"The expert teacher"
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY MODULE 1 WHAT IS AN EXPERT TEACHER? Types of expert knowledge Content knowledge – knowledge of the subject being taught Pedagogical knowledge – knowledge of how to teach. Knowledge of how to enhance student motivation, classroom management and how to design and administer tests Pedagogical – content knowledge – knowledge of how to teach what is specific to what is being taught, such as knowledge of how to explain particular concepts ( for example,negative numbers in math) 1. EXPERT TEACHERS HAVE EXPERT KNOWLEDGE EXPERT TEACHERS ARE EFFICIENT 2. -the ability to solve problems eficiently -the ability to do more in less time usually with less effort How do experts accomplish this? 1. Experts automatize i.e. Experts develop the ability to perform important tasks without thinking about themlike driving a car 2. Experts effectively plan, monitor, and revise their approach to problems EXPERT TEACHERS HAVE CREATIVE INSIGHTS 3. - apply knowledge and analysis to solve problems. Experts do not simply solve the problem at hand; but redefine the problem – that is they do not take the problem at face value but instead cast the problem in a new light or see it from a new perspective IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING Teachers become experts by learning from experience about the content of the subjects they teach, about general methods for teaching and about specific methods that work to teach their content areas Teachers become expert by growing in efficiency as they “think about thinking” and learn to make daily tasks and routines automatic Teachers become experts by developing their insight and ability to solve problems by understanding the important aspects of problems, understanding how other solutions in the past can be used to solve problems in the present, and understanding how to reorganize problems to make them easier to solve CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPERT STUDENTS/LEARNERS 1. USE OF EFFECTIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES -use of efective learning strategies -Use of strategies to help them learn, remember and use information - may acquire these strategies through direct instruction from classroom teachers - may learn strategies from other students and friends by studying in groups - parents can provide a source of strategies, as can other adults, such as librarians, tutors and even child care professionals - expert students sometimes invent their own strategies 2. INCREMENTAL VIEW OF INTELLIGENCE - research shows that intelligence can be increased through training and effort (Sternberg, 2002) -motivation to achieve is linked to the belief that intelligence can be increased 3. HIGH ASPIRATIONS - beliefs about what we can become in life are important motivators that propel us toward future accomplishments, or, conversely, limit our efforts and accomplishments (Markus and Nurius, 1986) -expert students believe they can achieve highly in life, and they work to make these achievements happen - even when discrimination and/or poverty, might limit students’ participation in education, students can be encouraged to develop realistically high aspiration to increase their chances for success 4. HIGH PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY - previous success at an activity increases perceived selfefficacy as nothing succeeds like success - expert students believe they are capable of succeeding in school and attempt more challenging tasks and achieve more academically as they progress through school - positive social role models can have effect on perceived self-efficacy; especially encouraging role models who demonstrate how to succeed at a given activity FINDINGS ABOUT SELF EFICACY - Self-efficacy tends to be found in particular domains so is not usually experienced for everything one might possibly attempt. For example an individual might have high selfefficacy in English and low self-efficacy in Math. -A practical suggestion for students who want to become more expert in an area is to focus on good performances in areas already mastered to bolster confidence and enhance effort when confronting a weaker area - Another important finding about self-efficacy is that people tend to tolerate failures better when they have a previous record of success in an area – but that failure can be devastating to selfefficacy when it accompanies a first try at a new goal. Students tend to be more vulnerable to failure and criticism when they try something new compared with when they try to move up a level in doing something they can already do well. Thus, it is important to create a record of success for yourself when you work at developihg proficiency in an area Taking on too much too soon can lead to early failure and the belief that you are not capable of succeeding, when in fact, if you had taken on a smaller portion of the task, you would have succeeded 5. PURSUIT OF A TASK TO COMPLETION - often students get started on a task, but then, in the middle of the task, they lose momentum – because of frustration, inability to find necessary information, slow rates of progress and other factors – and fail to finish -expert students use many different methods to help them through stumbling blocks and see tasks through 6. RESPONSIBILITY FOR SELF AND ACTIONS - expert students must be willing to take control of a task, to criticize themselves, and, conversely to take pride in their best work INTERNAL PERSONALITY PATTERN – tend to take responsibility for their lives. When things go well, take credit for their efforts but when things do not go well tend to take responsibility and try to make things go better EXTERNAL PERSONALITY PATTERN – tend to place responsibility outside themselves, especially when things do not go well. They are quick to blame circumstances for their failures 7. ABILITY TO DELAY GRATIFICATION -an expert student will work on a project or task for a long time without immediate rewards. -students must learn that rewards do not always come immediately - to be expert, students must learn to delay gratification, because there are clear benefits in doing so IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING Expert teachers work to help their students become expert learners. These teachers recognize that development of expertise in any area is a process that takes time, patience, and hard work Expert students use strategies to help them learn, know that intelligence can be increased, have high aspirations and se themselves as capable of achieving these aspirations, see tasks through to completion, take responsibility for them selves and their actions and understand the value of delaying gratification. These are some of the characteristics that distinguish the mose effective from less effective students. SPECIFIC STRATEGIES USED BY BOTH EXPERT TEACHERS AND EXPERT STUDENTS THE ANALYTICAL TEACHER: James sits down at the end of the week and evaluates which lessons worked the best for his students, which did not work well, and why. THE ANALYTICAL STUDENT: When Marcia recognizes his work is slipping, he reviews a list of key study habits (handed out by his teacher) in order to determine what he is doing wrong THE CREATIVE TEACHER: James cuts the teacher of the week profile out of his teaching newsletter, and he adapts three ideas from the profile to use in his classroom THE CREATIVE STUDENT: Marcia challenges himself by writing down and striving to meet different goals on a day-today basis to keep his study time from becoming boring and repetitive THE PRACTICALTEACHER: James watches and listens to his colleagues, and listens to what students say about his colleagues, in order to learn from his colleagues’ accomplishments and mistakes THE PRACTICAL STUDENT: Marcia organizes study groups with his friends, in which they help one another and push each other to work harder IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING Expert teachers work to help their students become expert learners. These teachers recognize that development of expertise in any area is a process that takes time, patience and hard work Expert students use strategies to help them learn, know that intelligence can be increased, have high aspirations and see themselves as capable of achieving these aspirations, see tasks through to completion, take responsibility for themselves and their actions and understand the value of delaying gratification END