHING AND CLASSROOM BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT
Overview/Objectives WEEK 9 Session 11 Motivation Theories of Motivation Social Learning Approaches to Motivation Motivation as Growth WEEK 10 Session 12 Classroom Management in Perspective Characteristics of Effective Classroom Managers What are some Strategies for Managing Routine misbehavior Session 13 Using Applied Behavior Analysis Seven Principles for the effective and humane use of Punishment REFERENCES
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90 93 99 101

106 109 112 113 115 118

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MODULE 5 EXCEPTIONALITIES AND CLASSROOM INCLUSION
Overview/Objectives WEEK 11 Session 14 Who are learners with exceptionalities? Understanding Intelligence 120 121 119

Week 12 Session 15 Characteristics of students with learning disabilities Characteristics of gifted and talented students 129 135

Week 13 Session 16 The teacher‘s role in the inclusive classroom Lesson planning for inclusion 137

WEEKS 14-15

FINAL ASSESSMENT

REFERENCES

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Module 1: The Teacher and Educational Psychology

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INTRODUCTION
Welcome to Educational Psychology. This course is designed to introduce psychological principles, theories, and methodologies to issues of teaching and learning in schools. It focuses on human growth and development in educational settings and involves the study of such questions as: How do people learn? How do the characteristics of the learner (individual differences, personality, cultural background,) influence learning? How can classrooms and schools be organized to facilitate learning? What are the most effective ways to teach? How should teachers approach classroom management and discipline? How can principles of developmental, social, and cognitive psychology be applied to education? It includes topics like child development, learning, motivation and creating learning environments.

This course consists of five (5) modules. At the beginning of each session is a brief overview of the course along with the course objectives. The course objectives highlight what learners should achieve. Each module covers major areas of competencies and comprises an overview that specifies knowledge, performance and attitudinal requirements.

Learners will be assessed, based on the Competency Based Education and Training strategies. It therefore, becomes necessary for learners to participate in all activities. Participants are also encouraged to purchase a copy of the prescribed text and to read other Educational Psychology texts for additional information. Remember this manual is just a skeleton of your course and does not eliminate the reading from other sources. I trust you will find this manual informative and useful. If you have any queries and/or corrections do not hesitate to make contact at the address given below:

Ruby L. Bramwell (Mrs.) Vocational Training Development Institute 6 Gordon Town Road Kingston 6 Telephone # 9771700 - 5 EXT 2108

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EXPECTATIONS OF STUDENTS
Participants are expected to display the attitudes that will best facilitate their progress in the course. It is expected that all students should be punctual, attend classes regularly and participate as is required by the lecturer or the formulated class groups. It is important, that work be submitted on time and that students who have good reason to be absent take the initiative to update themselves on the class they missed, collect all materials that were established and complete the required assignments. If assignments are to be completed on time and with the required level of accuracy and quality, working groups must be willing to meet and do extensive work outside of contact time. Only students who participate in group presentations in their assigned groups will be awarded grades. All students are expected to submit their best work

COURSE AIM
The goal of this course is to provide students with an understanding of ways educational and psychological principles are beneficial in working with others in a teaching, advising, or counselling capacity.

COURSE OUTCOMES
At the end of this course, participants should be able to:    demonstrate knowledge of Educational Psychology and effective teaching interactions demonstrate understanding of the processes by which people learn define learning and compare and contrast the factors that cognitive, behavioral, and humanistic theorists believe influence the learning process, giving specific examples of how these principles could be used in the classroom.    demonstrate understanding of theories of motivation and differentiate between the different theories develop and internalise appropriate attitudes towards teaching, learning and learners discuss the major components and techniques of classroom planning, management and instruction that have been addressed in the study of the teaching/learning process as well as how these general techniques can be modified to address individual differences.  evaluate the impact of Educational Psychology on the teaching/learning environment

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Module 1: The Teacher and Educational Psychology

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DATE
Module 1 Week 1

MODULES
THE TEACHER AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS      What is Educational Psychology? What is teaching? What is learning? What is pedagogy? What is andragogy?

REFERENCES
Slavin: Chapter 1 Woolfolk: Chapter 1 Ormrod: Chapter 1

Week 2

THE EXPERT TEACHER           What makes a good teacher? What is the task of the teacher? Can good teaching be taught? Who is an intentional teacher? What are the qualities of outstanding teachers? What key behaviours are associated with good teaching? How can you develop as a teacher? Slavin: Chapter 1 Matalon: Elliott Chapter 1 Chapter 1

RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY What is the goal of research in Educational psychology? What is the role of research in Educational psychology? How do we know what we know in Educational Psychology?

Woolfolk: Chapter 1 Ormrod: Chapter 1

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DATE
Module 2

MODULES
THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND LANGUAGE Development: Some general principles

REFERENCES

Week 3

Slavin: Chapter 2   Piaget‘s Cognitive Development Vygotsky‘s Socio-cultural Perspective Woolfolk Chapter2

Week 4

PERSONAL, SOCIAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT    Erikson‘s Psychosocial Theory Piaget‘s Theory of Moral Development Kohlberg‘s Theory of Moral Development Slavin: Chapter 5

Woolfolk: Chapter

Module 3 Weeks 5- 6

APPROACHES TO LEARNING    Understanding Learning Behavioural Views of Learning Cognitive Views of Learning Slavin Chapter 6

Woolfolk: Chapter 7

Weeks 7- 8

SOCIAL COGNITIVE AND CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEWS OF LEARNING   Social Learning and Cognitive Theories Constructivism and Situated Learning Slavin: Chapter 8

Woolfolk: Chapter 9

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__________________________________________________________________________________ Module 4 Week 9 MOTIVATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING     What is motivation? Theories of motivation What affects students‘ motivation How can teachers increase students‘ motivation Slavin, Chapter 11 Woolfolk, Chapter 12 Matalon: Chapter 6         Module 5 Weeks 11-13 Physical environment Psycho-social environment Slavin: Chapter 9

Woolfolk: Chapter 10 Matalon: Chapter 5

Weeks 10

CLASROOM BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT

CREATING A POSITIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Procedures Rules Consequences Slavin, Chapter 13 Woolfolk, Chapter 8 Matalon: Chapter 5

DEALING WITH MISBEHAVIOURS Reducing unwanted behaviours Benign procedures for reducing unwanted

behaviours Effective use of punishment Slavin Chapter 12 Eggen Chapter 5 Ormrod Chapter 5 with learning O‘Donnell Chapter 4

EXCEPTIONALITIES AND CLASSROOM INCLUSION       Who are learners with exceptionalities? Understanding Intelligence Characteristics disabilities Characteristics of gifted and talented students The teacher‘s role in the inclusive classroom Lesson planning for inclusion of students

Weeks 14 -15

FINAL ASSESSMENT

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REQUIRED TEXT
Slavin, Robert E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Allyn and Bacon: Boston.

SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS
Biehler, Robert F. and Jack Snowman (1993) Psychology applied to teaching. Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston Elliott.et.al. (2000) Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning.McGraw Hill: Boston Matalon, Barbara A. (1998) Classroom and Behaviour Management. Stephenson‘s Litho Press. Kingston O‘Donnell Angella.et.al. (2004) Educational Psychology: Reflection for Action. Wiley Press NJ Ormrod, Jeanne . (2003) Educational Psychology. Pearson Education: New Jersey Sternberg, Robert. (2002) Educational Psychology. Allyn and Bacon: Boston Woolfolk, Anita. (2004) Educational Psychology. Allyn and Bacon: Boston Internet Sources

LEARNING AND TEACHING APPROACHES
Group Projects Small group learning (cooperative) Self - instruction Lectures Individual Research Case Studies Discussions Brainstorming

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT
Course work and Presentations Final - Oral Presentation 60% 40% 100%

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Module 1: The Teacher and Educational Psychology

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MODULE 1

THE TEACHER AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

OVERVIEW
This module seeks to bring to the fore one very important attribute of all outstanding teachers: intentionality or the ability to do things for a reason, purposefully. In achieving this focus, the module sets the framework by looking first at some basic but important definitions and then dives into the different faucets of intentionality.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this module, you should be able to do the following:          define educational psychology and the areas of study that it includes enumerate the goals of educational psychology, and apply these goals to educational practice. enumerate the traits of a good teacher and assess their personal trait understand the steps one must accomplish to become an effective and intentional teacher. describe how teaching requires a balance of reflection and technique critically evaluate the qualities of different teachers in one‘s experience identify the concerns of beginning teachers, and describe how these concerns change developmentally discuss the role of educational psychology in teaching understand the role of research in teaching and learning

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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
TEACHER! TEACHING! EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY!

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

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WEEK 1 SESSION 1 INTRODUCTION: DEFINITION OF TERMS

So you want to teach?
• • • • Why exactly have you decided to teach? Do you enjoy working with young people? Do you like a particular subject? Do you enjoy working in an environment where people want to learn? No matter what your reason is, you undoubtedly have reached one firm conclusion: YOU WANT TO BE THE BEST TEACHER YOU CAN POSSIBLE BE!!!!!
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

What I am sure of, is that you have done some form of teaching whether formal or informal. Perhaps you have already given an oral presentation in one of your classes or have helped a friend who has little knowledge of a course or topic in which you are competent. You might have taught a child how to ride a bicycle, paint a picture or comb his/her hair. Whatever you have done in this area, might be? considered teaching.

Reflect for a moment on the kinds of teaching experiences you have had. What strategies did you use in your attempt to help someone learn?   Did you provide verbal explanations, demonstrate certain actions, ask your ―students‖ to practice what you taught them, or give them feedback about their performance? What assumptions about how people learn influenced the way that you chose to teach? Did you assume that your students could learn something from listening to you describe it, or did you believe that demonstrating an action would be more effective?   Did you think that ―practice makes perfect?‖ Did you assume that feedback was essential for learning and motivation?



Helping others learn – and, in the process, helping them become more productive members of society – is what teaching is all about.

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―EFFECTIVE TEACHERS CAN, INDEED, MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN THEIR STUDENTS‘ LIVES!‖
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS Teacher Teaching Educational Psychology
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT AND DISCUSS • It is your first interview for a teaching position. The principal takes out a pad of paper, a pen, looks intently into your eyes and says, ―Tell me what you admired about your favourite teacher.‖ What would you write on the paper

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

There is much discussion about what young people should do in their childhood and youth to prepare them for success in adulthood. Once we have determined the desired end results or the prerequisites for success, we need to determine the means or the conditions by which those can be brought about. Education and Psychology are two terms that are often associated with these conditions.

Towards a definition of Educational Psychology
• Education begins at birth and continues throughout life • Educational Psychology is a combination or overlapping of two separate fields of study – Psychology and Education
•

Psychology and Education
Psychology refers to the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes

• Education refers more specifically, schooling • Educational Psychology therefore, is scientific study of mental processes and behaviour in the context of formally socializing and developing the potential of individual human beings
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

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Educational Psychology
• Scientific discipline within Psychology that includes both methods of study and a resulting knowledge base • Concerned primarily with understanding the processes of teaching and learning that take place within formal environments and developing ways of improving the affiliated operations and procedures
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Elliott‘s definition of Educational Psychology
• ―…the application of psychology and psychological methods to the study of development, learning, motivation, instruction, assessment.‖
(Elliott et.al. 2)

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Educational Psychologists are interested in…….
• Learning theories • Teaching methods • Motivation • Cognition • Emotional and moral development
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Woolfolk‘s definition of Educational Psychology
• ―…that branch of psychology that has the understanding and improvement of education as its primary goal.‖ (Woolfolk, 12)

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Elliott further states that the second field of study with which educational psychology aligns itself is education or more specifically schooling. This Huitt defines as the process of – (1) developing the capacities and potential of the individual so as to prepare that individual to be

successful in a specific society or culture. From this perspective, education is serving primarily an individual development function. (2) the process by which society transmits to new members the values, beliefs, knowledge, and symbolic expressions to make communication possible within society. In this sense, education is serving a social and cultural function. W. Huitt, (1999)

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WHAT IS TEACHING?
SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT AND DISCUSS Teacher Training vs. on the Job Training • Which is more important in teaching, being able to use a number of techniques and methods well or being able to solve teaching problems, evaluate solutions, and learn from your mistakes?

What is teaching?
• ―…the intention to bring about learning‖ and if this broad definition is adopted it may be seen that ―any activity that is performed in order to produce learning, however it is conducted, may be considered to be teaching‖
(Hirst and Peters, 1970)

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

In education, teachers are those who help students or pupils learn, often in a school. The objective is typically a course of study, lesson plan, or a practical skill, including learning and thinking skills. The different ways to teach are often referred to as the teacher's pedagogy. When deciding what teaching method to use, a teacher will need to consider students' background knowledge, environment, and their learning goals as well as standardized curriculum as determined by their school district. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Huitt’s further suggests the following about teaching  The purposeful direction and management of the learning process. Note that teaching is not giving knowledge or skills to students; teaching is the process of providing opportunities for students to produce relatively permanent change through the engagement in experiences provided by the teacher. (W. Huitt, 1999)

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WHAT IS LEARNING?

What is Learning?
• ―Learning is an interactive mix of intelligence, motivation, experience, psychological factors and brain chemistry. • It can be as simple as touching a hot stove and learning not to touch it again or as complex as trying to understand the theory of relativity and its application to the space programme, or as confounding as trying to understand why people behave the way they do
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Learning (contd.)
• Learning is an ongoing process of continual adaptation to our environment, assimilation of new information and accommodation of new input to fit with prior knowledge. • Usually, we say learning has occurred when behaviour and or/attitude have changed and modified.‖
(Hamachek, 228)
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Atkinson and Atkinson (1993) further explains learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour that results from practice; behaviour changes that are due to maturation (rather than practice), or to temporary conditions of the organism (such as fatigue or drug-induced states) are not included. (Atkinson, 1993)

How does learning occur?
• Learning is at the heart of psychology, since in almost all situations we have the potential for some kind of learning. Psychologists use three approaches: Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive Learning
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Classical Conditioning
• Neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced by a different stimulus • For example, a baby learns that the sight of a breast will be followed by the taste of milk

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

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Operant Conditioning
• Consequences that follow some behaviour increases or decreases the likelihood of that behaviour occurring in the future • For example, a young child learns that striking a sibling will be followed by disapproval from parents
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Cognitive Learning
• Learning that involves mental processes, such as attention, memory, and may not involve any external rewards or require the person to perform any observable behaviours. • For example, learning through imitation or observation
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Two fundamental assumptions that underlie formal education systems are that students (a) retain knowledge and skills they acquire in school, and (b) can apply them in situations outside the classroom. But are these assumptions true? What do you think? Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

How People Learn
Methods by which knowledge, skills and attitudes are acquired and internalised: • History • Intuition • Tenacity • Experience
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

How People Learn (contd.)
• Maturity • Significant Persons • Common sense • Scientific
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

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Scientific Methods of Learning
• Qualitative • Quantitative

Factors which affect Learning
• Motivation • Orientation • Needs • Attitudes towards learning • Frustration

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Factors which affect learning (contd.)
• Aptitude • Achievement

Understanding the Meaning of Teaching

What does it really mean to teach?
• Self concept • Interest • Ability
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

1. Knowledge of the Content
We can only teach what we understand To teach a topic, we must not only know the basic facts about the topic, but also how it relates to other aspects of the topic

2. Pedagogical Content Knowledge
• An understanding of ―ways of representing….the subject that make it comprehensible to others‖ and ―an understanding of what makes the learning of specific topics easy or difficult.‖ • Pedagogical content knowledge depends on an understanding of a particular topic, and includes knowing how to represent these factors so they make sense to others
(Eggen, 9)
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

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3. General Pedagogical Knowledge
• Involves an understanding of instruction and management that transcends individual topics or subject matter areas • Your study of educational psychology will help you understand how instructional strategies promote learning and how classroom management contributes to productive learning environment
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4. Knowledge of Learners and Learning
• Knowledge of learners and learning is essential, ―arguably the most important knowledge a teacher can have.‖
(Eggen, Kauchak, 12)

Important are: Knowledge of learners Knowledge of learning
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Instructional Strategies
• Teachers must understand different ways of involving students in learning activities, techniques for checking their understanding and strategies for keeping lessons running smoothly. • Questioning is an important example • Provide feedback about understanding of a topic

ROLES OF THE CLASSROOM RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE TEACHER CLASSROOM TEACHER
―Effective classroom teachers not only manage •• Provide the materials, information and their activities to and that of learner to otherown behaviourenable the their students, they must also oversee many other essential acquire new behaviours most effectively elements classroom classroom. students • Set up a of the overallin which theThey are responsible feel securefor physically and emotionally – room arrangements, time allocated for teaching, methods used for instruction, • Expect success from your students dispensing supplies, organizing student movement, and implementing rules and obeying of them‖ (Matalon, 6)
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

EDUCATOR
• • • BE A MENTOR – BE AN EXPLAINER MAKE YOUR SUBJECT INTERESTING

MANAGER
• It consists of all of the teacher‘s action that create an orderly environment and promote learning: • Recordkeeping • Planning and organizing lessons and classroom movement • Routine procedures for handling disruptions
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

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RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CLASSROOM TEACHER
• Provide the materials, information and other activities to enable the learner to acquire new behaviours most effectively • Set up a classroom in which the students feel secure – physically and emotionally • Expect success from your students

Classroom Management
• Teachers must know how to create classroom environments that are orderly and focused on learning • Teachers must know how to plan, implement and monitor rules and procedures, organize groups, deliver meaningful lessons and react to misbehaviour
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

WHAT IS PEDAGOGY?
Pedagogy (pèd-e-go´jê) literally means the art and science of educating children and often is used as a synonym for teaching. More accurately, pedagogy embodies teacher-focused education. In the pedagogic model, teachers assume responsibility for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned, and when it will be learned. Teachers direct learning. (Conner, Internet)

WHAT IS ANDRAGOGY?
Andragogy a term originally used by Alexander Kapp (a german educator) in 1833 and developed into a theory of adult education by the american educator, Malcolm Knowles is the art and science of helping adults learn Knowles' theory can be stated as four simple postulates:     Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction (Self-concept and Motivation to learn). Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning activities (Experience). Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life (Readiness to learn). Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented (Orientation to learning). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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WEEK 2 SESSION 2 INTRODUCTION
Sandy is all nervous anticipation as she starts her first day as a junior high school science teacher. Within the first few minutes, however, she finds her motivation challenged. By the end of the day, she is worn out and worried about how she‘ll ever survive as a teacher. Luckily, she meets expert teacher Danielle. Danielle recognizes in Sandy all the symptoms of a tough first day, and she offers to help Sandy. Over the course of her first year, Sandy relies on Danielle‘s sage advice for help in many difficult situations. Sandy emerges at the end of her first year feeling wiser and more in control, as well as deeply grateful to Danielle. You may be worried you‘ll feel the same way Sandy does when you begin teaching. The purpose of section is to help you avoid her predicament. You‘ll find out what it takes to be an expert teacher like Danielle. What do expert teachers know and what do they do? (Sternberg, 2004)

THE EXPERT TEACHER

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
MODULE 1 WHAT IS AN EXPERT TEACHER?

1. EXPERT 1. EXPERT TEACHERS HAVE TEACHERS HAVE EXPERT EXPERT KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

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Types of Expert Knowledge
PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE –
CONTENT KNOWLEDGECONTENT KNOWLEDGEknowledge of the subject being knowledge of the subject being taught taught

knowledge of how to teach. Knowledge of how to enhance student motivation, classroom management and how to design and administer tests

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

2. EXPERT 2. EXPERT

TEACHERS ARE TEACHERS ARE EFFICIENT EFFICIENT

PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE – knowledge of how to teach what is specific to what is being taught, such as knowledge of how to explain particular concepts ( for example, negative numbers in math)

-the ability to solve problems efficiently

-the ability to do more in less time usually with less effort How do experts accomplish this? 1. Experts automatize i.e. develop the ability to perform important tasks without thinking about them-like driving a car 2. Experts effectively plan, monitor, and revise their approach to problems
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Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

3. EXPERT 3. EXPERT

IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING Teachers become experts by learning from experience about the content of the subjects they teach, about general methods for teaching and about specific methods that work to teach their content areas Teachers become expert by growing in efficiency as they “think about thinking” and learn to make daily tasks and routines automatic Teachers become experts by developing their insight and ability to solve problems by understanding the important aspects of problems, understanding how other solutions in the past can be used to solve problems in the present, and understanding how to reorganize problems to make them easier to solve
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

TEACHERS HAVE TEACHERS HAVE CREATIVE INSIGHTS CREATIVE INSIGHTS

-apply knowledge and analysis to solve problems. Experts do not simply solve the problem at hand; but redefine the problem – that is they do not take the problem at face value but instead cast the problem in a new light or see it from a new perspective
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

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CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPERT STUDENTS/LEARNERS
1. USE OF 1. USE OF EFFECTIVE EFFECTIVE LEARNING LEARNING STRATEGIES STRATEGIES

learn strategies from other students and friends by studying in groups
- parents

- may

-use of efective learning strategies -Use of strategies to help them learn, remember and use information

can provide a source of strategies, as can other adults, such as librarians, tutors and even child care professionals - expert students sometimes invent their own strategies
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

- may acquire these strategies through direct instruction from classroom teachers

2. INCREMENTAL 2. INCREMENTAL VIEW OF VIEW OF INTELLIGENCE INTELLIGENCE

3. HIGH 3. HIGH ASPIRATIONS ASPIRATIONS

- research shows that intelligence can be increased through training and effort (Sternberg, 2002)
-motivation

- beliefs about what we can become in life are important motivators that propel us toward future accomplishments, or, conversely, limit our efforts and accomplishments (Markus and Nurius, 1986)

-expert students believe they can achieve highly in life, and they work to make these achievements happen - even when discrimination and/or poverty, might limit students‟ participation in education, students can be encouraged to develop realistically high aspiration to increase their chances for success

to achieve is linked to the belief that intelligence can be increased
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

FINDINGS ABOUT SELF EFICACY
4. HIGH 4. HIGH PERCEIVED PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY SELF-EFFICACY - expert students believe they are capable of succeeding in school and attempt more challenging tasks and achieve more academically as they progress through school

- Self-efficacy tends to be found in particular domains so is not usually experienced for everything one might possibly attempt. For example an individual might have high self-efficacy in English and low self-efficacy in Math. -A practical suggestion for students who want to become more expert in an area is to focus on good performances in areas already mastered to bolster confidence and enhance effort when confronting a weaker area
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

- previous success at an activity increases perceived selfefficacy as nothing succeeds like success

- positive social role models can have effect on perceived self-efficacy; especially encouraging role models who demonstrate how to succeed at a given activity

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- Another important finding about self-efficacy is that people tend to tolerate failures better when they have a previous record of success in an area – but that failure can be devastating to self-efficacy when it accompanies a first try at a new goal. Students tend to be more vulnerable to failure and criticism when they try something new compared with when they try to move up a level in doing something they can already do well. Thus, it is important to create a record of success for yourself when you work at developing proficiency in an area
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

5. PURSUIT OF A 5. PURSUIT OF A TASK TO TASK TO COMPLETION COMPLETION - often students get started on a task, but then, in the middle of the task, they lose momentum – because of frustration, inability to find necessary information, slow rates of progress and other factors – and fail to finish -expert students use many different methods to help them through stumbling blocks and see tasks through
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

6.RESPONSIBILITY 6.RESPONSIBILITY FOR SELF AND FOR SELF AND ACTIONS ACTIONS INTERNAL PERSONALITY PATTERN – tend to take responsibility for their lives. When things go well, take credit for their efforts but when things do not go well tend to take responsibility and try to make things go better

- expert students must be willing to take control of a task, to criticize themselves, and, conversely to take pride in their best work

7. ABILITY TO DELAY 7. ABILITY TO DELAY GRATIFICATION GRATIFICATION

-an expert student will work on a project or task for a long time without immediate rewards. -students must learn that rewards do not always come immediately - to be expert, students must learn to delay gratification, because there are clear benefits in doing so
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

SPECIFIC STRATEGIES USED BY BOTH EXPERT TEACHERS AND EXPERT STUDENTS THE ANALYTICAL TEACHER: James sits down at the end of the week and evaluates which lessons worked the best for his students, which did not work well, and why.

THE CREATIVE TEACHER: James cuts the teacher of the week profile out of his teaching newsletter, and he adapts three ideas from the profile to use in his classroom

THE ANALYTICAL STUDENT: When Marcia recognizes his work is slipping, he reviews a list of key study habits (handed out by his teacher) in order to determine what he is doing wrong

THE CREATIVE STUDENT: Marcia challenges himself by writing down and striving to meet different goals on a day-to-day basis to keep his study time from becoming boring and repetitive
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

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THE PRACTICAL TEACHER: James watches and listens to his colleagues, and listens to what students say about his colleagues, in order to learn from his colleagues‟ accomplishments and mistakes

IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING

Expert teachers work to help their students become expert learners. These teachers recognize that development of expertise in any area is a process that takes time, patience and hard work Expert students use strategies to help them learn, know that intelligence can be increased, have high aspirations and see themselves as capable of achieving these aspirations, see tasks through to completion, take responsibility for themselves and their actions and understand the value of delaying gratification Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

THE PRACTICAL STUDENT: Marcia organizes study groups with his friends, in which they help one another and push each other to work harder

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell VTDI

WHAT MAKES A GOOD TEACHER
Is it warmth, humor, and the ability to care about people? Is it planning, hard work, and self-discipline? What about leadership, enthusiasm, a contagious love of learning, and speaking ability? Most people would agree that all of these qualities are needed to make someone a good teacher, and they would certainly be correct. But these qualities are not enough.

Subject matter knowledge is important. But effective teachers can also communicate their knowledge to students. The link between what teachers want students to learn and learning is called instruction, or pedagogy. Effective instruction is a matter of one person with more knowledge transmitting this knowledge to the other. Slavin (2003)

WHAT IS THE TASK OF THE TEACHER?
Motivating students, managing the classroom, assessing prior knowledge, communicating ideas effectively, taking into account the characteristics of the learners, assessing learning outcomes, and reviewing information—must be attended to at all levels of education, in or out of schools.

Slavin (2003)

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CAN GOOD TEACHING BE TAUGHT?
The answer is definitely yes. Good teaching has to be observed and practiced, but there are principles of good teaching that teachers need to know, which can then be applied in the classroom. The major components of effective instruction are:     Knowledge of subject and teaching resources Critical thinking and problem-solving skills Knowledge of students and their learning Teaching and communication skill Slavin, (2003)

COMPONENTS OF GOOD TEACHING

http://www.abacon.com/slavin/t1.html

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WHO IS AN INTENTIONAL TEACHER?
One attribute seems to be characteristic of outstanding teachers and that is intentionality. Intentionality means doing things for a reason, on purpose.  Intentional teachers constantly think about the outcomes they want for their students and about how each decision they make moves children toward those outcomes.   Intentional teachers know that maximum learning does not happen by chance. Intentional teachers are constantly asking themselves what goals they and their students are trying to accomplish; whether each portion of their lesson is appropriate to students‘ background knowledge, skills, and needs; whether each activity or assignment is clearly related to a valued outcome; whether each instructional minute is used wisely and well.   Intentional teachers trying to build students‘ synonym skills during follow-up time might have them work in pairs to master a set of synonyms in preparation for individual quizzes. Intentional teachers achieve a sense of efficacy by constantly assessing the results of his or her instruction o o constantly trying new strategies if their initial instruction didn‘t work constantly seeking ideas from colleagues, books, magazines, workshops, and other sources to enrich and solidify their teaching skills. Slavin (2003)

WHAT ARE THE QUALITIES OF OUTSTANDING TEACHERS?
Ernest Boyer (1990) identified several characteristics that he believed made highly effective teachers 

They employ language clearly and efficiently. If teachers present their ideas in colourful, exciting writing and express themselves precisely in their oral language, students have superb models from which to learn. These teachers talked to their students, not at them.



They are well informed and comfortable with the history and frontiers of their disciplines, so they provide students not only with facts but also with a way of thinking that serve them well in a complex world. For example, the teacher who presents basic genetic facts and then goes on to show how this

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________________________________________________________________________________________ knowledge can lead to the future cure of serious diseases breathes real life into what may seem to students to be remote, abstract facts 

They relate what they know to their learners so that students become aware of the beauty, the power and the application of knowledge

WHAT KEY BEHAVIOURS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH GOOD TEACHING?


Lesson Clarity. Lesson clarity means that students understand you. If you organize material
carefully, give precise directions, link the present lesson to past work, use instructional strategies that are appropriate for students‘ ages and cognitive levels, you will be one of those instructors who maintain the attention of students and communicate effectively



Instructional Variety. Effective teachers use instructional variety. Dynamic teachers experiment,
evaluate, read the feedback from students and switch techniques when a lesson seems to be stalled. They are alert to the signals their students are giving and use these clues to change from recitation to discussion, from seatwork to physical activity



Task Involvement. Good teachers are acutely aware of their students‘ task orientation and
engagement in the learning process. Good teachers display a remarkable ability to keep students actively involved with a task, which is one of the most significant predictors of students‘ academic success. Ideally, students should be actively engaged with a task if learning is to occur. Just sitting at a desk surrounded by books, either at school or at home, and daydreaming is not engagement with a task



Praise carefully. Be careful how you praise. Praise can be a mixed blessing. Non-contingent
praise is praise that is not linked to a specific behaviour. Do not let a student‘s personal qualities, rather than achievement, be the occasion for praise. You will find this becomes self defeating when students discern the hollow nature of the praise. In their own way students are astute readers of human nature. Empty praise inevitably produces a challenge to their self-esteem and begins to erode appreciation of honest achievement

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Consistent Classroom Guidelines. Good teachers avoid double standards – what is right for the
pupil (politeness, punctuality) is right for the teacher. Teachers who refuse to use threats and intimidation know that students cannot learn or acquire self-discipline in a tense, hostile environment. Instead they try to understand the purpose of the misbehaviour to establish a relationship based on trust and mutual respect. Teachers who treat their students as ―nearly equal” gain their respect and establish relationships that lead to honest dialogue and fewer problems. Remember: Emphasize the positive and refuse to take misbehaviour personally



Periodic feedback. Students need to know how well they are doing and what they need to

improve on. Effective teachers provide students frequent feedback about their work efforts and performances. Assessment of student learning plays a central role in providing students meaningful information on what they are doing well and what they need to work on more. (Elliott, 6-7)
DEVELOPING AS A TEACHER
As a beginning teacher, you may initially find your role a bit overwhelming. After all, you may have twenty-five to thirty-five students in your classroom at any one time, and they are likely to have different backgrounds, ability levels and needs. This course describes many ways you can help your students learn and develop. But it is equally important that you learn and develop as well. Here are several strategies to help you do so:      continue to take courses in education – sure way of keeping up to date on the latest theoretical perspectives and research results related to classroom practice. learn as much as you can about the subject matter you teach learn as much as you can about specific strategies for teaching your particular subject matter learn as much as you can about the culture(s) of the community in which you are working conduct your own research.

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KEY CONCEPTS TO ALWAYS REMEMBER:
o Characteristics of an effective teacher.          Knows subject matter. Combine research and common sense. Mastered pedagogical skills. Consistent. Enthusiastic. Firm. Fair. Working knowledge of relevant research Reflective, that is determines the effectiveness of present practices and makes changes where necessary.

SESSION 3

RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

INTRODUCTION
Educational psychology involves the study of cognitive, emotional, and social learning processes that underlie education and human development across the lifespan. Research in educational psychology advances scientific knowledge of those processes and their application in diverse educational and community settings. This section looks at the impact of research in education. This power point presentation is W. Huitt‘s postulate of research in Educational psychology. Read Chapter 1 in Educational Psychology by Robert Slavin.

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Educational Psychology
Define and contrast descriptive, correlational and experimental studies, giving examples of how each of these have been used in educational psychology. Define the four basic methods used to collect data in educational psychology (systematic observation, participant observation, paper/pencil, and clinical), giving an example of how each has been used in the study of important variables in educational psychology.

Research in Educational Psychology
In order for a process to be described as “scientific” it must meet three criteria: • knowledge must be grounded in experience • knowledge must be grounded in a paradigm or exemplar • any hypothesis must be potentially falsifiable

Research in Educational Psychology
There are a variety of ways of validating truth: • Personal experience • Intuition • Social and/or cultural consensus • Religious scripture and interpretation • Philosophy and logical reasoning • Science and the scientific method

Research in Educational Psychology
Some scientists argue that the only appropriate phenomena to study using the scientific method is behavior that is observable by others However, other scientists believe that personal and interpersonal subjective experiences can also be studied using the scientific method

Educational Psychology
In your discussion, define and differentiate the following terms: fact, concept, principle, hypothesis, theory, and law.

Research in Educational Psychology
The scientific method can be used to engage in • Research where the objective is to gain understanding of a particular phenomena OR • Evaluation where the objective is to make a judgement of worth or value

Developed by W. Huitt (1999)

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Research in Educational Psychology
There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations • Descriptive study Used when we have little knowledge of a phenomena and we want to describe it accurately and truthfully

Research in Educational Psychology
There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations • Correlational study Used when we want to understand the relationships among variables and make predictions from present circumstances to future ones

Research in Educational Psychology
Educational psychology offers a fertile opportunity for scientists to demonstrate the validity of these opposing viewpoints Sample topics that have been addressed include: • Cognitive development • Language development • Teaching methods for concept development

Research in Educational Psychology
There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations • Correlational study Correlation coefficient describes the strength of the relationship Range is from -1 to +1

Research in Educational Psychology
Assessment

Example of A Zero Correlation

Qualitative

Quantitative Measurement

Research

Evaluation

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Example of A Positive Correlation

Example of A Negative Correlation

Example of A Perfect Correlation

Research in Educational Psychology
There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations • Correlational study Correlation coefficient describes the strength of the relationship Range is from -1 to +1 Type of relationship is determined by sign Strength of relationship is determined by absolute value

Research in Educational Psychology
There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations • Correlational study Correlation coefficient describes the strength of the relationship Range is from -1 to +1 Type of relationship is determined by sign

Research in Educational Psychology
There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations • Experimental study Used when we have a fairly good understanding of predictive relationships and we want to demonstrate cause/effect relationships

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Research in Educational Psychology

Research in Educational Psychology
There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations • Experimental study Must have at least two groups Subjects must be randomly assigned One group must experience a treatment The INDEPENDENT variable is manipulated

.60 > .40 (Regardless of sign)

Change (if any) is observed in the DEPENDENT variable

Research in Educational Psychology
There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations • Experimental study

Research in Educational Psychology
There are four levels of scientific investigation: Action -- What is the relationship of A and B or what is the impact of A on B? Example -- What are the best teaching methods that can be used to motivate students to learn?

Only Results from Experimental Studies Can Demonstrate Cause and Effect Relationships

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Research in Educational Psychology
There are four levels of scientific investigation: Interaction -- What is the impact of A @ B1, A @ B2, etc.? Example -- Does using cooperative learning in gender-mixed classrooms impact girls the same way it impacts boys?

Research in Educational Psychology
There are four levels of scientific investigation: Transaction -- What is the relationship between A and B over time? Example -- What are the processes by which a mother’s educational level impacts the parent-child interaction and subsequent characteristics of the child when he or she enters a classroom at a later date?

Research in Educational Psychology
There are four levels of scientific investigation: Transaction -- What is the relationship between A and B over time? Example -- If a teacher has successfully used a behavior modification technique, but has since stopped, what does the child do the next time the teacher uses that same technique?

Research in Educational Psychology
There are four levels of scientific investigation: Transformation -- How do qualitative changes in A impact qualitative changes in B; also B1 on A1, etc. Example -- How does parent involvement in a training program designed to impact a child’s classroom behavior impact the siblings of the child and the sibling’s subsequent interactions with the parent and future classroom behavior?

Research in Educational Psychology
There are four basic methods used to gather data to be used in scientific studies. Each of the methods can be used in all three types of studies: • Paper/pencil -- any information gathered by asking the subject a question • Systematic observation -- trained recorder gathers data on prearranged variables

Research in Educational Psychology
There are four basic methods used to gather data to be used in scientific studies. Each of the methods can be used in all three types of studies: • Participant observation -- the person collecting the data participates in the process being observed • Clinical -- specially-trained practitioners gather data as part of a diagnostic/prescriptive activity

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Research in Educational Psychology
Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: FACT • an idea or action that can be verified • names and dates of important activities; population of the United States in the latest census

Research in Educational Psychology
Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: CONCEPT • rules that allow for categorization of events, places, people, ideas, etc. • a DESK is a piece of FURNITURE designed with a flat top for writing; a CHAIR is a piece of FURNITURE designed for sitting; a CHAIR with a flat surface attached to it that is designed for writing is also called a DESK

Research in Educational Psychology
Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: PRINCIPLE • relationship(s) between/among facts and/or concepts • the number of children in the family is related to the average scores on nationally standardized achievement tests for those children

Research in Educational Psychology
Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: HYPOTHESIS • educated guess about relationships (principles) • for lower-division, undergraduate students study habits is a better predictor of success in a college course than is a measure of intelligence or reading comprehension

Research in Educational Psychology
Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: THEORY • set of facts, concepts, and principles that allow description and EXPLANATION • Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Erikson's theory of socioemotional development, Skinner's theory of operant conditioning

Research in Educational Psychology
Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: LAW • firmly established, thoroughly tested, principle or theory • a fixed interval schedule for delivering reinforcement produces a scalloping effect on behavior

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Research in Educational Psychology
Use of the scientific method does not necessarily invalidate information gathered through other means. However, when data from science seem to contradict data from personal experience, intuition, social or cultural consensus, religious scripture and interpretation, or philosophy and rational thinking, an opportunity for learning has presented itself.

Research in Educational Psychology

As stated previously, educational psychology is a SCIENTIFIC approach to the study of the teaching/learning process. You will be expected to support your opinions developed through another source with data collected using the scientific method.

Research in Educational Psychology

AN IMPORTANT CAVEAT
Only a small amount of the principles and theories developed in educational psychology have support from a body of research developed through the use of experimental studies. Therefore, most of the concepts, principles, and theories discussed in this course must be considered as best-first-guess hypotheses.

HOW DO WE KNOW WHAT WE KNOW IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY?
As in any scientific field, knowledge comes from many sources. Sometimes researchers study schools, teachers, or students as they are, and sometimes they create special programs, or treatments study their effects on one or more variables (anything that can have more than one value, such as age, sex, achievement level, or attitudes). The principal methods educational researchers use to learn about schools, teachers, students, and instruction are experiments, correlational studies, and descriptive research. Perhaps the most frequently used research method in education is the correlational study. In contrast to an experiment, in which the researcher deliberately changes one variable to see how this change will affect the other variables, in correlational research the researcher studies variables as they are to see whether they are related.

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http://www.abacon.com/slavin/t2.h

ADVANTAGES OF THE CORRELATIONAL METHOD
Variables can be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated. An example of a positive correlation is the relationship between reading achievement and mathematics achievement. Generally, someone who is better than average in reading is also likely to be better than average in Math. When one variable is high, the other tends also to be high. An example of a negative correlation is days absent and grades. The more days a student is absent, the lower his or her grades will tend to be.

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DISADVANTAGE OF THE CORRELATIONAL METHOD
The principal disadvantage of correlational methods is that while they may tell us that two variables are related, they do not tell us what causes what. Indeed, correlation does not imply causation-this is a frequent pitfall for novice researchers. Action research is a particular form of descriptive research that is carried out by educators in their own classrooms or schools. In action research, a teacher or principal might try out a new teaching method or school organization strategy, collect information about how it worked, and communicate this information to others. Because the people involved in the experiment are the educators themselves, action research lacks the objectivity sought in other forms of research, but it can provide deeper insight from front-line teachers or administrators than would be possible in research done by outsiders.

CORRELATIONS DO NOT SHOW CAUSATION

When research shows that broken homes and crime are correlated, it does not show causation. In this illustration, poverty, a third variable, may be correlated to both crime and broken homes. Determining the requires demonstrating that there are no other correlated effects (other possible causes) and that the cause actually precedes the effect.
http://www.abacon.com/slavin/t3.html

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REFERENCES
Elliott, Stephen N. et.al. (2000).Educational Psychology; Effective Teaching, Effective.Learning.McGraw Hill. Boston Ormrod Jeanne Ellis. (2003) Educational Psychology – Developing Learners. Merrill Prentice Hall. New Jersey

Slavin, Robert E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Allyn and Bacon: Boston.

Sternberg, Robert. (2002) Educational Psychology. Allyn and Bacon: Bosto Woolfolk, Anita. (2004). Educational Psychology. Pearson. Boston

http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan98/talk.html http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/candid.html http://www.stanford.edu/dept/CTL/TA/char.html http://www.stanford.edu/dept/CTL/TA/char.htm http://www.abacon.com/slavin/t3.html http://www.abacon.com/slavin/t2.html

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Module 2: Theories of Development

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MODULE 2 THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT

OVERVIEW
This Module is concerned with how people grow, adapt, and change over the course of their lifetimes, through physical development, personality development, socio-emotional development, cognitive development (thinking), and language development. This module presents five major theories of human development that are widely accepted: Jean Piaget‘s theory of cognitive and moral development, Lev Vygotsky‘s theory of cognitive development, Erik Erikson‘s theory of personal and social development, and Lawrence Kohlberg‘s theories of moral development.

OBJECTIVES
After studying this module, you should be able to do the following:           understand some general principles of human development demonstrate knowledge of Piaget‘s four stages of development summarize the key ideas in Vygotsky‘s theory analyze Vygotsky‘s belief that culture powerfully shapes cognitive development identify the major points on which Piaget and Vygotsky disagree understand the implications of Piaget‘s and Vygotsky‘s theories for teaching students of different ages understand Erikson‘s stages of psychosocial development and their implications for teaching distinguish between Piaget‘s Cognitive development and Erikson's Psycho-social development understand Kohlberg‘s stages of moral development and how teachers can respond to cheating and aggression in the classroom evaluate moral development in terms of value systems impacted by environmental issues

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WEEK 3 SESSION 4 THE MEANING OF DEVELOPMENT

The term development in its most general psychological sense refers to certain changes that occur in human beings (or animals) between conception and death. The term is not applied to all changes, but rather to those that appear in orderly ways and remain for a reasonably long length of time. Human development is divided into a number of different aspects: Physical Development Personal Development Social Development Cognitive Development changes in the body changes in an individual‘s personality changes in the way an individual relates to others changes in thinking

NATURE-NURTURE CONTROVERSY:
Is development predetermined at birth, by hereditary factors, or do experience and other environmental factors affect it?

Nature – an organism‘s biological inheritance Nurture – environmental experiences
Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nature and nurture combine to influence biological factors playing a stronger role in some aspects, such as physical development, and environmental factors playing a stronger role in others, such as moral development

CONTINUOUS AND DISCONTINUOUS THEORIES:
Is human development like a seedling gradually growing into a giant oak? Or is it more like a caterpillar suddenly becoming a butterfly?

Continuity of Development.(quantitative development) – development involves gradual cumulative
change from conception to death.

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Discontinuity of Development (qualitative development) – development through distinct stages in the life span. According to the discontinuity perspective, each of us passes through a sequence of stages in which change is qualitatively, rather than quantitatively different. As a mahoe tree moves from seedling to giant tree, it becomes more oak – its development is continuous. As a caterpillar changes into a butterfly, it becomes not just more caterpillar but a different kind of organism – its development is discontinuous. For example, at a certain point, a child moves from not being able to think abstractly about the world to being able to do so. This is qualitative, discontinuous changes of development, not quantitative, continuous development. Santrock (1996)

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT
1. People develop at different rates – in your classroom your students will attest to this. Some will be larger, some will be more matured in their thinking and social relationships. 2. 3. 4. Development is relatively orderly – people develop abilities in a logical order Development takes place gradually. Development (environment). is continually affected by both nature (heredity) and nurture

SESSION 5
  

JEAN PIAGET’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Born in Switzerland in 1896, Piaget is the most influential developmental psychologist in the history of psychology. Piaget explored both why and how mental abilities change over time. For Piaget, development depends in large part on the child's manipulation of and active interaction with the environment. Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that a child's intellect, or cognitive abilities, progresses through four distinct stages. The emergence of new abilities and ways of processing information characterize each stage.

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BASIC TENDENCIES IN THINKING Organization
 Ongoing process of arranging information and experience into mental systems or categories

Adaptation
 Adjustment to the environment

Assimilation
 The cognitive process by which a person integrates new information into existing schema, or pattern of behaviour

Accommodation
 Occurs when new information cannot be assimilated into an existing schema. Must create new schema or modify an existing schema.

Equilibration
 Search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from environment

Disequilibrium
 ..the ‗ off balance‘ state that occurs when a person realizes that his/her current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem or understand a situation

Schema
  Cognitive or mental structures by which people intellectually adapt and organize the environment Used to process and organize incoming information

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Developing Schemes
Cognitive Development is guided by two innate components

1. Organization  The combining of basic building blocks (schemes) into coherent systems that become stages of behavior 2. Adaptation  The way the children adjust to the environment. Mechanisms for adjusting to the environment 1. Assimilation – occurs when new experiences can be incorporated into existing schemes 2. Accommodation – occurs when an existing scheme must be modified to incorporate new experience. Accommodation is the force that drives the cognitive system through stage changes Organization and adaptation are designed to produce equilibrium – a sense of cognitive balance that the individual strives for.

STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The Sensorimotor Stage (ages 0-2)
    Sensorimotor – exploration of their world by using their senses and their motor skills. By the end of the sensorimotor stage, children have progressed from their earlier trial-and-error approach to a more planned approach to problem solving. Another hallmark of the sensorimotor period is the development of a grasp of object permanence. Object permanence is the awareness that an object continues to exist even when it is not in view. In young infants, when a toy is covered by a piece of paper, the infant immediately stops and appears to lose interest in the toy. This child has not yet mastered the concept of object permanence. In older infants, when a toy is covered the child will actively search for the object, realizing that the object continues to exist.

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Educational Implications
   Provide multiple objects of various sizes, shapes, and colours for babies to use Actively engage children with environmental objects. Babies must touch them, mouth them, pull them, drop them, squeeze them, throw them and perform any other conceivable actions since infants learn through sensory and motor activities.

The Preoperational Stage (ages 2-7).
 Children begin to represent to represent the world with words, images and drawings – symbolic thought goes beyond simple connections of sensory information and motoric. Features of the Preoperational Thought
    Realism Animism Artificialism Transductive Reasoning

Limitations of the Preoperational Period
   Centering Egocentricism Irreversibility

Educational Implications
     Deferred Imitation Symbolic play Drawing Mental Image Language (talking)

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Concrete operational stage (ages 7-11)
 Logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought as long as reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples

Features of the Concrete Operational Period
    Conservation (understanding reversibility) Seriation Classification Number concept

Educational Implications
 They can assimilate and accommodate material they encounter but only at their level. They are capable of representational thought, but only with the concrete and tangible.

Formal Operational Stage (ages 11 to adulthood).
 Increased ability to think hypothetical ways produces unconstrained thought with unlimited possibilities

Features of the Formal Operational period         Ability to separate real from possible Propositional thinking Gathering much information and then making combinations of variables to solve a problem (hypothetico-deductive reasoning) Egocentricism Thinking of possibilities Thinking about abstracts Thinking in multidimensional terms Seeing knowledge as relative

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Educational Implications
   Can students separate the real from the possible? Some student will still have a difficult time. Are they comfortable with the propositional thinking needed? Can they take the concrete material they‘ve learned and transform it into abstract, even contradictory, ideas?

Can they gather as much data as is needed and combine many and varied ideas forming new propositions?

VYGOTSKY’S SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
Lev Semionovich Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who, though a contemporary of Piaget, died in 1934. His work was not widely read in English until the 1970s.

Basic assumptions:
 Complex mental processes begin as social activities; as children develop, they gradually internalize these processes and begin to use them independently 

Children simultaneously have two important levels of development: - their actual developmental level which is the level at which they can perform activities with no assistance - their potential developmental level which is the level at which they can perform activities with assistance

THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Vygotsky‟s Development
Instructed by private tutors who used Socratic dialogue – question and answer approach  These sessions combined with study (literature) and teaching experience convinced him of two factors in devt.:


LEV VYGOTSKY

– social interaction and language in human development (sociocultural view)
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

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Who was Lev Vygotsky?


Basic Themes in Vygotsky‟s Theory


Born in Russia (1896 –1934) Educated at Moscow University where his work in educational psychology started.



Intellectual development can be understood only in terms of the historical and cultural contexts children experience Intellectual development depends on the sign systems that individuals grow up with: the symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate and solve problems. For example a culture‘s language, writing system, or counting system Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

 

Greatly influenced by Marxism Work became influential in the 1970‘s long after his death from tuberculosis
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI



Vygotsky‟s View of Human Development
 



Discontinuous – cognitive development occurs in stages Domain general – cognitive development occurs simultaneously in many areas e.g. unlikely for a child to get A in reading and F in English Domain Specific – development occurs at different rates in different areas e.g. student can be expert in one area and novice in another
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Internalization


The absorption or taking in of knowledge from the social contexts in which it is observed, so that one can use it for oneself. Students just entering school will learn how to form a lunch line if they observe older students forming lunch lines



Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Core Assumptions of Marxism that Influenced Vygotsky


Extract from Vygotsky Himself
Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of ideas. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals (Vygotsky, 1978, p.57).

Activity generates thinking Development advances by dialectical exchanges Development is a historical process within cultural contexts
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



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How development occurs
LEARNING PRECEDES DEVELOPMENT Learning involves the acquisition of signs by means of instruction and information from others Development involves the child‟s internalization of these signs so as to be able to think and solve problems without the help of others – SELF REGULATION
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

•Egocentric Speech – (age 3) a form of speech in which children talk, whether anyone is listening or not

•Inner Speech – (age 5) speech turns inward and serves an important function in guiding and planning behaviour. In many cases children who are not permitted these vocalizations can‟t accomplish the task!
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Development of Self Regulation and Independent Thinking


Zone of Proximal Development
An area in which a child/adolescent would have trouble solving a problem alone, but can succeed with help from someone more knowledgeable – competent peer or adult. Higher mental functioning usually exists in conversation and collaboration among individuals before it exists within the individual
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Stage 1. A baby learns that when he reaches for an object it is interpreted by others as a signal that he wants the object. Child will next begin to associate certain words with meaning


Stage 2. The infant practices gestures that will get attention. The preschooler will enter into conversations with others to master language
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Stage 3. Using signs to think and solve problems without the help of others. At this point, children become selfregulating and and the sign system has become internalized

Vygotsky and Language Development


Pre-intellectual speech – elementary processes that develop into speech Naive Psychology – children begin to label the objects around them and acquire the syntax of their speech



Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

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Zone of Proximal Development is useful because it enables a teacher to consider what a learner can do at a particular time, as well as the “zone” within which they can master new material Scaffolding involves social supports for learning (Collaborative learning) in which learners work together in (heterogenous groups) to solve problems Socio-cultural dimensions – learning is a culturally and socially mediated process, therefore a child brings with him knowledge as well as conceptions of learning from his family and cultural background so there needs to be connections between the child‟s in-school learning and Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI these cultural foundations of knowledge

Role of Adults and Peers


Serve as guides to support cognitive growth Zone of proximal development: a range from a child‘s actual to potential abilities
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI



Scaffolding


Focus
For group discussion:  What are the differences between the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky and how do they complement one another?

The process of providing a child or adolescent with a good deal of support during the time they are learning something. This support is reduced as the learner becomes able to deal with the task independently, resulting in his taking on increasing responsibility for his learning



Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Applying Vygotsky‟s Ideas


Implications for Teaching


Tailor scaffolding to the needs of students


Children learn by internalizing external dialogue Children almost never operate at the peak of their capacity Language and thought are intimately and inextricably related
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI



Make sure students have access to tools that support thinking




Capitalize on dialogue and group learning
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Food for Thought


How do you see your role in the sociocultural development of children?

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

Implications for Teaching
   Determine where the child‘s actual developmental level i Provide scaffolded instruction designed to move the child through the zone of proximal development Assisted Learning

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WEEK 4 SESSION 6 PERSONAL, SOCIAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT

Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Erickson believes that personality emerges from a series of inner and outer conflict, which if resolved result in a greater sense of self. These crises arise at each of eight stages of life and each crises results in a period of increased vulnerability and heightened potential and can lead either to maladjustment or increased psychic strength.

The Eight Psycho-social Stages
   Trust versus Mistrust (birth to year) Infant must form a loving, trusting, relationship with caregiver or develop a sense of mistrust Autonomy versus Shame, Doubt ( 2-3 years) Initiative versus Guilt (4-5 years)   the role of play play and cognitive development play and social development play and emotional development

Industry versus Inferiority (6-11 years) Identity versus Identity Confusion (12-18 years)

Identity Statuses (James Marcia)
Identity Diffusion (-crisis, -commitment)-confusion about who you are and what you want Identity Foreclosure (-crisis, + commitment) –acceptance of parental life choices without consideration of options Identity Achievement (+crisis, + commitment) – strong commitment to life choices after free consideration of alternatives    Identity Moratorium ( suspension of choices because of struggle)

Intimacy versus Isolation (18-35) Generativity versus Stagnation (35-65) Integrity versus Despair (over 65 years)

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MORAL DEVELOPMENT

WHAT DO YOU THINK?
In Europe, a woman is near death from a special kind of cancer. There is one drug that the doctors think might save her. It is a form of radium that a druggist in the same town has recently discovered. The drug is expensive to make, but the druggist is charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and is charging $2000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, goes to everyone he knows to borrow the money, but he can get together only about $1000, which is half of what it costs. He tells the druggist that his wife is dying and asks him to sell the drug cheaper or let him pay later. The druggist says, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." Heinz is desperate and considers breaking into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.

1. Should Heinz steal the drug? Why or why not? 2. If Heinz doesn't love his wife, should he steal the drug for her? Why or why not? 3. Suppose the person dying is not his wife but a stranger. Should Heinz steal the drug for a stranger? Why or why not? 4. Suppose it is a pet animal he loves. Should Heinz steal to save the pet animal? Why or why not? 5. Why should people do everything they can to save another's life? 6. It is against the law for Heinz to steal? Does that make it morally wrong? Why or why not? Why should people generally do everything they can to avoid breaking the law? How does this relate to Heinz's case? (Colby, 1979: Form A)

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JEAN PIAGET'S AND LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORIES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

MORAL DEVELOPMENT

MORAL DEVELOPMENT

Acguiring a Sense of Right and Wrong

…The process by which individuals acquire a sense of right and wrong, to use in evaluating their own actions and the actions of others

Moral development begins early and continues throughout the life span
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell Lecturer V.T.D.I.

JEAN PIAGET’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Autonomous Morality is the level at which children understand that people both make up rules and can change the rules, which are now seen as the product of people‟s agreement. This is also called moral relativism or the morality of cooperation. At about age 8, children are able to understand that rules and laws are not absolute, but rather are formed by the agreement of groups of people; rules can be changed in the same way if people agree a new rule is needed

Heteronomous Morality(or morality imposed by the rules of others) is characterized by the view that rules are absolute, children pay attention to the actions of others but not to the intention underlying their actions. Also called moral realism. For example someone who breaks 15 glasses while trying to steal sugar from a canister will be judged more harshly than someone who breaks just one glass

LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT


Influenced by the work of Piaget and John Dewey, Lawrence Kohlberg (1929-1987), a Harvard educator and psychologist, used dilemmas to study moral reasoning.

Students encounter moral dilemmas constantly. Should they cheat on a test? Should they report a student whom they observed cheating? Should they violate a confidence, such as a confession of a crime made to them in confidence?

Like Piaget, Kohlberg concluded that morality develops in stages, and all people pass through all the stages in the same order but at different rates Kohlberg described moral development as existing in three levels consisting of two stages each These levels represent the perspectives people take as they wrestle with moral dilemmas or problems. The stages are outlined thus:

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Level 1: Preconventional Morality
Stage 1: Punishment-obedience  Punishment and obedience are an individual‘s main concerns


Sample answer to Heinz Dilemma:
“No, Heinz shouldn‟t take the radium because he might get caught and thrown into jail."

Individuals make moral decisions based on their chances of getting caught and being punished They determine right and wrong by the consequences of an action e.g. if the child is punished, the act is morally wrong; if not, the act is right



Stage 2: Individualism and Exchange
People focus on the consequences of an action for themselves but reciprocity is involved. Rules are followed if they are in the individual‟s best interest “An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” or “Don‟t bite the hand that feeds you” reflect morality at his stage, and you do something for me and I‟ll do something for you” is a key characteristic. A naïve hedonism is used to judge morality at this stage Aspects of the political system exists a this stage. Political patronage, the tendency of succesful office seekers to give supporters the best jobs regardless of qualifications

Sample answer to Heinz dilemma:
“Yes, Heinz was right to steal the drug because the druggist was unwilling to make a fair deal; he was trying to „rip Heinz off‟ and refuses to make a deal that will benefit both people

Level 11: Conventional Morality


As egocentricism declines and development progresses, students become better able to see from others‘ points of view Moral reasoning becomes linked to the perspectives of, and concerns for, others Values such as loyalty, others‘ approval, family expectations, obeying the law and social order become prominent

Stage 3: Good interpersonal relationships
Individuals operating at this level do not manipulate people to reach their goals. Rather, the interpersonal harmony stage is characterized by conventions, loyalty and living up to the expectations of others Person is oriented toward maintaining the affection and approval of friends and relatives by being a „good‟ person. Sometimes called the „nice girl/good boy‟ stage People try to do what is expected of them





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Sample answer to Heinz Dilemma
“Yes, Heinz should steal the drug. A good husband takes care of his wife. He would seem cold and heartless if he wasn‟t willing to risk a litle jail time to help his wife live. Besides, it is the druggist‟s fault, he is unfair, trying to overcharge and letting someone die.”

Stage 4: Law and Order
The ethics at this stage points out that law and order exist to guide behaviour and should be followed uniformly Emphasis is placed on obeying the law, respecting authority, and performing one‟s duties so that the social order is maintained The individual becomes more broadly concerned with society as a whole

Sample answer to Heinz Dilemma
“Heinz should not steal the drug. If everyone disobeyed the laws against theft, society would be in chaos. What would happen if we all started breaking laws whenever we felt we had a good reason? Society couldn‟t function.”

Level 111: Postconventional Morality (Principled Morality)


A person reasoning at this level has transcended both the individual and societal levels and makes moral decisions based on principles Individuals follow rules but also see that, at times, rules need to be changed or ignored Only a small portion of the population attains this level, and most don‘t before mid to late 20s





Stage 5: Social contract and Individual rights
Person understands that a society of rational people needs socially agreed-on laws in order to function. Laws are not accepted blindly or for their own sake; rather, they are based on the principle of utility, or “the greatest good for the greatest number,” and are followed because they adhere to rights such as life, liberty, and the dignity of the individual

Sample answer to Heinz Dilemma
“Yes, Heinz should take the drug, because the value of human life outweighs the druggist‟s individual right to own property. It is the husband‟s duty to save his wife. The fact that her life is in danger transcends every other standard you might use to judge his action. Life is more important than property

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Stage 6: Universal Principles
Reasoning is based on abstract and general principles above society‟s rules. People define rightness in terms of internalized universal standards that go beyond concrete laws Individuals adopt an orientation toward universal principles of justice which exist regardless of a particular society‟s rules

Sample answer to Heinz Dilemma
“Yes, Heinz should take the drugs because the value of human life outweighs any other consideration.”

Putting Theory into Perspective


Every person‘s moral reasoning passes through the same stages in the same order People pass through the stages at different rates Development is gradual and continuous, rather than sudden and discrete

Once a stage is attained, a person continues to reason at that stage and rarely regresses to a lower stage



Intervention usually results in moving only to the next higher stage



Implications for Teaching


Teachers need to expect a level of moral thought and behaviour that is appropriate to the child‘s age Having classroom discussion of moral dilemmas help challenge student‘s moral reasoning

Self assessment will help teachers assess their own level of moral development to better understand how they perceive the thinking and behaviour of their students Teachers need to realize that no one theory of moral development is universally accepted



Teachers need to encourage and develop thinking that is not just moral but also, wise

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REFERENCES
Elliott, Stephen N. et.al. (2000).Educational Psychology; Effective Teaching, Effective.Learning.McGraw Hill. Boston Ormrod Jeanne Ellis. (2003) Educational Psychology – Developing Learners. Merrill Prentice Hall. New Jersey

Slavin, Robert E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Allyn and Bacon: Boston.

Sternberg, Robert. (2002) Educational Psychology. Allyn and Bacon: Boston

Woolfolk, Anita. (2004). Educational Psychology. Allyn and Bacon. Boston http://classweb.gmu.edu/awinsler/ordp/cogdev.html

http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/piaget.html

http://teach.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piagtuse.html

http://teach.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html

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MODULE 3 APPROACHES TO LEARNING

OVERVIEW
Human learning is a complex multi-faceted process that often involves changes in both thinking and behaviour. Understanding how students learn and complex thinking skills are the main foci of this module. In addition, this module is to define learning and then to present behavioural and social learning theories, explanations for learning that emphasize observable behaviours. Behavioural learning theories focus on ways in which pleasurable or unpleasant consequences of behaviour change individuals‘ behaviour over time and ways in which individuals model their behaviour on that of others. Social learning theories focus on the effects of thought on action and action on thought.

OBJECTIVES
After studying this module, you should be able to do the following:           distinguish between classical and operant conditioning understand the similarities and differences among contiguity, classical conditioning and operant conditioning recognize how students may acquire fears through classical conditioning identify the major elements of operant conditioning understand how the principles of reinforcement and punishment can be used in the classroom demonstrate how applied behaviour analysis can be used to solve common academic or behaviour problems apply the principles of social cognitive theory to your instructional techniques identify a model of information processing recognize elements of instruction that affect student memory identify activities and teaching methods that can facilitate students‘ construction of knowledge

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WEEK 5 SESSION 7 UNDERSTANDING LEARNING WHAT IS LEARNING?
    Learning has already been defined in Module 1 so this is just a refresher. But let me say, again, that learning is usually defined as a change in an individual caused by experience. Changes caused by development (such as growing taller) are not instances of learning. Humans do so much learning from the day of their birth (and some say earlier) that learning and development are inseparably linked. The problem educators face is not how to get students to learn (students are already engaged in learning every waking moment) but how to help students learn particular information, skills, and concepts that will be useful in adult life.  How do we present students with the right stimuli on which to focus their attention and mental effort so that they will acquire important skills? That is the central problem of instruction.

IVAN PAVLOV’S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
     Pavlov and his colleagues studied the digestive process in dog in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Pavlov observed that if meat powder was placed in or near the mouth of a hungry dog, the dog would salivate. Because the meat powder provoked this response automatically, without any prior training or conditioning, the meat powder is referred to as an unconditioned stimulus. Because salivation occurred automatically in the presence of meat, also without the need for any training or experience, this response of salivating is referred to as an unconditioned response. Pavlov's experiments showed that if a previously neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus and gains the power to prompt a response similar to that produced by the unconditioned stimulus. In other words, after the bell and the meat are presented together, the ringing of the bell alone causes the dog to salivate. This process is referred to as classical conditioning.  Pavlov's emphasis on observation and careful measurement and his systematic exploration of several aspects of learning helped to advance the scientific study of learning. Pavlov also left other behavioral theorists with significant mysteries, such as the process by which neutral stimuli take on meaning.

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Before conditioning
   In order to have classical or respondent conditioning, there must exist a stimulus that will automatically or reflexively elicit a specific response. This stimulus is called the unconditioned Stimulus or UCS because there is no learning involved in connecting the stimulus and response. There must also be a stimulus that will not elicit this specific response, but will elicit an orienting response. This stimulus is called a neutral stimulus or an orienting stimulus.

During conditioning
During conditioning, the neutral stimulus will first be presented, followed by the unconditioned stimulus. Over time, the learner will develop an association between these two stimuli (i.e., will learn to make a connection between the two stimuli.)

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After Conditioning
    After conditioning, the previously neutral or orienting stimulus will elicit the response previously only elicited by the unconditioned stimulus. The stimulus is now called a conditioned stimulus because it will now elicit a different response as a result of conditioning or learning. The response is now called a conditioned response because it is elicited by a stimulus as a result of learning. The two responses, unconditioned and conditioned, look the same, but they are elicited by different stimuli and are therefore given different labels.



In the area of classroom learning, classical conditioning primarily influences emotional behavior. Things that make us happy, sad, angry, etc. become associated with neutral stimuli that gain our attention. For example, if a particular academic subject or remembering a particular teacher produces emotional feelings in you, those emotions are probably a result of classical conditioning. http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/behsys/classcnd.html.

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B. F. SKINNER’S OPERANT CONDITIONING
 

Skinner proposed that reflexive behaviour accounts for only a small proportion of all actions. Skinner proposed another class of behaviour, which he labeled operant behaviours because they operate on the environment in the apparent absence of any unconditioned stimuli, such as food. For example, if an individual's behaviour is immediately followed by pleasurable consequences, the individual will engage in that behaviour more frequently. The use of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to change behaviour is often referred to as operant conditioning.

PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOURAL LEARNING
 Principles of behavioural learning include the role of consequences, reinforcers, punishers, immediacy of consequences, shaping, extinction, schedules of reinforcement, maintenance, and the role of antecedents.  Pleasurable consequences strengthen behavior; unpleasant consequences weaken it.

REINFORCERS
 A reinforcer is defined as any consequence that strengthens (that is, increases the frequency of) a behavior.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY REINFORCERS
Reinforcers fall into two broad categories:   Primary reinforcers satisfy basic human needs. Some examples are food, water, security, warmth, and sex. Secondary reinforcers are reinforcers that acquire their value by being associated with primary reinforcers or other well-established secondary reinforcers.

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POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCERS
  Reinforcers that are used in schools are things given to students. These are called positive reinforcers and include praise, grades, and stars. Reinforcers that are escapes from unpleasant situations are called negative reinforcers.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?
A child approaches a dog and is bitten. From that point on, the child is filled with fear and runs away whenever a dog approaches. Think about the classically conditioned aspect as well as the operantly conditioned aspect of the example

PREMACK PRINCIPLE
 One important principle of behaviour is that we can promote less-desired (low-strength) activities by linking them to more-desired activities. In other words, access to something desirable is made contingent on doing something less desirable. For example, a teacher might say, "As soon as you finish your work, you may go outside" or "Clean up your art project, and then I will read you a story." These are examples of the Premack Principle.

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INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC REINFORCERS
   The most important reinforcer that maintains behaviour is the pleasure inherent in engaging in the behaviour. People like to draw, read, sing, play games, hike, or swim for no reason other than the fun of doing it. These are called intrinsic reinforcers. Intrinsic reinforcers are contrasted with extrinsic reinforcers, praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in a behavior that they might not engage in without it. There is evidence that reinforcing children for certain behaviors they would have done anyway can undermine long-term intrinsic motivation.

PUNISHERS
 Consequences that weaken behaviour are called punishers. For example, some students like being sent to the principal's office or out to the hail, because it releases them from the classroom, which they see as an unpleasant situation. As with reinforcers, the effectiveness of a punisher cannot be assumed but must be demonstrated

Punishment can take two primary forms. Presentation Punishment
 Presentation punishment is the use of unpleasant consequences, or aversive stimuli, as when a student is scolded

Removal Punishment
 Removal punishment is the withdrawal of a pleasant consequence. Examples include loss of a privilege, having to stay in during recess, or having to stay after school. One frequently used form of removal punishment in classrooms is time out, in which a student who misbehaves is required to sit in the corner or in the hall for several minutes.

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WHAT DO YOU THINK?
Recall an instance of punishment that you have experienced at some time during your life. What were your feelings when you were being punished? Did the punishment work? What are some other negative effects of punishment? If punishment is ineffective and also produces negative side effects, why do so many teachers rely on it so much?

IMMEDIACY OF CONSEQUENCES
 Consequences that follow behaviors closely in time affect behavior far more than delayed consequences do. A smaller reinforcer that is given immediately generally has a much larger effect than does a large reinforcer that is given later.



Immediate feedback serves at least two purposes. it makes clear the connection between behavior and consequence. it increases the informational value of the feedback.

SHAPING
 When teachers guide students toward goals by reinforcing the many steps that lead to success, they are using a technique called shaping.

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EXTINCTION
  By definition, reinforcers strengthen behavior. but what happens when reinforcers are withdrawn? eventually, the behavior will be weakened, and ultimately, it will disappear. Behavior intensifies when the reinforcer is first withdrawn, then rapidly weakens until the behavior disappears. still, the behavior may return after much time has passed.

SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
The effects of reinforcement on behavior depend on many factors, one of the most important of which is the schedule of reinforcement..

FIXED RATIO (FR)
 A reinforcer is given after a fixed number of behaviors. For example, a teacher might say, "As soon as you finish ten problems, you may go outside." Regardless of the amount of time it takes, students are reinforced as soon as they finish 10 problems.

VARIABLE RATIO (VR)
 The number of behaviors required for reinforcement is unpredictable, although it is certain that the behaviors will eventually be reinforced. In the classroom a variable-ratio schedule exists when students raise their hands to answer questions. They never know when they will be reinforced by being able to give the correct answer, but they may expect to be called on about I time in 30 in a class of 30.

FIXED INTERVAL (FL)
 In fixed-interval schedules, reinforcement is available only at certain periodic times. The final examination is a classic example of a fixed-interval schedule.

VARIABLE INTERVAL (VI)
 In a variable-interval schedule, reinforcement is available at some times but not at others, and we have no idea when a behavior will be reinforced. An example of this is a teacher making spot checks of students who are doing assignments in class.  Students are reinforced if they are working well at the particular moment the teacher comes by. Since they cannot predict when the teacher will check them, students must be doing good work all the time.
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MAINTENANCE


The principle of extinction holds that when reinforcement for a previously learned behaviour is withdrawn, the behavior fades away. Does this mean that teachers must reinforce students' behaviors indefinitely or they will disappear?

THE ROLE OF ANTECEDENTS Cueing
 Antecedent stimuli, events that precede a behavior, are also known as cues, because they inform us what behaviour will be reinforced and/or what behavior will be punished. Cues come in many forms and give us hints as to when we should change our behavior and when we should not.

DISCRIMINATION
 For students to learn discrimination, they must have feedback on the correctness or incorrectness of their responses.  Studies of discrimination learning have generally found that students need to know when their responses are incorrect as well as correct.

GENERALIZATION
 For generalization to occur, it usually must be planned for. A successful classroom management program used in social studies class may be transferred to English class to ensure generalization to that setting.  Students may need to study the use of symbolism by many authors in many cultures before they acquire the skill to interpret symbolism in general.

TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING GENERALIZATION
 Slavin in his book Educational Psychology quotes Schloss and Smith (1998) as describing 11 techniques for increasing the chances that a behavior learned in one setting, such as a given class, will generalize to other settings, such as other classes or, more important, real-life applications. Some of these strategies involve teaching in a way that makes generalization easier. For example, arithmetic lessons involving money will probably transfer better to real life if they involve manipulating real or simulated coins and bills than if they involve only problems on paper.
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________________________________________________________________________________________ After initial instruction has taken place, there are many ways to increase generalization. One is to repeat instruction in a variety of settings. For example, after teaching students to use a given test-taking strategy in mathematics, such as "skip difficult problems and go back to them after answering the easy ones," a teacher might give students the opportunity to use this same strategy on a science test, a grammar test, and a health test.

APPLIED BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS/BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION
Applied behaviour analysis is the application of behavioural learning principles to understand and shape behaviour. The method is sometimes called behaviour modification which is the systematic application of antecedents and consequences to change behaviour.

STEPS IN APPLIED BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS
     Identify target behaviour Establish a baseline for the target behaviour Choose reinforcers and punishers (if necessary) Measure changes in the target behaviour Gradually reduce the frequency of reinforcers as behaviour improves

METHODS FOR ENCOURAGING BEHAVIOURS
    Reinforcement with teacher attention Selecting Reinforcers: The Premack Principle Shaping Positive Practice

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COPING WITH UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR
     Negative Reinforcement Satiation Reprimands Response cost Social Isolation

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Week 6 Session 8 COGNITIVE APPROACH TO LEARNING

WHAT IS AN INFORMATION-PROCESSING MODEL?
   Information constantly enters our minds through our senses even though most of this information is almost immediately discarded. and we may never even be aware of much of it. Some is held in our memories for a short time and then forgotten. For example, we may remember the seat number on a football ticket until we find our seats, at which point we will forget the number. Some information is retained much longer, perhaps for the rest of our lives. What is the process by which information is absorbed, and how can teachers take advantage of this process to help students retain critical information and skills?

SENSORY REGISTER
Incoming information meets is the sensory register.  Information is received from each of the senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste) and held for a very short time, no more than a couple of seconds. If nothing happens to information held in a sensory register, it is rapidly lost.  There are two important educational implications at work here: People must pay attention to information if they are to retain it. It takes time to bring all the information seen in a moment into consciousness. For example, if students are bombarded with too much information at once and are not told which aspects of the information they should pay attention to, they may have difficulty learning any of the information at all.  

PERCEPTION

Perception of stimuli involves mental interpretation and is influenced by our mental state, past experience, knowledge, motivations, and many other factors. We perceive different stimuli according to rules that have nothing to do with the inherent characteristics of the stimuli. If you are sitting in a building, for example, you may not pay much attention to, or even hear, a fire engine's siren.



If you are driving a car, you pay a great deal more attention. If you are standing outside a burning building waiting for the fire fighters to arrive, you pay even more attention.

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ATTENTION
  When teachers say to students, "Pay attention" or "Lend me your ears," they are using the words pay and lend appropriately. Like money, attention is a limited resource. An experienced speaker knows that when the audience looks restless, its attention is no longer focused on the lecture but might be turning toward considerations of lunch or other activities; it is time to recapture the listeners' attention.

GAINING ATTENTION
    Use cues that indicate "This is important." Some teachers raise or lower their voices, use gestures, repetition, or body position to communicate the same message. Another way to gain attention is to increase the emotional content of material. Unusual, inconsistent, or surprising stimuli also attract attention. For example, science teachers often introduce lessons with a demonstration or magic trick to engage student curiosity. Informing students that what follows is important to them will catch their attention. For example, teachers can ensure attention by telling students, "This will be on tomorrow's test."

SHORT-TERM OR WORKING MEMORY
        Short-term memory can hold a limited amount of information for a few seconds. It is the part of memory in which information that is currently being thought about is stored. When we stop thinking about something, it disappears from our short-term memory. Information may enter working memory from sensory registers or from the third basic component of the memory system: long-term memory. One way to hold information in working memory is to think about it or say it over and over. Rehearsal is important in learning because the longer an item remains in working memory, the greater the chance that it will be transferred to long-term memory. Because working memory has a limited capacity, information can also be lost from it by being forced out by other information. Teachers must allocate time for rehearsal during classroom lessons.

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LONG-TERM MEMORY
   Long-term memory is that part of our memory system where we keep information for long periods of time. In fact, many theorists believe that we may never forget information in long-term memory; rather, we might just lose the ability to find the information within our memory.. Theorists divide long-term memory into at least three parts:    episodic memory semantic memory procedural memory.

Episodic memory is our memory of personal experiences, a mental movie of things we saw or heard. Most things that are learned in class lessons are retained in semantic memory. Procedural memory refers to "knowing how" in contrast to "knowing that." The abilities to drive, type, and ride a bicycle are examples of skills that are retained in procedural memory.

Factors that enhance long-term memory   Contrary to popular belief, people retain a large portion of what they learn in school. Long-term retention of information that is learned in school varies a great deal according to the type of information. Several factors contribute to long-term retention. One very important factor is the instructional strategies that actively involve students.

WHAT CAUSES PEOPLE TO REMEMBER OR FORGET?
Most forgetting occurs because information in working memory was never transferred to long-term memory. However, it can also occur because we have lost our ability to recall information that is in long-term memory.    Interference Retroactive Inhibition Proactive inhibition

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HOW CAN MEMORY STRATEGIES BE TAUGHT?
     Verbal learning Paired-associate Serial learning Free-recall learning Paired-associate learning

HOW DO METACOGNITIVE SKILLS HELP STUDENTS LEARN?
    The term metacognition means knowledge about one's own learning or about how to learn. Thinking skills and study skills are examples of metacognitive skills. Students can be taught strategies for assessing their own understanding, figuring out how much time they will need to study something, and choosing an effective plan of attack to study or solve problems. Teaching metacognitive strategies to students can lead to a marked improvement in their achievement.

WHAT STUDY STRATEGIES HELP STUDENTS LEARN?
    Note-taking Underlining Writing to learn Outlining and mapping

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WEEK 7 SESSION 9 SOCIAL COGNITIVE AND CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEWS OF LEARNING

How has social learning theory contributed to our understanding of human learning?  Developed by Albert Bandura, social learning theory accepts most of the principles of behavioral theories but focuses to a much greater degree on the effects of cues on behavior and on internal mental processes, emphasizing the effects of thought on action and action on though

Modeling and observational learning
Bandura's (1986) analysis of observational learning involves four phases:     attention retention reproduction motivational

Observational Learning and Teaching
     Directing attention Fine-tuning already learned behaviour Strengthening or weakening inhibitions Teaching new behaviours – modelling Arousing emotion

Vicarious learning
  People learn by seeing others reinforced or punished for engaging in certain behaviours. Classroom teachers use the principle of vicarious learning all the time. When one student is fooling around, teachers often single out others who are working well and reinforce them for doing a good job. The misbehaving student sees that working is reinforced and (it is hoped) gets back to work.

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Self-regulated Learning
  People observe their own behaviour, judge it against their own standards, and reinforce or punish themselves. Students can be taught to use self-regulation strategies, and they can be reminded to do so in a variety of contexts so that self-regulation becomes a habit. For example, students might be asked to set goals for the amount of time they expect to study each evening and to record whether or not they meet their goals.

WEEK 8 SESSION 10

CONSTRUCTIVISM CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEWS OF LEARNING
 Constructivism is the view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information. It is a theory about learning, not a description of teaching. Learners construct their own understanding of the world. This is not about a change in teaching technique but, rather, the way we think about knowledge acquisition and the assessment of that knowledge. (Elliott et.al, 15)



Constructivism emphasizes the importance of the knowledge, beliefs, and skills an individual brings to the experience of learning. It recognizes the construction of new understanding as a combination of prior learning, new information, and readiness to learn. Individuals make choices about what new ideas to accept and how to fit then into their established views of the world. (Woolfolk, 326)

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THE THEORY OF CONSTRUCTIVISM
The basic tenets of constructivism are that:       Knowledge is constructed from and shaped by experience. Students must take an active role and assume responsibility for their learning. Learning is a collaborative process and students create their own meaning from obtaining multiple perspectives. Learning should occur in a realistic setting. Learners should choose their own path through content and activities. Content should be presented holistically, not broken into separate smaller tasks. (www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_6.htm - 9k -)

CREATING A CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM
Along with having a constructivist teacher you also need to have a constructivist classroom. ―Creating a constructivist classroom requires that the classroom teacher must be in position to:     Influence or create motivating conditions for students Take responsibility for creating problem situations Foster acquisition and retrieval of prior knowledge Create a social environment that emphasizes that attitude of learning to learn

The learning process not the product of learning is the primary focus of constructivism. The constructivist teacher has to be the ‗guide on the side and not the sage n the stage.‖ The student has to make their own meanings and decisions. They are not to be handed to them by the teacher. To facilitate real learning, teachers need to organize their classroom and their curriculum so that students can collaborate, interact, and raise questions of both classmates and the teacher. The whole idea of a constructivist classroom is characterized by the mutual respect between the teacher and the children. In most classrooms the respect is one way. The children have to respect the teacher. A constructivist teacher respects the children by allowing the children rights to their feelings, ideas, and opinions. The teacher refrains from using their power unnecessarily. . Epstein, Maureen (2002) Constructivism: Using Information Effectively in Education: Research Paper

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APPLYING COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM IN THE CLASSROOM
The chart below compares the traditional classroom to the constructivist one. You can see significant differences in basic assumptions about knowledge, students, and learning. (It's important, however, to bear in mind that constructivists acknowledge that students are constructing knowledge in traditional classrooms, too. It's really a matter of the emphasis being on the student, not on the instructor.)

TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM

CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM

Curriculum begins with the parts of the whole. Emphasizes basic skills. Strict adherence to fixed curriculum is highly valued. Materials are primarily textbooks and workbooks.

Curriculum emphasizes big concepts, beginning with the whole and expanding to include the parts. Pursuit of student questions and interests is valued.

Materials include primary sources of material and manipulative materials.

Learning is based on repetition.

Learning is interactive, building on what the student already knows.

Teachers disseminate information to students; students are recipients of knowledge. Teacher's role is directive, rooted in authority. Assessment is through testing, correct answers.

Teachers have a dialogue with students, helping students construct their own knowledge. Teacher's role is interactive, rooted in negotiation. Assessment includes student works, observations, and points of view, as well as tests. Process is as important as product.

Knowledge is seen as inert.

Knowledge is seen as dynamic, ever changing with our experiences.

Students work primarily alone.

Students work primarily in groups.

www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html 15k -

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HOW DO YOU USE CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH IN YOUR CLASSROOM?
1. Pose problems of emerging relevance to students.  Students should come to class with a question of burning interest, relevant to the topics that particular course was to cover 2. Structure learning around primary concepts  Identify the ―big ideas‖ that are important for the students to come to understand and structure teaching around them 3. Seek and value students‘ points of view   Constructivists encourage teachers to listen more than they talk Students‘ points of views are windows into their reasoning

4. Adapt curriculum to address students‘ current understanding  If the curriculum doesn‘t fit the students, change the curriculum. Adapt it to the best fit the student‘s current understanding as well as to best guide the student‘s further knowledge development. 5. Assess student learning in the context of teaching  Try to understand how answers correct and incorrect, were arrived at. Did the student perhaps interpret the question differently than it was intended? Does the student‘s response indicate a partial understanding of the concept, one that could be built upon and elaborated?  Asking Students to explain their answers and really listening to their explanations are the only ways teachers can get such information.

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CONSTRUCTIVIST’S TEACHING METHODS

Constructivist’s Teaching Methods
Top-down processing Top• Constructivist approaches to teaching emphasize toptopdown rather than bottom-up instruction. The term topbottomtopdown means that students begin with complex problems to solve and then work out or discover (with the teacher's guidance) the basic skills required. • For example, students might be asked to write compositions and only later learn about spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

• This top-down processing approach is contrasted with the traditional bottom-up strategy, in which basic skills are gradually built into more complex skills. In top -down teaching, the tasks students begin with are complex, complete, and authentic, meaning that they are not parts or simplifications of the tasks that students are ultimately expected to perform but are the actual tasks.

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• Discovery learning
• Discovery learning is an important component of modern constructivist approaches that has a long history in education education innovation. In discovery learning, students are encouraged to learn largely on their own through active involvement with concepts and principles, and teachers encourage students to have experiences and conduct experiments that permit them to discover principles for themselves.

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

• Self-regulated learning
• A key concept of constructivist theories of learning is a vision of the ideal student as a self-regulated learner. selfSelf-regulated learners are ones who have knowledge of Self effective learning strategies and how and when to use them. For example, they know how to break complex problems into simpler steps or to test out alternative solutions; they know how and when to skim and how and when to read for deep understanding; and they know how to write to persuade and how to write to inform.

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• Scaffolding
• Scaffolding is a practice based on Vygotsky's concept of assisted learning. According to Vygotsky, higher mental Vygotsky, functions, including the ability to direct memory and attention in a purposeful way and to think in symbols, are mediated behaviours. Mediated externally by culture, these and other behaviors become internalized in the learner's mind as psychological tools. In assisted learning, or mediated learning, the teacher is the cultural agent who guides instruction so that students will master and internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning. The ability to internalize cultural tools relates to the learner's age or stage of cognitive development. Once acquired, however, internal mediators allow greater self-mediated learning. selfPrepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

•

In practical terms, scaffolding might include giving students more structure at the beginning of a set of lessons and gradually turning responsibility over to them to operate on their own. For example, students can be taught to generate their own questions about material they are reading. Early on, the teacher might suggest the questions, modeling the kinds of questions students might ask, but students later take over the questionquestiongenerating task

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

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• Cooperative learning
• Constructivist approaches to teaching typically make extensive use of cooperative learning, on the theory that students will more easily discover and comprehend difficult concepts if they can talk with each other about the problems. • Again, the emphasis on the social nature of learning and the use of groups of peers to model appropriate ways of thinking and expose and challenge each other's misconceptions are key elements of Piaget's and Vygotsky's conceptions of cognitive change.
Prepared by Ruby Bramwell, Lecturer, VTDI

How is cooperative learning used in instruction?
– In cooperative learning instructional methods, students work together in small groups to help each other learn. Many quite different approaches to cooperative learning exist. Most involve students in four-member, mixedfourmixedability groups, but some methods use dyads and some use varying group sizes.

–

Typically, students are assigned to cooperative groups and stay together as a group for many weeks or months. They are usually taught specific skills that will help them work well together, such as active listening, giving good explanations, avoiding putdowns, and including other people.
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REfERENCES
Elliott, Stephen N. et.al. (2000).Educational Psychology; Effective Teaching, Effective.Learning.McGraw Hill. Boston Good, Thomas L and Jere Brophy (1995) Contemporary Educational Psychology. Longman Publishers: USA Ormrod Jeanne Ellis. (2003) Educational Psychology – Developing Learners. Merrill Prentice Hall. New Jersey

Slavin, Robert E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Allyn and Bacon: Boston.

Sternberg, Robert. (2002) Educational Psychology. Allyn and Bacon: Boston

Woolfolk, Anita. (2004). Educational Psychology. Allyn and Bacon. Boston

Woolfolk, Anita. (2005). Educational Psychology – Active Learning Edition. Allyn and Bacon. Boston
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory) - 73k -

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MODULE 4 MOTIVATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING/CLASSROOM BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT WEEK 9 SESSION 10

OVERVIEW
What is motivation? Psychologists define motivation as an internal process that activates, guides, and maintains behaviour over time. Motivation can vary in both intensity and direction. The intensity and direction of motivations are often difficult to separate. The intensity of a motivation to engage in one activity might depend in large part on the intensity and direction of motivations to engage in alternative activities. You are about to look at all the possibilities of using motivation in getting students to engage in academic activities. Students should also get a clear understanding of how achievement motivation can be enhanced.

OBJECTIVES At the end of this module you should be able: 
   

define motivation
describe, compare and contrast several major theories of motivation. explore how achievement motivation can be enhanced. evaluate the role of teacher expectations and their relation to student achievement. examine and evaluate several strategies that teachers can be used to reward performance, effort and improvement.



demonstrate what teachers can do to increase students' motivation to learn.

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 

Students will explore how achievement motivation can be enhanced. Students will evaluate the role of teacher expectations and their relation to student achievement.

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What is Motivation?




…… an internal state or condition (sometimes described as a need, desire, or want) that serves to activate or energize behavior and give it direction ….an internal state or condition that activates behavior and gives it direction
(Internet Source)

Prepared by Ruby Bramwell V.T.D.I

What is Motivation (cont‟d)


What is Motivation? (cont‟d)


….desire or want that energizes and directs goal-oriented behavior … influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior.
(Internet Source)



Motivation is an internal state that arouses, energizes, sustains and directs behaviour toward a goal (Eggen, 2000)

What is Motivation? (contd.)


To be or not to be? – 5 Questions
1. What choices do people make about their behaviour?


…an internal state that arouses, directs and maintains behaviour
(Anita Woolfolk, 2002)

Why do some children focus on their homework and others watch television?

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

2. How long does it take to get started? Why do some students start their homework right away, while others procrastinate?


3. What is the intensity or level of involvement in the chosen activity?

Once the school bag is opened , is the student absorbed and focused or just going through the motions?

4. What causes a person to persist or to give up?




5. What is the individual thinking and feeling while engaged in the activity? Is the student enjoying Shakespeare, feeling competent or worrying about an upcoming test?

Will a student read the entire assignment or just a few pages?



Facts about Motivation


Facts about Motivation (cont‟d)




Think of motivation as internal psychic energy or as a mental force that helps a person achieve a goal Motivation is important to teachers because of the relationship between motivation and academic achievement



Motivation is an important psychological construct that affects learning and performance in the following ways: Motivation increases an individual‟s energy and activity level. It influences the extent to which an individual is likely to engage in a certain activity intensively or half-heartedly

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

Motivation directs an individual toward certain goals. It affects choices people make and the results they find rewarding Motivation promotes initiation of certain activities and persistence in those activities. It increases the likelihood that people will begin something on their own, persist in the face of difficulty and resume a task after temporary interruption





Motivation affects the learning strategies and cognitive processes an individual employs. It increases the likelihood that people will pay attention to something, study and practice it and try to learn it in a meaningful fashion. It also increases the likelihood that they will seek help when they encounter difficulty

Let‟s meet some students
    

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation


Hopeless Henry Safe Sarah Satisfied Sam Defensive Diana Anxious Amy

Intrinsically Motivated students undertake activities for its own sake, for the enjoyment it provides, the learning it permits, or the feelings of accomplishment it evokes

Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsically Motivated students undertake activities in order to obtain some reward or avoid some punishment external to the activity itself, such as praise

How Motivation Affects Learning and Behaviour


It directs behaviour toward particular goals It leads to increased effort and energy
 



Enthusiastically/wholeheartedly Apathetically/lackadaisically

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

It increases initiation of, and persistence in, activities It enhances cognitive processing

 

In general, motivated students: Have positive attitudes toward school and describe school as satisfying Persist on difficult tasks and cause few management problems Process information in depth and excel in classroom learning experiences





 

It determines what consequences are reinforcing It leads to improved performance



BEHAVIOURAL APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION:


Operant Conditioning is the term used by B.F. Skinner to describe the effects of the consequences of a particular behavior on the future occurrence of that behavior. behavior.

    

There are four types of Operant Conditioning: Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment Extinction.



Both Positive and Negative Reinforcement strengthen behaviour while both Punishment and Extinction weaken behaviour

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Reinforcer


Positive Reinforcement


Any event that follows a behaviour and increases the chances that the behaviour will occur again

A consequence that brings about the increase of a behaviour through the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus

Forms of Positive Reinforcement


Negative Reinforcement


Concrete Reinforcer – a toy Social Reinforcer – smile Activity Reinforcer – Premack Principle Positive Feedback





A consequence that brings about the increase of a behaviour through the removal (rather than presentation of a stimulus



Suppose on Monday, a student misbehaved in your class and was sent to the Dean of Discipline. On Tuesday her misbehaviour occurs even sooner than it did on Monday, and you send her out again. Your intent was to stop the misbehaviour, but in fact you negatively reinforced her. We know that her behaviour has been reinforced because she misbehaved sooner on Tuesday than she did on Monday (behaviour is increasing)

Extinction


…a particular behavior is weakened by the consequence of not experiencing a positive condition or stopping a negative condition. e.g.the class clown whose jokes are ignored might stop telling jokes



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Punishment


A consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows Presentation Punishment – demerits, laps Removal Punishment – take away privileges

Something aversive (unpleasant) appears after a response. For example, a parent may slap a child who yells at the parent; teachers may reprimand students who are talking in class. In these cases something unpleasant follows behaviour





Something positive (pleasant) disappears after a response. A child who kicks another youngster while playing may be sent indoors. A teenager who violates her curfew may lose use of the car for the next weekend. In both cases something unpleasant follows undesirable behaviour

BEHAVIOURISM: Motivation as Reinforcement
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Don‟t forget the demonstrated effectiveness of the Premack Principle Vary your reinforcers Keep a record of the effectiveness of various reinforcers on individual students

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Guide in selecting reinforcers: Consider the age, interests and needs of students. Pieces of candy are not too motivating for adolescents, but they must be great for first graders List potential reinforcers that you think would be desirable

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Using Rewards in Secondary Classrooms
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Cognitive Approach to Motivation: The Need to Understand
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High test scores and good grades Teacher comments on papers, praising good work Teacher compliments delivered quietly and individually Phone calls to parents or other caregivers complimenting student work or attitudes Free time to talk to classsmates

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Cognitive theories stress what goes on inside the student‟s head Cognitive views of motivation focus on what students think, how they think, and how their thoughts create or reduce motivation to act Cognitive theories emphasize the importance of intrinsic, as opposed to extrinsic, motivation

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Cognitive theorists explain motivation by pointing to our need to understand, strive, excel, succeed, advance and continue to challenge ourselves Some students sit for hours and work on a tough problem without even noticing the passage of time. Why do some people have such strong motivation? Why do people enjoy doing puzzles and making up limericks? Why do people push forward when it would be easier just to relax and enjoy life?

Cognitive views of motivation also help explain a variety of other behaviours:
Why people are intrigued by brain teasers and other problems with no practical application Why people are curious when something occurs unexpectedly Why students ask questions about incidental and unrelated aspects of lessons Why people persevere on activities and quit after they have mastered the task Why people want feedback about their performance, even if its negative feedback

Attribution Theory: Bernard Weiner
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Cognitive theories emphasize intrinsic motivation Attribution theory seeks to understand people‟s explanations and excuses, particularly when applied to success or failure (greatest importance to education)

Most explanations for success or failure have three characteristics
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-whether the cause is seen as internal (within the person) or external to the person -whether it is seen as stable or unstable -whether it is perceived as controllable or not

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Implications for Motivation
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These three dimensions have implications for motivation because they affect expectancy and value For example the stability dimension is closely related to expectations about the future If students attribute their failure to stable factors such as difficulty of the subject, they will expect to fail in that subject in the future

If they attribute the outcome to unstable factors such as mood or luck, they can hope for better outcomes next time The internal/external locus seems to be closely related to feelings of self esteem. If success or failure is attributed to internal factors, success will lead to pride and increased motivation while failure will diminish self esteem

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The controllability dimensions is related to emotions such as anger, pity, gratitude or shame If we feel responsible for our failures, we may feel guilt If we feel responsible for our successes, we may feel proud Failing at a task we cannot control can lead to sham and anger

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When failure is attributed to lack of ability, and ability is considered uncontrollable, the consequence of motivation is: Failure Lack of ability Uncontrollable Not Responsible Shame, Embarrassment Withdraw Performance Declines

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When failure is attributed to lack of effort (a controllable cause), the sequence is: Failure Lack of effort controllable Responsible guilt Engagement Performance Improves

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Attribution for others: Students are more likely to respond to a classmate‟s request for help if they believe the request is made because of a temporary uncontrollable factor such as getting hurt in a football game than if they believe help is needed because of a controllable factor like failure to study

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A central assumption of attribution is that people will attempt to maintain a positive self image When they do well, they are likely to attribute their success to their own effort or abilities, but when they do poorly, they will believe that their failure is due to factors over which they had no control (locus, location of the cause)

Attributions in the Classroom
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When unusually successful students fail, they often make internal, controllable attributions like they misunderstood the directions, lacked the necessary knowledge, or did not study hard enough, so they usually focus on strategies for succeeding next time. This response often leads to achievement, pride and a greater feeling of control

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The greatest motivational problems arise when students attribute failures to stable, uncontrollable causes. Such students may seem resigned to failure, depressed, helpless – unmotivated These students respond to failure by focusing even more on their own inadequacy; their attitudes toward schoolwork may deteriorate even further

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Apathy is a logical reaction to failure if students believe the causes are stable, unlikely to change, and beyond their control In addition, students who view their failures in this light are less likely to seek help; they believe nothing and no one can help

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Teacher Actions and Student Attributions
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Teachers also make attributions about the causes of other students‟ successes and failures. When teacher assumes failure is attributable to forces beyond the student‟s control, the teacher tend to respond with sympathy and avoid giving punishment

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If the failure is attributed to a controllable factor such as lack of effort, the teacher‟s response is more likely to be irritation or anger, and reprimands may follow

Expectancy x Value Theories
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Questions If I try hard, can I succeed? If I succeed, will the outcome be valuable or rewarding to me?

This theory takes into account both the behaviourists‟ concern with the effects or outcomes of behaviour and the cognitivists‟ interest in the impact of individual thinking Motivation is seen as the product of two main forces: the individual‟s expectation of reaching a goal and the value of that goal to him/her

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Motivation is a product of these two factors, because if either factor is zero, there is no motivation to work towards the goal. For example, if I believe I have a good chance of making the football team (high expectation) and if making the team is very important to me (high value) then my motivation should be strong. What is the converse of this?

Social Learning Approach to Motivation
Social Learning approaches to motivation combine extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors Social Learning approach mixes the behavioural and cognitive approaches Motivation results both from what goes on inside a person‟s head (the person‟s thoughts, plans and belief in his/her abilities), and what goes on in the external environment (the likelihood of reaching a goal, and the payoff if that goal is reached

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People engage in activities to maintain their identities and their interpersonal relations within a community Students are motivated to learn if they are members of a classroom or school community that values learning

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Much the same as we learn to speak and dress and conduct ourselves in restaurants, churches or shopping malls by being socialized – watching and learning from more capable members of the culture – we also learn to be students by watching and learning from members of our community In other words we learn by the company we keep

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HUMANISTIC THEORIES
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Views motivation as people‟s attempts to fulfill their total potential as human beings Everything that affects the person, including thoughts, feelings and aspects of the environment, can create or affect motivation

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Self Actualization is Maslow‟s term for self - fulfillment, the realization of personal potential
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Deficiency Needs
Four lower level needs When these needs are satisfied, the motivation for fulfilling them decreases

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Each of the lower needs must be met before the next higher need can be addressed

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Being Needs
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3 higher level needs When these are met, a person‟s motivation does not cease, instead, it increases to seek further fulfillment Unlike the deficiency needs, these being needs can never be completely filled. E.g. the more successful you are in your efforts to develop as a teacher, the harder you are likely to strive for even greater improvement

Criticism of Maslow‟s Theory
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People do not always appear to behave as the theory would predict Most people move back and forth among different types of needs and may be motivated by many different needs at the same time Some people deny themselves safety or friendship in order to achieve knowledge, understanding or greater self esteem

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Criticism aside, Maslow‟s theory does give us a way of looking at the whole student as, physical, emotional and intellectual needs are interrelated A child whose feelings of safety and sense of belonging are threatened by divorce may have little interest in learning to divide fractions

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If a school is a fearful, un predictable place where neither teachers nor students know where they stand, they are more likely to be more concerned with security and less with learning and teaching Belonging to a social group and maintaining selfesteem within that group, for example, are important to students. If doing what the teacher says conflicts with group rules, students may choose to ignore the teacher‟s wishes or even defy the teacher

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MOTIVATION AS GROWTH
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PROMOTING GROWTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING
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People have an innate tendency to fully develop their inherited talents and learners are motivated to grow and enhance themselves There is no such thing as an unmotivated learner. The inattentive 9th grader who pokes the child in front of her is motivated; her motivation is just directed at nonacademic activities

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If classes are personally meaningful, students are motivated to learn, if not they aren‟t Good teaching is the process of inviting students to see themselves as able, valuable and self directing and of encouraging them to act in accordance with these self-perceptions Two elements of the teaching-learning process are essential to humanistic psychologist -

1. The Student-Teacher Relationship
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Effective teachers should have the following qualities They are genuine people, without personas or facades, who embrace their feelings as their own They are accepting, viewing students as worthy individuals in their own rights They are empathetic, able to consider teachinglearning experiences from students‟ points of view

2. Classroom Climate
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Humanistic classrooms are safe environments where students believe they can learn and are expected to do so Standards remain high but attainable All learners are valued because they are innately valuable human beings

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MOTIVATION AND NEEDS
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A need is a real or perceived lack of something necessary A need can be obvious such as the need for food as signalled by hunger Complex or abstract, such as the need for order and understanding – the foundation of cognitive theories of motivation

Needs from both humanistic and cognitive perpectives include:
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Maslow‟s Hierarchy of needs Social and Emotional needs Cognitive learning needs

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Social and Emotional Needs
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Cognitive Learning Needs
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The need for relatedness – the need to feel connected to others in a social environment and to feel worthy and capable of love and respect The need for approval – the need to secure acceptance and positive judgements from others The need to reduce anxiety – general uneasiness and feeling of tension

The need for autonomy – being self directed and in control of our environment The need to achieve – a need to excel in learning tasks and the capacity to experience pride in accomplishment

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The need to understand successes and failures: Attribution Theory – an attempt to systematically describe explanations for success and failure in classroom situations
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Three dimensions: 1. Locus (the location of the cause) – inside or outside of the learner Ability and effort are within the learner, luck and task difficulty are outside

2. Stability ( whether the task stays the same or can change) – ability remains the same but effort and luck are unstable because they can change 3. Control ( the extent to which students accept responsibility for their successes or failures, or are in control of the learning situation. Learners have control over their effort but not luck or task difficulty

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Impact of Attributions on Learners
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When people attribute outcomes to controllable causes, motivation increases, uncontrollable causes decreases motivation If teachers believe that learners are succeeding as a result of their teaching efforts, they are likely to continue making effort. If they believe that learners are doing poorly because of causes beyond their control, their teaching efforts often decrease

Emotional reactions to success and failure (doing poorly and feeling guilty) Expectations for future success (what can be done to change the failures) Future effort (change can result in doing better in the future) Achievement (depending on effort achievement can increase or decrease)

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Learned Helplessness – the feeling that no amount of effort can lead to success. This perspective leads to overwhelming feelings of shame and self-doubt that result in giving up without even trying Students with learned helplessness have low self esteem and often suffer from anxiety and depression. They expect to fail, so they don‟t take advantage of opportunities to increase understanding and develop skills M. Seligman, 1995 recommends “immunizing children against pessimism by providing them with successful mastery experiences

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The need to protect self- worth – the search for self acceptance is the highest human priority Strategies students use to protect self worth: 1. Setting unrealistically high goals - failure can be attributed to task difficulty 2. Procrastination – making excuses even suggesting that the teacher was poor or the test was tricky 3. Anxiety – “I understand the stuff but I get nervous in tests

MOTIVATION AND BELIEFS
Beliefs about ability Attribution theory presents an entity view of ability – ability is stable and uncontrollable
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Other research indicates the incremental view that hat ability can be improved with effort (Eggen. 2001

Motivation about Capability: Self Efficacy Focus is on expectations and beliefs The role of expectations is explained with expectancy x value theories - that learners are motivated to work on a task to the extent that they (a) expect to succeed (b) value achievement on the task. If both are present learners may develop a sense of self efficacy, which is learners‟ beliefs about their capability of succeeding on specific tasks
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Factors influencing Self-Efficacy
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How teachers can influence self efficacy
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Part performance – history of success Modelling – observing others Verbal Persuasion – teacher‟s comment Psychological State - hunger

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Attributional Statements – comments teachers make about causes of student‟s performance
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“That’s a very good effort. I know that these problems are difficult for you.” “I believe if you tried a little harder, you’d be able to solve this problem.”

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Remember the four theories of Motivation? Incentives to enhance motivation
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Praise and criticism Emotional displays
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Behavioural – extrinsic reinforcers in the form of rewards and punishments (high grades/low grades; praise/criticism; free time/detention; awards/demerits) Cognitive – Intrinsic reinforcers based on beliefs, attribution and expectations (understanding the purposes of schoolwork and homework,; believing in one‟s ability to succeed; attributing success to hard work; expecting to do well as a function of effort invested

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Helping

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Social Learning – A mix of extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcers based on expectations and the personal value of goals (understanding how to set workable, effective goals that that can be attained; understanding the likelihood of reaching a goal and the payoff once the goal is reached; knowing ho to choose goals and payoffs that are personally meaningful

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Humanistic – Intrinsic reinforcers based on the human needs to achieve, excel and self-actualize ( a meaningful educational environment in which students are encouraged to see themselves as capable; development of self esteem; teachers acting warm and supportive; explaining why things must be done a certain way – no rules for the sake of rules

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WEEK 10 SESSION 11 CLASSROOM BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT

OVERVIEW

What is an effective learning environment? Providing an effective learning environment includes strategies that teachers use to create a positive, productive classroom experience. Often called classroom management, strategies for providing effective learning environments include not only preventing and responding to misbehavior but also, more important, using class time well, creating an atmosphere that is conducive to interest and inquiry, and per-miffing activities that engage students‘ minds and imaginations.

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this module, you should be able:        describe what constitutes an effective learning environment. analyze the impact of time on learning. define and apply practices that contribute to effective classroom management. evaluate strategies for managing routine student misbehavior. examine how applied behavior analysis can be used to manage more serious behavior problems. describe and apply principles of applied behavior analysis. describe and evaluate strategies and programs designed to prevent serious behavior problems.

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Classroom Management in Perspective

What is classroom Management?
• “….. all the teacher behaviours “….. that lead to the creation of an orderly classroom environment and promote learning.”
-Barbara Matalon Ph.DPh.D-

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Major concerns of Classroom Teachers:
• how to plan the classroom environment so that teaching and learning are rewarding experiences for both teacher and students • how to operate classroom efficiently
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Roles and Responsibilities of the classroom teacher
• to create conditions that enable students to manage their own behaviour and become selfselfdisciplined • As an educator: planning lessons and materials, imparting knowledge, designing methods of instructions, assessing learning, assigning grades
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Roles and Responsibilities of the classroom teacher (cont‟d)
• As a manager: arranging classrooms, allocating time for teaching, implementing rules, organizing student movement within class and school, orchestrating interactions and relationships of all aspects of the classroom, ensuring appropriate behaviours
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Effective Teachers • believe that teaching is interesting and is a worthwhile challenge

Ineffective Teachers • feel that teaching is just another job • do not assume responsibility for student failures

• believe that most problems • do not believe can be overcome they can make a difference

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Effective Teachers • are motivated to search for solutions Ineffective Teachers

• give up searching for solutions to classroom problems • ignore challenging • have realistic problems attitudes to • either „romanticize abilities of their students (poor themselves and darlings!) or look their students upon them as „the enemy‟

Keeping Control of your Classroom
There are no “correct” way to encourage positive classroom behaviour but if you begin with a good foundation, it is possible -

Keeping Control of your Classroom (cont‟d)
• visualize possible challenges (imagine and review challenges) • make expectations clear from beginning • model positive behaviour

Keeping Control of your Classroom (cont‟d)
• the first few days are the most important ones for the year • don‟t make any rules for your class that you are not wiling to follow through with

Keeping control of your Classroom (cont‟d)
• be consistent • keep students busy and challenged • listen to students‟ suggestions • show respect to their needs

Keeping Control of your Classroom (cont‟d)
• never get into power struggle with your students • you won‟t damage your students‟ psyche by taking the lead and being the boss of your own classroom

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Keeping Control of your Classroom (cont‟d)
• it‟s not what you teach but how you teach it that makes the difference • Not every student will like you…. and you won‟t like every student either

Keeping Control of your Classroom (cont‟d)
• avoid putting problem children in the front of the class • make sure not to hold on to grudges from the day before • introduce a positive reinforcement schedule

Keeping control of your Classroom (cont‟d)
• Encourage! •Encourage! • Encourage!

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SESSION 12 WHAT PRACTICES CONTRIBUTE TO EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT?
Research has consistently shown that basic commonsense planning and groundwork go a long way toward preventing discipline problems from ever developing. Simple measures include starting the year properly, arranging the classroom for effective instruction, setting class rules and procedures, and making expectations of conduct clear to students.

CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGERS
More effective managers had a clear, specific plan for introducing students to classroom rules and procedures and spent as many days as necessary carrying out their plan until students knew how to line up, ask for help, and so on. 1. More effective managers had a clear, specific plan for introducing students to classroom rules and procedures and spent as many days as necessary carrying out their plan until students knew how to line up, ask for help, and so on. 2. More effective managers worked with the whole class initially (even if they planned to group students later). They were involved with the whole class at all times, rarely leaving any students without something to do or without supervision. 3. More effective managers spent extra time during the first days of school introducing procedures and discussing class rules (often encouraging students to suggest rules themselves). These teachers usually reminded students of class rules every day for at least the first week of school. 4. More effective managers taught students specific procedures. For example, some had students practice lining up quickly and quietly; others taught students to respond to a signal, such as a bell, a flick of the light switch, or a call for attention. 5. As first activities, more effective managers used simple, enjoyable tasks. Materials for the first lessons were well prepared, clearly presented, and varied. These teachers asked students to get right to work on the first day of school and then gave them instructions on procedures gradually, to avoid overloading them with too much information at a time. 6. More effective managers responded immediately to stop any misbehaviour.
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________________________________________________________________________________________ One of the first management-related tasks at the start of the year is setting class rules. Three principles govern this process. First, class rules should be few in number. Second, they should make sense and be seen as fair by students. Third, they should be clearly explained and deliberately taught to students. One all-purpose set of class rules follows: 1. Be courteous to others. This rule forbids interrupting others or speaking out of turn, teasing or laughing at others, fighting, and so on. 2. Respect others‘ property. 3. Be on-task. This includes listening when the teacher or other students are talking, working on seatwork, continuing to work during any interruptions, staying in one‘s seat, being at one‘s seat and ready to work when the bell rings, and following directions. 4. Raise hands to be recognized. This is a rule against calling out or getting out of one‘s seat for assistance without permission.

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WHAT DO YOU THINK?
You are a new teacher and it is a week before school starts. While you are sitting in the warm sun at a local beach, you spot this sign:

You then slowly begin to think about discipline and become understandably anxious. To alleviate your anxious feelings, you begin writing the strategies you would utilize so that most of your time is spent teaching not simply correcting misbehaviour. Share your thinking about behaviour/classroom management. (Please remember you must demonstrate that you have completed the readings assigned to this module). Slavin (2003)

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WHAT ARE SOME STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING ROUTINE MISBEHAVIOUR?
Provision of interesting lessons, efficient use of class time, and careful structuring of instructional activities will prevent most such minor behavior problems—and many more serious ones as well. Time off-task can lead to more serious problems; many behavior problems arise because students are frustrated or bored in school. Instructional programs that actively involve students and provide all of them with opportunities for success might prevent such problems. The great majority of behavior problems with which a teacher must deal are relatively minor disruptions, such as talking out of turn, getting up without permission, failing to follow class rules or procedures, and inattention— nothing really serious, but behaviors that must be minimized for learning to occur. In dealing with routine classroom behavior problems, the most important principle is that a teacher should correct misbehaviors by using the simplest intervention that will work. Many studies have found that the amount of time spent disciplining students is negatively related to student achievement. The teacher‘s main goal in dealing with routine misbehavior is to do so in a way that is both effective and avoids unnecessarily disrupting the lesson. Teachers can eliminate much routine classroom misbehavior without breaking the momentum of the lesson by the use of simple nonverbal cues. Making eye contact with a misbehaving student might be enough to stop misbehavior. For example, if two students are whispering, the teacher might simply catch the eye of one or both of them. Moving close to a student who is misbehaving also usually alerts the student to shape up. Praise can be a powerful motivator for many students. One strategy for reducing misbehavior in class is to make sure to praise students for behaviors that are incompatible with the misbehavior you want to reduce. That is, catch students in the act of doing right. If a nonverbal cue is impossible or ineffective, a simple verbal reminder might help to bring a student into line. The reminder should be given immediately after the student misbehaves; delayed reminders are usually ineffective. If possible, the reminder should state what students are supposed to be doing rather than dwelling on what they are doing wrong. When a student refuses to comply with a simple reminder, one strategy to attempt first is a repetition of the reminder, ignoring any irrelevant excuse or argument. Canter and Canter (1992), in a program called Assertive Discipline, call this strategy the broken record. Teachers should decide what they want the student to do, state this clearly to the student (statement of want), and then repeat it until the student complies.

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________________________________________________________________________________________ When all previous steps have been ineffective in getting the student to comply with a clearly stated and reasonable request, the final step is to pose a choice to the student: Either comply or suffer the consequences. Examples of consequences are sending the student out of class, making the student miss a few minutes of recess or some other privilege, having the student stay after school, and calling the student‘s parents. Before presenting a student with a consequence for noncompliance, teachers must be absolutely certain that they can and will follow through if necessary.

SESSION 13 HOW IS APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS USED TO MANAGE MORE SERIOUS BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS?
Simply put, behavioral learning theories hold that behaviors that are not reinforced or are punished will diminish in frequency. A basic principle of behavioral learning theories is that if any behavior persists over time, some reinforcer is maintaining it. To reduce misbehavior in the classroom, we must understand which reinforcers maintain misbehavior in the first place. The most common reinforcer for classroom misbehavior is attention—from the teacher, the peer group, or both. Students receiving one-to-one tutoring rarely misbehave, both because they already have the undivided attention of an adult and because no classmates are present to attend to any negative behavior. Another very common reason that students misbehave is to get the attention and approval of their peers. The classic instance of this is the class clown, who is obviously performing for the amusement of his or her classmates. As students enter adolescence, the peer group takes on extreme importance, and peer norms begin to favor independence from authority. When older children and teenagers engage in serious delinquent acts (such as vandalism, theft, and assault), a delinquent peer group usually supports them. There are two primary responses to peer-supported misbehavior. One is to remove the offender from the classroom to deprive her or him of peer attention. Another is to use group contingencies, strategies in which the entire class (or groups of students within the class) is rewarded on the basis of everyone‘s behavior. Under group contingencies, all students benefit from their classmates‘ good behavior, so peer support for misbehavior is removed.
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________________________________________________________________________________________ The best solution for misbehaviors arising from boredom, frustration, or fatigue is prevention. Students rarely misbehave during interesting, varied, engaging lessons. Actively involving students in lessons can head off misbehaviors due to boredom or fatigue. Use of cooperative learning methods or other means of involving students in an active way can be helpful. The behavior management strategies outlined earlier (e.g., nonverbal cues, reminders, mild but certain punishment) might be described as informal applications of behavioral learning theories. These practices, plus the prevention of misbehavior by the use of efficient class management and engaging lessons, will be sufficient to create a good learning environment in most classrooms. In classrooms in which most students are well behaved but a few have persistent behavior problems, individual behavior management strategies can be effective. In classrooms in which many students have behavior problems, particularly when there is peer support for misbehavior, whole-class strategies or group contingencies might be needed. The first step in implementing a behavior management program is to observe the misbehaving student to identify one or a small number of behaviors to target first and to see what reinforcers maintain the behavior(s). Another purpose of this observation is to establish a baseline against which to compare improvements. Typical classroom reinforcers include praise, privileges, and tangible rewards. Praise is especially effective for students who misbehave to get the teacher‘s attention. It is often a good idea to start a behavior management program by using praise for appropriate behavior to see whether this is sufficient. However, be prepared to use stronger reinforcers if praise is not enough. Punishment of one kind or another is necessary in some circumstances, and it should be used without qualms when reinforcement strategies are impossible or ineffective. However, a program of punishment for misbehavior (e.g., depriving a student of privileges, never physical punishment) should always be the last option considered, never the first. Common punishers used in schools are reprimands, being sent out of class or to the principal‘s office, and detention or missed recess. Corporal punishment (e.g., spanking) is illegal in some states and districts and highly restricted in others, but regardless of laws or policies, it should never be used in schools.

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SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR THE EFFECTIVE AND HUMANE USE OF PUNISHMENT:
1. Use punishment sparingly. 2. Make it clear to the child why he or she is being punished. 3. Provide the child with an alternative means of obtaining some positive reinforcement. 4. Reinforce the child for behaviors that are incompatible with those you wish to weaken (e.g., if you punish for being off-task, also reinforce for being on-task). 5. Never use physical punishment. 6. Never punish when you are in a very angry or emotional state. 7. Punish when a behavior starts rather than when it ends. One effective punisher is called time out. The teacher tells a misbehaving student to go to a separate part of the classroom, the hall, the principal‘s or vice principal‘s office, or another teacher‘s class. If possible, the place where the student is sent should be uninteresting and out of view of classmates. One advantage of timeout procedures is that they remove the student from the attention of her or his classmates. Therefore, time out may be especially effective for students whose misbehavior is motivated primarily by peer attention. Home-based reinforcement strategies and daily report card programs are examples of applied behavioral analysis involving individual students. A group contingency program is an example of an applied behavioral analysis in which the whole class is involved. Some of the most practical and effective classroom management methods are home-based reinforcement strategies. Teachers give students a daily or weekly report card to take home, and parents are instructed to provide special privileges or rewards to students on the basis of these teacher reports. Home-based reinforcement has several advantages over other, equally effective behavior management strategies. A group contingency program is a reinforcement system in which an entire group is rewarded on the basis of the behavior of the group members. One important advantage of group contingencies is that they are relatively easy to administer. Most often, the whole class is either rewarded or not rewarded, so the teacher need not do one thing with some students and something else with others. The theory behind group contingencies is that when a group is rewarded on the basis of its members‘ behavior, the group members will encourage one another to do whatever helps the group gain the reward.

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________________________________________________________________________________________ Some people object to applied behavior analysis on the basis that it constitutes bribing students to do what they ought to do anyway. However, all classrooms use rewards and punishers (such as grades, praise, scolding, suspension). Applied behavior analysis strategies simply use these rewards in a more systematic way and avoid punishers as much as possible. Applied behavior analysis methods should be used only when it is clear that preventive or informal methods of improving classroom management are not enough to create a positive environment for learning. It is unethical to over-apply these methods, but it might be equally unethical to fail to apply them when they could avert serious problems.

HOW CAN SERIOUS BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS BE PREVENTED?
Serious behavior problems are not evenly distributed among students or schools. Most students who are identified as having severe behavior problems are male; from 3 to 8 times as many boys as girls are estimated to have serious conduct problems. Serious delinquency is far more common among students from impoverished backgrounds, particularly in urban locations. Students with poor family relationships are also much more likely than other students to become involved in serious misbehavior and delinquency, as are students who are low in achievement and those who have attendance problems. As noted earlier in this chapter, the easiest behavior problems to deal with are those that never occur. There are many approaches that have promise for preventing serious behavior problems. One is simply creating safe and prosocial classroom environments and openly discussing risky behaviors and ways to avoid them. Another is giving students opportunities to play prosocial roles as volunteers, tutors, or leaders in activities that benefit their school and community. Even though some types of students are more prone to misbehavior than others, these characteristics do not cause misbehavior. Some students misbehave because they perceive that the rewards for misbehavior outweigh the rewards for good behavior. Some put their energies into sports, others into social activities. Over time, students who fail in school and get into minor behavior difficulties could fall in with a delinquent subgroup and begin to engage in serious delinquent or even criminal behavior. The role of the delinquent peer group in maintaining delinquent behavior cannot be overstated. Delinquent acts among adolescents and preadolescents are usually done in groups and are supported by antisocial peer norms.

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________________________________________________________________________________________ Truancy and delinquency are strongly related; when students are out of school, they are often in the community making trouble. There are many effective means of reducing truancy. Tracking (between-class ability grouping) should be avoided if possible (see Chapter 9). Low-track classes are ideal breeding grounds for antisocial delinquent peer groups. Similarly, behavioral and academic problems should be dealt with in the context of the regular class as much as possible, rather than in separate specialeducation classes. Classroom management strategies should be used to reduce inappropriate behavior before it escalates into delinquency. Improving students‘ behavior and success in school can prevent delinquency. Involve the student‘s home in any response to serious misbehavior. When misbehavior occurs, parents should be notified. If misbehavior persists, parents should be involved in establishing a program, such as a home-based reinforcement program, to coordinate home and school responses to misbehavior. Avoid the use of suspension (or expulsion) as punishment for all but the most serious misbehavior. Suspension often exacerbates truancy problems, both because it makes students fall behind in their work and because it gives them experience in the use of time out of school. In-school suspension, detention, and other penalties are more effective. Loss of privileges maybe used. However, whatever punishment is used should not last too long. It is better to make a misbehaving student miss two days of football practice than to throw him off the team, in part because once the student is off the team, the school could have little else of value to offer or withhold. Every child has within himself or herself the capacity for good behavior as well as for misbehavior. The school must be the ally of the good in each child at the same time that it is the enemy of misbehavior. Slavin 1993

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REFERENCES

Elliott, Stephen N. et.al. (2000).Educational Psychology; Effective Teaching, Effective.Learning.McGraw Hill. Boston Ormrod Jeanne Ellis. (2003) Educational Psychology – Developing Learners. Merrill Prentice Hall. New Jersey

Slavin, Robert E. (2003). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Allyn and Bacon: Boston.

Sternberg, Robert. (2002) Educational Psychology. Allyn and Bacon: Bosto Woolfolk, Anita. (2004). Educational Psychology. Pearson. Boston

http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan98/talk.html http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/candid.html http://www.stanford.edu/dept/CTL/TA/char.html http://www.stanford.edu/dept/CTL/TA/char.htm http://www.abacon.com/slavin/t3.html http://www.abacon.com/slavin/t2.html

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MODULE 5```` EXCEPTIONALITIES AND CLASSROOM INCLUSION WEEK 11 SESSION 14 OVERVIEW
Students differ in many ways, and effective teachers consider these differences when they plan and teach. In many cases the differences are of such that special help and resources are needed to In this way the students are considered to have

assist students to attain their full potential.

exceptionalities. Exceptional learners have characteristics that differentiate them from the general population of young people. This module focuses on the unique characteristics, strengths and

needs of students with exceptionalities, including learning disabilities, mental retardation, autism, blindness, deafness, traumatic brain injury, emotional/behavioral disorders, and giftedness. It emphasizes understanding of how various teaching strategies, materials, modifications and accommodations can assist students with exceptionalities to function and succeed in the regular classroom

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OBJECTIVES
At the end of this session the learner should be able to:       describe students‘ exceptionalities in the classroom explain how different exceptionalities affect learning define inclusion and describe the role of the general education teacher in working with special needs learners; apply successful classroom management techniques with students in an inclusive classroom observe the different instructional methods used in the Jamaican context explore different instructional strategies that can be adapted to meet the needs of divergent learners

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WHO ARE LEARNERS WITH EXCEPTIONALITIES?
Students are different. Some are good athletes; others are popular. Some have a good idea of their strengths and weaknesses; others do not have a clue. As a teacher, how would you work with a diverse group of students? What is your responsibility in terms of understanding their

strengths and weaknesses and making what you teach relevant to their lives. The term learners with exceptionalities may be used to describe any individuals whose physical, mental, or behavioral performance is so different from the norm-either higher or lower- that additional services are need to meet the individuals' needs. The terms disability and handicap are not interchangeable. A disability is a functional limitation a person has that interferes with the person's physical or cognitive abilities. A handicap is a condition imposed on a person with disabilities by society, the physical environment, or the person's attitude. For example, a student who uses a wheelchair is handicapped by a lack of access ramps. Handicap is therefore not a synonym for disability. Exceptional Learners are, ―those who require special education and related services if they are to realize their full human potential.‖ Exceptionalities may involve and of the following abilities: – – – – – Sensory Physical Emotional Communicative Behavioral

Changes in the Way Teachers Help Students with Exceptionalities
Students in today‘s classrooms vary in their abilities, motivation and background. In the past, students with exceptionalities were often segregated from the regular classroom and their nondisabled peers and placed in special classrooms or schools. Instruction in these situations were often inferior and students did not learn the social and life skills needed to live in the real world Mainstreaming began the process of integrating them with non-disabled students, and inclusion takes the process further by creating a web of services. Inclusion is most effective when regular education and special education teachers closely collaborate on instructional adaptations for learners with exceptionalities.
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______________________________________________________________________________________ O‘Donnell draws from Dewey‘s The child and the curriculum to point out that that ―the child and the curriculum are simply two limits which define a single process. Just as two points define a straight line, so the present standpoint of the child and the facts and truths of studies define instructions (O‘Donnell, p.104). Dewey was sure to point out that at one end of the continuum are subject areas that are varied and complex. Children differ in temperament, enthusiasm, prior knowledge in different subjects, distractibility, self concept, verbal ability, spatial reasoning, motivation and so on. Your task as a teacher is to determine how to work with a roomful of highly diverse students to help them acquire the knowledge, skills and abilities that you wish them to obtain.

UNDERSTANDING INTELLIGENCE
Intelligence is a theoretical construct that makes it easier to understand the (psychological world) world. It is the ability or abilities to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting the world.

DEFINITIONS
Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as the ability to: • • • • • Reason logically and well. Read widely. Display common sense. Keep an open mind. Read with high comprehension

Siegler and Richards defined intelligence as ‗functions of developmental stages‘.

Sir Francis Galton (1883) defined the most intelligent people as those who ―were those
equipped with the best sensory abilities, for it is through the senses that one comes to know the world.‖ Galton also felt that intelligence was a number of distinct processes or abilities which had to be measured separately.

Alfred Binet (1890) explicitly defined intelligence as ―the components of intelligence are
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______________________________________________________________________________________ reasoning, judgment, memory, and the power of abstraction.‖ • • Measured intelligence as ―general mental ability of individuals in intelligent behaviors.‖ Described intelligence testing as classifying, not measuring.

David Wechsler (1958)
• ―Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment. • The only way to measure intelligence is to evaluate quantitatively by the measurement of the various aspects of these abilities.‖

Jean Piaget
• An evolving biological adaptation to the outside world; as cognitive skills are gained, adaptation increases, and mental trial and error replace actual physical trial and error. • He believed that experiences require cognitive organization or reorganization in the mental structure of SCHEMA.

Piaget’s 2 Mental Operations
Assimilation: actively organizing new information so that it fits in with what already is perceived and thought. Accommodation: changing already perceived thoughts to fit in with new information. Binet, Wechsler, & Piaget - Interactionism in defining intelligence: Heredity and environment are presumed to interact to influence the development of intelligence.

Factor Analysis
A statistical technique designed to determine if underlying relationships exist between sets of variables/items measured by some instrument.

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Factor Analysis Schools
General: Intelligence postulates the existence of general intellectual ability that is partially tapped by all intellectual activities and numerous specific aptitudes.

Multiple Factor:
An individual‘s intellect is composed of many independent abilities or faculties---such as verbal, mechanical, artistic, and mathematical faculties.

Factor Analysts:
     Charles Spearman. E. L. Thorndike. Louis L. Thurstone. Raymond B. Cattell. J. P. Guilford.

Charles Spearman (1904)
Spearman examined his Theory of Universal Unity of the intellective function by correlating intelligence tests into the ―2 Factor Theory of Intelligence.‖ G Factor (i.e., general intelligence) comes from general electrochemical mental energy from the brain for problem solving.

E. L. Thorndike (1921) defined intelligence as a large number of interconnected intellectual
elements representing a distinct ability, known as the Multifactor Theory. Thorndike’s 3 clusters of intelligence: • • • social: deals with people. concrete: deals with objects. abstract: deals with verbal & mathematical symbols.

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\Louis L. Thurstone (1938)
Intelligence is a composition of distinct abilities known as Primary Mental Abilities (PMA‘s). PMA’s comprise: – – – – – – – Verbal meaning. Perceptual speed. Reasoning. Number facility. Role memory. Word fluency. Spatial relations.

Raymond B. Cattell (1971) Raymond Cattell gave special significance to issues of cultural bias in mental testing.
Two Factor Theory of Intelligence: Fluid Intelligence - non-verbal relatively culture free, independent of specific instruction (i.e. memory of digits). Crystallized Intelligence - acquired skills and knowledge that are dependant on exposure to a culture as well as to formal and informal education (i.e. vocabulary).

.P. Guilford (1967)
• • • Guilford states there is NO general mental ability factor. Guilford also believed that ALL mental activities can be classified and explained. His proposed classification is the ―3 Dimensional Structure of Intellect Model.‖

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Structure of Intellect Model:
• • • Operation. Content. Products resulting from the mental operation.

MEASURING INTELLIGENCE
The measurement of intelligence is defined as: sampling an examinee‘s performance on different types of tests and tasks as a function of developmental levels.

Measuring Intelligence of Infants:
  Infancy (birth - 18 months). Measurement is primarily by sensory motor development: – – – – – – non-verbal. motor skills of turning over. lifting their head. sitting up. eye movement following objects. reaching for objects.

Measuring Intelligence of Children:
• When individually testing children, their sensory motor development, verbal, and performance abilities are looked at by observing the children‘s response: • Vocabulary words and language. – – – – – –
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social judgment. Reasoning. numerical concept. auditory and visual memory. concentration and attention. spatial visualization.

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Measuring the Intelligence of Adults: What Abilities Should be Assessed?
 General information retention?  Social judgment?  Quantitative reasoning?  Expressive language and memory?

Adult Testing Compared to Children
• • • • Children‘s intelligence tests focus on skill acquisition and learning potential assessment. It is more beneficial to focus on assessing skill application when testing adults. Motivations are different when adults are asked to do a task. The purpose of adult intelligence testing is not for placement but rather to obtain a measure of potential to be used with other information, perhaps in a clinical setting.

Intelligence Measures
• • • • • • • WISC-R. WPPI. WAIS-R. Stanford-Binet. Kauffman Assessment Battery for Children. Kauffman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale. Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery.

The Effect of Psychological Disorders on Intelligence Testing

Schizophrenia
• • Tend to score lower than people in general on intelligence tests. The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, such as inappropriate levels of abstraction, lower scores on intelligence measures. • Those with schizophrenia give inconsistent responses. They can score high on several items and then do poorly on others.

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Other Disorders or Conditions Affecting Performance on Intelligence tests • • • • Dementia. Alzheimer‘s disease. Alcoholism. Head Injury.

Identifying the Gifted - ―one whose performance is consistently remarkable in any positively valued area‖ How do we identify Gifted Individuals?  Base your assessment of giftedness on the goals of the program in which the gifted will be placed. • • • Nominating techniques. Behavior rating scales. Comprehensive case study

IDENTIFYING STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
Different interpretations of the many definitions of learning disability have led country and local school to vary widely in their eligibility requirements and provisions for students with learning disabilities. Education professionals have the task of distinguishing students with learning disabilities from students who are nondisabled low achievers and students with mild mental retardation. In some areas a student who falls more than two grade levels behind expectations and has an IQ in the normal range is likely to be called learning disabled. According to Robert Slavin (2002) some characteristics of students with learning disabilities follow:  Normal intelligence or even giftedness

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______________________________________________________________________________________  Discrepancy between intelligence and performance            Delays in achievement Attention deficit or high distractibility Hyperactivity or impulsiveness Poor motor coordination and spatial relation ability Difficulty solving problems Perceptual anomalies, such as reversing letters, words, or numbers Difficulty with self-motivated, self-regulated activities Overreliance on teacher and peers for assignments Specific disorders of memory, thinking, or language Immature social skills Disorganized approach to learning

Definitions of learning disabilities have historically required that there be a serious discrepancy between actual performance and the performance that might have been predicted on the basis of one or more tests of cognitive functioning, such as an IQ test. In practice, many children are identified as having a learning disability as a result of having substantial differences between some subscales of an IQ test and others or between one ability test and another. This emphasis on discrepancies has increasingly come under attack in recent years, however. These studies have undermined the idea that there is a sharp-edged definition of learning disabilities as distinct from low achievement. For the great majority of children with learning disabilities, effective prevention and treatment focuses far more directly on the problems that brought the child to the attention of the special education system-most often reading problems, which are involved in more than 90 percent of referrals for students with possible learning disabilities.

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WEEK 12 SESSION 15 CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
On the average, students with learning disabilities tend to have lower academic self-esteem than do nondisabled students, although in nonacademic arenas their self-esteems are like those of other children. On most social dimensions, children with learning disabilities resemble other low achievers. Boys are more likely than girls to be labeled as learning disabled. Children from families in which the head of household has not attended college tend to be overrepresented in special education classes, while female students are under-represented.

Students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties maintaining attention because of a limited ability to concentrate. ADHD includes impulsive actions and hyperactive behavior. These characteristics differentiate students with ADHD from students with learning disabilities, who have attention deficits for other unknown reasons. Children with attention deficit disorders do not qualify for special education unless they also have some other disability condition that is defined in the law. There is much debate about whether ADHD exists as a distinct diagnostic category. Prevalence estimates for ADHD suggest that 3 to 5 percent of all children might have the disorder. Research indicates that males with ADHD outnumber females in ratios varying from 4:1 to 9:1. Children with ADHD are usually impulsive, acting before they think or without regard for the situation they are in, and they find it hard to sit still. They are often given a stimulant medication, such as Ritalin. More than a million children take Ritalin, and this number has been rising in recent years. These drugs usually do make some hyperactive children more manageable and might improve their academic performance. They can also have side effects, such as insomnia, weight loss, and blood pressure changes.

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Students with speech or language impairments
Some of the most common disabilities are problems with speech and language. About 1 in every 40 students has a communication disorder serious enough to warrant speech therapy or other special education services. Although the terms speech and language are often used interchangeably, they are not the same. Language is the communication of ideas using symbols and includes written language, sign language, gesture, and other modes of communication in addition to oral speech. It is quite possible to have a speech disorder without a language disorder or to have a language disorder without a speech disorder. The most common are articulation (or phonological) disorders, such as omissions, distortions, or substitutions of sounds. For example, some students have difficulty pronouncing r's, saying "sowee" for "sorry." Others have lisps, substituting th for s, saying "thnake" for "snake." Misarticulated words are common and developmentally normal for many children in kindergarten and first grade but drop off rapidly through the school years. Moderate and extreme deviations in articulation diminish over the school years, with or without speech therapy. Speech disorders of all kinds are diagnosed by and treated by speech pathologists or speech therapists. The classroom teacher's role is less important here than with the mental disabilities. However, the classroom teacher does have one crucial role to play: displaying acceptance of students with speech disorders. Language disorders are impairments of the ability to understand language or to express ideas in one's native language. Problems due to limited English-speaking proficiency (LEP) for students whose first language is not English are not considered language disorders. Difficulties in understanding language (receptive language disorders) or in communicating (expressive language disorders) might result from such physical problems as hearing or speech impairment. If not, they are likely to indicate mental retardation or learning disabilities. Preschool programs that are rich in verbal experience and direct instruction in the fundamentals of standard English have been found to be effective in overcoming language problems that are characteristic of children from disadvantaged homes.

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Students with emotional and behavioral disorders
All students are likely to have emotional problems at some point in their school career; but about 1 percent have such serious, long-lasting, and pervasive emotional or psychiatric disorders that they require special education. As in the case of learning disabilities, students with serious emotional and behavioral disorders are far more likely to be boys than girls, by a ratio of more than 3 to 1. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders have been defined as ones whose educational performance is adversely affected over a long period of time to a marked degree by any of the following conditions: An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. A general, pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression A tendency to develop physical symptoms, pains, or fears associated with personal or school problems.

CAUSES OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS
Serious and long-term emotional and behavioral disorders may be the result of numerous potential causal factors in the makeup and development of an individual. Neurological functioning, psychological processes, a history of maladaptations, self-concept, and lack of social acceptance all play a role. Some of the same factors, including family dysfunction and maltreatment, also play a role in disturbances that might temporarily affect a child's school performance. One problem in identifying serious emotional and behavioral disorders is that the term covers a wide range of behaviors, from aggression or hyperactivity to withdrawal or inability to make friends to anxiety and phobias. And it is often hard to tell whether an emotional problem is causing the diminished academic performance or school failure is causing the emotional problem.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITH EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL DISORDERS
Scores of characteristics are associated with emotional and behavioral disorders. The important issue is the degree of the behavior problem. Virtually any behavior that is exhibited excessively over a long period of time might be considered an indication of emotional disturbance. However, most students who have been identified as having emotional and behavioral disorders share some general characteristics. These include poor academic achievement, poor interpersonal relationships, and poor selfesteem. Quay and Werry (1986) noted four general categories:     conduct disorder anxiety-withdrawal immaturity, and socialized-aggressive disorder

For example, children with conduct disorders are frequently characterized as disobedient, distractible, selfish, jealous, destructive, impertinent, resistive, and disruptive. Quay and Werry noted that the first three of these categories represent behaviors that are maladaptive or sources of personal distress. However, socialized-aggressive behavior, which relates to frequent aggression against others, seems to be tied more to poor home conditions that model or reward aggressive behavior and might therefore be adaptive (though certainly not healthy or appropriate). The inclusion of conduct disorders in classifications of emotional and behavioral disorders is controversial. By law, students with conduct disorders must also have some other recognized disability or disorder to receive special-education services.

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STUDENTS EXHIBITING AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
Students with conduct disorders and socialized-aggressive behaviors might frequently fight, steal, destroy property, and refuse to obey teachers. These students tend to be disliked by their peers, their teachers, and sometimes their parents. They typically do not respond to punishment or threats, though they might be skilled at avoiding punishment. Aggressive children not only pose a threat to the school and to their peers, but also put themselves in grave danger. Aggressive children, particularly boys, often develop serious emotional problems later in life, have difficulty holding jobs, and become involved in criminal behavior.

STUDENTS WITH WITHDRAWN AND IMMATURE BEHAVIOUR
Children who are withdrawn, immature, low in self-esteem, or depressed typically have few friends or play with children much younger than themselves. They often have elaborate fantasies or daydreams and either very poor or grandiose self-images. Some might be overly anxious about their health and feel genuinely ill when under stress.

Students with autism
In 1990, autism became a formal category of disability. The U.S. Department of Education (1991) defined autism as a developmental disability that significantly affects social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication. It is usually evident before the age of 3 and has an adverse affect on educational performance. Children with autism are typically extremely withdrawn and have such severe difficulties with language that they might be entirely mute. They often engage in self-stimulation activities such as rocking, twirling objects, or flapping their hands. However, they might have normal or even outstanding abilities in certain areas. For unknown reasons, autism is far more prevalent among boys than among girls. There are promising treatments for autism, including methods of teaching people with autism to build relationships with others and teaching them alternative means of communicating.

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______________________________________________________________________________________ Students with sensory, physical, and health impairments Sensory impairments are problems with the ability to see or hear or otherwise receive information through the body's senses. Physical disorders include conditions such as cerebral palsy, spina bifida, spinal cord injury, and muscular dystrophy. Health disorders include, for example, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); seizure disorders; diabetes; cystic fibrosis; sickle-cell anemia (in African American students); and bodily damage from chemical addictions, child abuse, or attempted suicide.

STUDENTS WITH VISUAL DISABILITIES
Most students' visual problems are correctable by glasses or other types of corrective lenses. A vision loss is considered a disability only if it is not correctable. It is estimated that approximately 1 out of every 1,000 children has a visual disability. Individuals with such disabilities are usually referred to as blind or visually impaired. It is a misconception to assume that individuals who are legally blind have no sight. More than 80 percent of students who are legally blind can read large- or regular-print books. This implies that many students with vision loss can be taught by means of a modification of usual teaching materials. Classroom teachers should be aware of the signs that indicate that a child is having a vision problem. Several possible signs of vision loss include the following: (1) Child often tilts head; (2) child rubs eyes often; (3) child's eyes are red, inflamed, crusty, or water excessively; (4) child has difficulty reading small print or can't discriminate letters; (5) child complains of dizziness or headaches after a reading assignment.

STUDENTS WHO ARE DEAF OR HARD OF HEARING
Hearing disabilities can range from complete deafness to problems that can be alleviated with a hearing aid. The appropriate classification of an individual with hearing loss depends on the measures required to compensate for the problem. Simply having a student sit at the front of the classroom might be enough to compensate for a mild hearing loss. Flexner (2001) argues that a broad range of children can benefit from amplification of the teacher's voice. Following are several suggestions to keep in mind: Seat children with hearing problems in the front of the room, slightly off center toward the windows. This will allow them to see your face in the best light.
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______________________________________________________________________________________ If the hearing problem is predominantly in one ear, students should sit in a front corner seat so that their better ear is toward you. Speak at the student's eye level whenever possible. Give important information and instructions while facing the class. Avoid talking while facing the chalkboard. Do not use exaggerated lip movements when speaking. Learn how to assist a child who has a hearing aid.

STUDENTS WHO ARE GIFTED AND TALENTED
Giftedness was once defined almost entirely in terms of superior IQ or demonstrated ability, such as outstanding performance in mathematics or chess, but the definition now encompasses students with superior abilities in a wide range of activities, including the arts. High IQ is still considered part of the definition of gifted and talented, and most students who are so categorized have IQs above 130. However, some groups are under-identified as gifted and talented, including females, students with disabilities, underachievers, and students who are members of racial or ethnic minority groups. The 1978 Gifted and Talented Act stated that the gifted and talented are children. . . who are identified. . . as possessing demonstrated or potential abilities that give evidence of high performance capabilities in areas such as intellectual, creative, specific academic or leadership ability or in the performing or visual arts and to by reason thereof require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school (Public Law 95-561, Section 902).

CHARACTERISTICS OF GIFTED AND TALENTED STUDENTS
Intellectually gifted children typically have strong motivation. They also are academically superior; usually learn to read early; and, in general, do excellent work in most school areas. One of the most important studies of the gifted, begun by Lewis Terman in 1926, followed 1,528 individuals who had IQs over 140 as children. Terman's research exploded the myth that high-IQ individuals were brainy but physically and socially inept. In fact, Terman found that children with outstanding IQs were larger, stronger, and
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______________________________________________________________________________________ better coordinated than other children and became better adjusted and more emotionally stable adults. Gifted students also have high self-concepts, although they can suffer from perfectionism.

EDUCATION OF GIFTED STUDENTS
How to educate gifted students is a matter of debate. Research on the gifted provides more support (in terms of student achievement gains) for acceleration than for enrichment. However, this could be because the outcomes of enrichment, such as creativity or problem-solving skills, are difficult to measure. Acceleration programs for the gifted often involve the teaching of advanced mathematics to students at early ages. A variation on the acceleration theme is a technique called curriculum compacting, in which teachers may skip over portions of the curriculum that the very able students do not need. Enrichment programs take many forms. Many successful enrichment programs have involved self-directed or independent study. Others have provided gifted students with adult mentors. Renzulli (1994) suggests an emphasis on three types of activities: general exploratory activities, such as projects that allow students to find out about topics on their own; group training activities, such as games and simulations to promote creativity and problem-solving skills; and individual and small-group investigations of real problems, such as writing books or newspapers, interviewing elderly people to write oral histories, and conducting geological or archaeological investigations. An additional responsibility is to promote social acceptance for students with disabilities through modeling, practice, and feedback. Attitudes of other students can be improved through instructional approaches focusing on increased understanding and through strategies such as peer tutoring and cooperative learning, which provide students with opportunities to interact in productive ways.

© July 2008 Prepared by Ruby Bramwell ______________________________________________________

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Module 5: Exceptionalities and Classroom Inclusion

CP 105

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WEEK 13 SESSION 16 THE TEACHER'S ROLE IN INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS & LESSON PLANNING FOR INCLUSION
Teachers‘ responsibilities in inclusive classrooms include identifying learners with exceptionalities and adapting instruction for them. In the process of identification, teachers describe and document learning problems and strategies they‘ve tried. Effective instruction for students with disabilities uses characteristics of instruction effective with all students. In addition, teaches provide additional instructional support, modify homework assignments and reading materials, and help students acquire learning strategies. Today there is a growing number of new adaptive technologies such as cursor and mouse enhancements, key definition programs, magnification software, and so on. These and many regular word processing programs can be used with a specific purpose for students with disabilities. Using the buddy system and peer tutoring will also assist in the process of learning to use these various techniques. As stated above, the recent updates in IDEA as of 2004, encourage the spending of funds for the early intervention and prevention of

disabilities/disparities. The use of adaptive technologies might be able to assist in this process.

REFERENCES
Eggen, Paul. (2004) Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms. Pearson. NJ Elliott, Stephen N. et.al. (2000).Educational Effective.Learning.McGraw Hill. Boston O‘Donnell Jacqueline.et.al. (2004) Publishers. NJ Psychology; Effective Teaching,

Educational Psychology:Reflection for Action.

Wiley

Ormrod Jeanne Ellis. (2003) Educational Psychology – Developing Learners. Merrill Prentice Hall. New Jersey Slavin, Robert E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Boston. Sternberg, Robert. (2002) Educational Psychology. Allyn and Bacon: Bosto Woolfolk, Anita. (2004). Educational Psychology. Pearson. Boston Allyn and Bacon:

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