Chapter 1 Educational Psychology and Reflective Practice by bsr14041

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									       Chapter 1
       Educational Psychology and Reflective
       Practice

   Themes of the Chapter
      Learning how to understand learners and to
       promote their learning helps teachers feel
       more comfortable and successful.
      Students are diverse and some have special
       needs
      Theory and research play major roles in
       educational psychology and reflective practice
    Guiding Questions

 What is educational psychology?
 What primary concerns do
  beginning teachers have?
 What is reflective teaching, and
  how is it different from technical
  teaching?


           See next slide for more questions
    Guiding Questions (cont’d)

   How can teachers recognize, adapt, and
    respond to diverse learners and students
    with special needs?
   How do educational psychologists use
    theory and research?
   How can teachers apply research
    findings to improve their own classroom
    practice?
    Overview of Educational Psychology

“The scientific study of psychology in
  education”

 What teachers do
 How students learn
 How teachers can help students
  learn
    Critical Thinking

 To be able to tell fact from opinion
 To see holes in an argument

 To spot illogic

 To evaluate evidence

 To tell whether or not cause and
  effect have been established
    Educational Psychology
    and Critical Thinking

 Provide objective, data-based evidence
  from research
 Challenge our subjective ways of
  knowing
 Use research to make decisions about
  the practice of teaching
      Learning

   A relatively permanent change in behavior or
    knowledge as a result of experience

   Depends on many factors:
     the quality of instruction
     student motivation
     student engagement
     student’s developmental readiness to learn
    Teaching

   One person’s interpersonal effort
    to help others acquire knowledge,
    develop skill, and realize their
    potential
 What Expert Teachers Know

Broad and deep subject matter
  knowledge
 How-to instructional strategies

 Knowledge about learning
  environments
 Knowledge about educational
  materials
Concerns of Beginning Teachers

 Classroom discipline
 Motivating students

 Special needs

 Assessment and grading
    Teaching Efficacy

   A teacher’s judgment of, or
    confidence in, his or her capacity
    to cope with the teaching situation
    in ways that bring about desired
    outcomes

   Beginning teachers generally have
    lower teaching efficacy than do
    veteran teachers
 Teaching Efficacy Categories

 Efficacy for classroom
  management
 Efficacy for student engagement

 Efficacy for instructional strategies
      Examples of Statements
      of Efficacy
   Classroom management: “I can prevent
    behavior problems in the classroom.”

   Student engagement: “I can develop interesting
    tasks that students will enjoy.”

   Instructional strategies: “I can teach writing very
    well.”
    Metaphors for Teaching


 Entertainer      Circus master
 Coach            Traffic cop

 Lion tamer       Ship captain

 Choreographer    Air traffic controller

 Party host
       What Would They Say?

Give examples of how teachers might describe
their teaching if they adopted the metaphor of
teacher as:

    Entertainer          Circus master
    Coach                Traffic cop
    Lion tamer           Ship captain
    Choreographer        Air traffic controller
    Party host
   What Would You Say?

Complete the phrase
“The teacher as a(n)___________________”.


Which metaphor captures the spirit of what you
would like to accomplish in the classroom?
    Benefits of Having Metaphors for
    Teaching


Facilitates reflection
 Serves as a standard for self-evaluation

 Helps initiate desired changes in teaching
         Two Modes of Teaching

   Technical teaching
      Teaching situation is predictable and calls for routine
       action
        • Classroom experience  Constructive learning
          experience
   Reflective teaching
      Teaching situation is surprising and calls for
       conjectures, information gathering, and decision-
       making.
        • Knowledge about the teaching and learning
        situation      Constructive learning experience
Model for Reflective Teaching: RIDE


 Reflection

 Information   gathering
 Decision   making
 Evaluation
Your Turn

   Ms Newby is nervous about teaching
    and feels that she will not be able to
    handle students’ misbehaviors

   How might she solve this problem using
    the RIDE model?
Diverse Learners


   Response to diversity
     Equality
     Accommodation
       Instruction for Students with Special
       Needs

   Individualize instruction
   Offer personalized scaffolding
   Rely on direct and explicit instructional practices
   Meticulously arrange or structure the learning
    environment
   Provide external supports, such as calculators,
    tape-recorded textbooks, adaptive furniture,
    special lighting or acoustics


                       See next slide for more tips
      Instruction for Students with Special
      Needs (cont’d)
   Closely monitor students’ progress and provide
    systematic feedback
   Teach skill-based strategies, such as how to
    generate questions while reading
   Use flexible means to reach defined goals
   Create a caring classroom in which differences
    are seen as assets
   Keep integration into the general education
    environment the priority
       Theory

   An intellectual framework that organizes a vast
    amount of knowledge about a phenomenon so
    that educators can understand and explain better
    the nature of that phenomenon
Why is Theory Important?

 Explains a phenomenon
 Helps teachers create a hypothesis or
  prediction
 Helps educators gain new insights
 Guides research studies
      Why is Research Important?


   Provides evidence that assists teachers
    make appropriate choices in the
    classroom
    Research Methods

   Descriptive studies

   Correlational studies

   Experimental studies

   Action research
       Descriptive Studies

   A research method used to describe the
    educational situation as it naturally occurs –
    what typically happens, how teachers teach,
    and how students learn and develop
   Example research question: “How do Ms.
    Newby organize the physical layout of her
    classroom?
    Correlational Studies

 A research method used to measure two
  naturally occurring variables and
  summarize the nature and magnitude of
  their relationship in numerical form
 Example research question: “How is
  measured intelligence related to school
  achievement?”
    Experimental Studies

 A research method used to test for a
  cause-and-effect relationship between
  two variables
 Example research question: “Is reading
  program A better than reading program B
  for teaching first graders to read?”
    Action Research

 A research method carried out by teachers
  in their own classrooms to inform and
  refine their personal theories of teaching
  and classroom learning
 Example research question: “Do I ask
  boys more questions than I ask girls?”
       Steps for Conducting Action
       Research
1.   Identify a problem
2.   Formulate a plan to address the problem
3.   Collect and analyze data to see if the plan
     worked
4.   Reflect on what has been learned
5.   Use the new- and improved personal theory of
     teaching
6.   Repeat steps 2, 3, 4, and 5 as needed
     What Kind of Research?

 I want to decide if boys in the 6th grade
  benefit more from cooperative learning than
  girls?
 I want to decide if completion of homework is
  associated with better achievement
 I want to examine the number of errors
  present in the 8th grade science book
 I want Maria to tell me about her experiences
  in solving a math problem?
       Critical Thinking of Teachers


   Supplement their subjective ways of
    knowing with objective, data-based ways
    of knowing and go beneath the surface of
    their idea
    Guiding Questions Revisited

   What is educational psychology?
   What primary concerns do beginning teachers have?
   What is reflective teaching, and how is it different from
    technical teaching?
   How can teachers recognize, adapt, and respond to
    diverse learners and students with special needs?
   How do educational psychologists use theory and
    research?
   How can teachers apply research findings to improve
    their own classroom practice?

								
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